Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE ( © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 27 September 2020

Abstract and Keywords

The three decades after the Restoration of the monarchy proved to be years of considerable persecution for Quakers as the penal code was brutally enforced. Controversy and schism would also impact upon their meetings. This chapter provides a context for a better understanding of how Friends, individually and collectively, reacted to the dual challenges of persecution and internal conflict. Tighter organizational structures and Quaker engagement in politics and economics were key elements in the period. In addition, there were hierarchical changes, a greater interest in developing missionary work, international networks, and, for some, the potential renewal offered by emigration. Attention is paid to Foxian centralization and subsequent divisions among Friends, the role of other leading Friends, particularly William Penn and the establishment of Pennsylvania, and how Friends gradually achieved some accommodation with the state.

Keywords: centralization, emigration, literature, Restoration, persecution, schism, toleration, Fox, Keith, Penn

Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can''t find the answer there, please contact us.