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date: 16 September 2019

Abstract and Keywords

Liberalism or Modernism, beginning in the 1890s, became the dominant theological perspective of Friends in Great Britain, Europe, and Australia, and of the Hicksite and East Coast Orthodox Meetings in America. Liberals emphasized direct religious experience, often called the ‘inner light’, the social gospel, and the peace testimony. While preserving unprogrammed Meetings, they sought to jettison evangelical and Quietist traditions, and use the findings of science. After the unification of Orthodox and Hicksite Meetings, by the 1960s liberals faced challenges caused by new theological perspectives, radical anti-war sentiments, and movements for civil rights, women’s liberation, and a sexual revolution.

Keywords: liberalism, inner light, social gospel, peace testimony, unprogrammed meetings, Orthodox, Hicksites

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