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date: 01 October 2020

Abstract and Keywords

Between 1805 and 1887 Quakerism expanded and fractured. Friends responded differently to the evangelical and liberal currents in the larger religious world. American Friends divided first into Orthodox and Hicksite bodies in 1827–8. In the 1840s and 1850s Progressive Friends split off from the Hicksites, while Orthodox Friends split into Gurneyites and Wilburites. Westward migration carried American Friends to the Pacific coast, while British Friends began home missions to provide education and religious instruction to the working classes. After 1870, radical changes took place among the Gurneyite majority in North America, as they became swept up in revivalism and pastoral ministry. While sharing a commitment to evangelicalism, British Friends drew the line at these innovations. And, in response, liberal currents began to stir among the Gurneyite majority.

Keywords: Orthodox, Hicksite, Gurneyite, Wilburite, missions, revivalism

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