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date: 11 December 2019

Abstract and Keywords

In August 1792 Louis XVI abdicated, leading to the election of the National Convention and the declaration of the first French Republic. Divisions quickly emerged, however, caused in part by the prison massacres in Paris in September 1792 and by disagreement regarding the fate of the king. Factions developed in the National Convention and eight months of acrimony ended with the 2 June 1793 proscription of the leading Girondin deputies, which in turn ignited revolt in the provinces, very nearly plunging France into civil war. To understand these events one must consider national politics alongside local politics, placing both in the context of an increasingly complicated and precarious international situation. The fall of the monarchy brought the adoption of universal manhood suffrage, and the debate over sovereignty in the ensuing months, at both the national and local levels, played a central role in leading the country from faction to revolt.

Keywords: Girondins, Montagnards, federalist revolt, municipal elections, sovereignty, Lyon, Marseille, Paris, September massacres

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