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date: 22 February 2020

Subject Index

Subject Index

(p. 815) Abdullah Quilliam Society 68
accommodation
education and schools 640–3
family law 684
institutions/organizations 620, 630, 635
radicalism/radicalization 637
shariah law 694–6
acculturation 3, 16, 635, 802
Afghanistan
burqas 704 n. 3
corporal punishment and stoning 7
dower 684
jihadis 773–4
mujahideen 517, 773, 789
Pakistan 791
Ahmadiyya movements 107, 108 n.2, 125–7, 140, 319, 377, 393, 407–8, 418
Aid el-Kebir festival 282, 638
Al-Qaeda 47, 250, 509
foreign occupation 779, 784
Internet 791
Islamophobia 759, 764
Madrid bombings 2004 779
motivation to join, reasons for 785, 788
propaganda 784
radicalism/radicalization 773, 775–6, 779, 781, 784, 788, 791, 793–4
Salafism 781
social movement, as 776
training 791
transnationalism 776
Albâch 48
Albanian Muslims 475–511 see alsoKosovo; Macedonia
agreements between states and religious communities 499
Albanian Democratic Party 491
atheist state, as 477
Balkan wars 477
believing, behaving, and belonging 477–84, 492–4
Bektashi 480–2, 485, 490, 499–501
BRDIA 484–5
Catholic Church 477–80, 482–3, 486, 488, 499, 501–3, 510
census data 480
clash of civilizations 477, 506–7, 508
Christianity and Christians 478–83, 506
Catholic Church 477–80, 482–3, 486, 488, 499, 501–3, 510
persecution 477
Protestantism 483, 499
Constitution 499, 502
conversions, forced 478
culture and cultural heritage 478–80, 484, 487, 494, 497, 502, 508, 510–11
democracy and democratic principles 477, 492, 507
demographics 478
diaspora 475, 491, 496
discrimination and equal treatment 485, 493–4, 496–7
gender relations/women 492, 496–7
Islamophobia 477, 496, 507–8
diversity 477, 478–87
education and schools
foreign donors and influence 498
higher education 482, 498, 500
public schools 500, 504, 510
radicalism/radicalization 482–3
religious education 482–3, 491, 494, 497–8, 500, 503, 506
segregation 498
employment 497, 500
(p. 816) equality amongst religions 480, 499
ethno-nationalism 476, 478
European Union 507
Evangelical Brotherhood of Albania (VUSH) 499
forced migration 478
foreign donors and influences 482–3, 487, 491, 496, 498, 506, 509–10, 603
freedom of religion 480, 499
gender relations/women 492, 496–7
generational differences 494, 509
government policy 492, 499
Gülen movement 482–3
Hanafi school 483
hijab/headscarves 488, 496, 497, 603
history/historical perspective 2, 4, 476–91, 508–11
identity 476, 478–9, 481, 490, 499, 507–8, 510
imams, Muftis and clerics
foreign donors and influence 483
Grand Mufti 481
radicalism/radicalization 495
training 483, 500
immigration/migrants 478, 480–1, 502
institutions/organizations 480, 483–6, 490, 493, 495–502, 507, 509, 634
international constraints 506–9
Internet 496–7, 506
Islamic schools 500, 503
Islamophobia 477, 496, 507–8
Italy 268–9, 272, 291, 481
Jews/Judaism 501, 506
labour migrants/guest workers 481
languages 476, 482, 492
legal status 499–502
majority Muslim population 2, 4, 475, 477, 486, 489, 503
minorities in other countries, Albanian Muslims as 475, 477
mixed communities 479
moderates 488, 491
Montenegro 475, 485
mosques
building/establishment 487, 501, 502, 506, 508
mosque war 495
radicalism/radicalization 491
Salafism 495–6
Muslim Community of Albania (MCA) 481–3, 499–500, 502, 507
national identity 507–8
nationalism 475–6, 478, 485, 489–90
nationalization of religion 480
naturalization 475
neutrality of state 499, 509
Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) 502
Orthodox Church 478–82, 489, 499
Ottoman Empire 476–7, 478–80, 492, 506–7, 509, 569
persecution by state 477–8, 479 n.3, 481, 485
political identity 476, 507
political participation/representation 491, 498
population shifts 481
prayers 488
propaganda and promotion 506
Protestantism 483, 499
publications 483–4, 487–8, 506
public sphere/visibility 493, 498–506, 508
race and ethnicity 476–7, 478–9, 484–5, 489, 491–2, 496, 499, 510
radicalism/radicalization 482–3, 491–2, 495–6, 506, 508–10
recognition 480, 499
registration or licensing 499–500
religious authorities 483–4, 486–8, 496, 508–9
religious education 482–3, 491, 494, 497–8, 500, 503, 506
religious identity 478, 481, 499, 507–8, 510
religiosity 480, 492–4
repatriation after WW1 479
representative bodies 500
restitution of religious property 501, 502
revival of religion 482, 492–4, 498–9
rituals, festivals and holidays 488
role of religion in society 502–6
rural areas 485, 494, 497–8, 503, 506
Saudi Arabia 478, 482–3, 488, 497, 506, 603
scholarship 476–84, 487, 499, 507
Second World War 480–1
secularism/secularization 480, 492, 497, 499, 500, 502, 508–9
sectarianism 476, 479–80, 487, 499, 502, 509–10
security/securitization 477
segregation 477, 496–8
September 2011, terrorist attacks on United States 477, 493–4, 506–8, 510
Serbia 475, 489–90
shariah law 501–2
Shi’a Muslims 478, 506
social dynamics 492–8
social media 496–7, 506
socio-economic status 477, 492, 494
Sunni Muslims 480–2, 484–6, 490, 506
theology 483–4, 488, 492
traditionalists/conservatives 482, 488, 494–8, 508–11
traditions, competing 482
transnationalism 508–9
Turkey 478, 480, 482, 495
uniqueness of Islam among Albanians 478–9
war on terror 477
youth 481, 494–5, 507
Alevitische Community Germany (AABF) 125
Algeria
Algerian Islamic Salvation Front 48
Algerian War 24, 29–30, 47
France 24, 26–7, 29–30, 37, 39, 47, 625, 681, 704
radicalism/radicalization 47–8, 773, 786
Spain 315–16, 330, 336, 341
terrorism 47
Alids 393
Al-Qaeda 509, 759, 770, 773, 775–7, 781, 784, 788, 791, 793–4
anti-Islamic attitudes see Islamophobia
anti-Semitism 127, 201, 747 n.3, 750
Arab Spring 268, 540, 584
Armed Islamic Group (GIA) 47–8, 773
assimilation 4–6
Euro-Islam 804
hijab/headscarves 729
institutions/organizations 620, 630, 635
Islamophobia 653
radicalism/radicalization 782–3
asylum seekers 4, 9, 363, 786
Austria
Austro-Hungary 429–30, 433, 436, 440–1
Catholicism 725
citizenship 706, 756
education and schools 641, 644, 662, 705–6, 724–5
freedom of religion 706
full-face covering 718–19
halal/religious slaughter 644
hijab/headscarves 705–6, 718–19, 723–4
immigration/migrants 706
Islamic Religious Community 641
Islamophobia 757
language 662
mosques, building/establishment of 639, 644
naturalization 723
neutrality 669
public opinion/perceptions 661–2
recognition 644
religious education 641, 644
representative bodies 644
right-wing populist parties 662, 706, 725
security/securitization 718–19
shariah law 662, 664, 669, 680, 694
Sunni Muslims 641
talaq, recognition of 680
Turks 661–2
xenophobia and racism 706
Austro-Hungary 429–30, 433, 436, 440–1
Avars 523, 541
‘Axis of Evil’ 758, 760
bad Islam and good Islam, distinction between 803
Balkan wars 429, 434, 438, 445–8, 450–2, 461–8
(p. 818) Barelvi movement 88, 377
Bashkortostan 520, 524, 543, 552
Bektashi mystical order 356, 480–2, 485, 490, 499–501, 574–5, 590, 592, 603
Belgium 222–54
accommodation 240–2
Al Qaeda 250
allochthons, Muslims as 228
assimilation 228, 233
attachment to countries of origin 225
believing, behaving, and belonging 242–6, 253
Brussels 222, 238, 243
burquas 242, 721
Catholics 235–6
chaplains 235
Christianity and Christians 235–6, 244
citizenship 223, 225, 229, 240, 253
civil and political actors, Muslims as 238–40
comparative approach 239, 243
crime 232
culture and cultural heritage 228, 231–4, 243, 253
democracy and democratic principles 241, 250
demographics 222, 224, 238–9
demonstrations and protests 225–6, 247–8, 249–50
discrimination and equality 233, 241, 253
gender relations/women 240–2, 244, 246, 248, 251–2
Islamophobia 223, 251–3
xenophobia and racism 233, 248, 251
diversity 241
dual identity 234
education and schools 229, 231–2, 238, 251, 640, 642
higher education 230–1
hijab/headscarves 251, 714–15
public schools 235–6, 715
religious education 235, 243, 640–1, 644
segregation 231
symbols 234
employment 224–5, 230–1, 234, 241–2, 252
Equal Opportunities and Opposition to Racism (CEOOR) 227
euthanasia and process of dying 244–5
Executive of Muslims of Belgium (EMB) 236–7
family law 240–1
family reunification 224
fear, emergence of expertise of 248–9
Flemings/Flanders
hijab/headscarves 714
integration 226, 234, 253
Islamophobia 251
language 223, 234
mosques 235
pluralism 714, 723
political parties 226–7
regional fractures 223, 235
Francophones/Wallonia 222–3, 225–8, 238, 249–50, 252–3
hijab/headscarves 714
integration 226
mosques 235
regional fractures 223, 235
freedom of religion 235, 252, 671, 715
funding 235, 237
gender relations/women 240–2, 244, 246, 248, 251–2
generational differences 230, 233–4, 239, 243–6
government policy 224, 226–7, 231–2, 236–7, 241, 253
halal/religious slaughter 228, 245, 644
healing practices 247
health and healthcare 235, 245
hijab/headscarves 226, 229, 233, 240, 705, 714–15, 723
burquas 242, 721
education and schools 251
employment 252
full-face covering 242, 671, 721
Islamophobia 252
niqabs 671, 721
public opinion/perceptions 714–15
public space/visibility 721
security/securitization 721, 729
shariah law 669, 670–1, 694
symbols, ban on conspicuous religious 715
(p. 819) historical perspectives 223–7
homosexuality 248
identity 225, 233–4, 238, 240, 243–7, 251
ijtihad 244
imams, Muftis and clerics 235, 249
immigration/migrants 224–8, 231–2, 251–2
individuals and individualization 229, 242–5, 253
institutions/organizations 6, 223, 234–42, 246–53, 634
integration 223, 226–34, 237–9, 253–4
international context 247–51
Internet 248
interventionism 237–8
Islamic Cultural Centre (ICC) 225–6, 237
Islamophobia 223, 251–3
legal aspects 240–2
marriage and divorce 244, 252, 681
moderates 226, 232
Moroccans 224–5, 230–4, 238, 240, 242–9
mosques 242–3
building/establishment 639, 644
funding 235, 237
number 235
public sphere 238–9
multiculturalism 231–2, 241
musical genres 247
Muslim Brotherhood 246–7
nationalist reforms of state apparatus 226
nationality identity 234
naturalization 230
neutrality model 234, 237, 241, 253
niqabs 671, 721
Other, Muslims as ethnic and religious 227–9, 252
personal law 240–1
pillarization, principle of 235
pluralism 241–2
political participation/representation 223, 226–8, 235, 237–40, 250–1
polygamy 681–2
poverty 229–30
prisoners 235–6, 248
Protestantism 235
public opinion/perceptions 222, 714–15
public space/visibility 222, 223–4, 228–9, 233–4, 238–40, 721
publications 248–9
race and ethnicity 227–33, 236, 238, 243, 252–3
radicalism/radicalization 223, 225–9, 237, 247–52, 622
Ramadan 236, 241, 243
recognition 224, 226, 233–8, 644
regional fractures 223, 235
religious education 235, 243, 640–1, 644
religious identity 225, 238, 240, 243–7, 251
religiosity 232–3, 242–6, 253
renewed engagements with Muslim tradition, examining 246–7
representative bodies 6, 226–7, 229, 236–9, 253, 644
residential pattern 222
return 224, 233
right-wing populist parties 226–7, 251, 662
Salafism 246–7
Saudi Arabia 225, 236
scholarship 222–4, 227–8, 232, 234, 238, 240, 244, 246, 252–4
secularism/secularization 223–5, 228–9, 242–5, 250, 253–4
security/securitization 222, 249, 721, 729
separation of church and state 235, 244
September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on United States 222, 248
shariah law 240–1, 656, 662, 681–2
Shi’a Muslims 247
socio-economic status 223–4, 228–34, 253
state and religion relations 234–5
stereotyping 252
Sunni Muslims 244, 247
symbols, ban on conspicuous religious 234, 715
terrorism 222
theology 236, 244–5
traditionalists/conservatives 239, 244
transnationalism 225
unemployment 229–30
xenophobia and racism 233, 248, 251
(p. 820) believing, behaving, and belonging 11–12 see also religiosity
Beth Din 85
Beurs movement 24–5, 30, 34, 44
Bosnia and Herzegovina 429–69
abroad, studying 444, 446, 452, 453, 459
Active Islamic Youth (AIY) 451
arms 461–2, 463
associationism 457, 459
Austro-Hungarian rule 429–30, 433, 436, 440–1
Balkan wars 429, 434, 438, 445–8, 450–2, 461–8
believing, behaving, and belonging 430, 444–65
Bogumils 431
burial and cemeteries 455, 457, 458
Catholics and Catholic Church 431–2, 437, 457
census data 468, 469
chaplains 437
Chetniks (extremists) 434
Christianity and Christians 431–2, 437, 457, 463
concerts, organization of 449
conversion 430–2, 448, 464
Croatia/Croats 430, 432–4, 438, 442, 451, 465–7
culture and cultural heritage 432, 436, 439, 458, 462–4, 467, 469
Dayton Peace Accords 429, 452, 467
democracy and democratic principles 437, 452
demographics 429, 469
desecularization 444
diaspora 469
discrimination and equal treatment 430, 437, 448, 452, 468, 496
gender relations/women 448–51, 455, 456, 687
Islamophobia 430, 496
education and schools 440–4, 469
abroad, studying 444, 446, 452, 453, 459
Faculty of Islamic Studies 442, 444, 446, 455–7, 459
foreign donors and influence 446
Gazi Husrev Bey Madarasah 442, 444, 446, 456
gender relations/women 456
higher 438, 444, 446, 458–9
hijab/headscarves 456
Iran 463–4
public schools 437, 446, 459
religious education 436, 441–2, 444–6, 448, 452, 459
Saudi Arabia 462–3
Turkey 464–5
employment 456, 458–9
ethnic cleansing 430, 433, 466–9
Euro-Islam 439
European Union 430
Faculty of Islamic Studies 442, 444, 446, 455–7, 459
family law 438, 448–9, 456, 460
foreign donors and influence 418, 444–8, 450–2, 459–65, 469, 603
freedom of religion 437, 445
Gazi Husrev Bey Madarasah 442, 444, 446, 456
gender relations/women 448–51, 455, 456, 687
Kewser organization 450–1
Nahla organization 450
representative bodies 450–1
generational differences 438, 444, 454, 456
genocide 430, 433, 466–9
Germany 105–6, 687
government policy 429, 477–8
Grand Mufti 418, 440, 442–3, 485
Hanafi school 435, 441, 451
health and healthcare 437, 435
hijab/headscarves 444, 448, 456, 603
history/historical perspective 2, 4, 429–49, 453–4, 465–9
historiography 430–2
identity
national 429, 434, 439, 444, 468–9
religious 429, 431, 439
imams, Muftis and clerics 440–3
appointment 440
education and schools 459
foreign donors and influence 418, 459
Grand Mufti 418, 440, 442–3, 485
Islamic Community (IC) 441–2, 459
organization 441–3
revival 452
training 440, 443, 446, 459
independence 465
indigenous Muslim community 429
institutions/organizations 429–30, 432, 436, 440–6, 449–52, 455–6, 634
International Court of Justice 467
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) 465 n. 135, 466–7
Internet 469
interpretation 439, 446–8, 451, 453–4, 459
inter-religious relations 455, 456–8
Iran 463–4
Islamic Community (IC) 436–60, 463–4
Islamized pre-Islamic Bosnian culture 435
Islamophobia 430, 496
Jews/Judaism 434, 457
Kosovo 432, 445, 448–9, 460, 483
language 432, 436, 447–8, 452, 459, 462, 464–5
Law on Freedom of Religion and the Legal Position of Churches and Religious
Communities 437
main characteristics of Bosnian Islam 436–40
majority Muslim population 2, 4, 430, 452
marriage and divorce 438, 448–9, 456
Maturidi, Sunni Islam tradition of 435
media 444–5, 461, 465, 468
mektebs 445–6
minority, as part of 429
modernity 430, 432–4, 439
mosques 457–8, 460–1
building/establishment/reconstruction 444–7, 450, 457, 461, 462–3, 468
destruction 436, 442, 446–7, 465, 468
operation 440, 443
mystical Islam, attitudes to 455, 458–9
national identity 429, 434, 439, 444, 468–9
nationalism 433
niqabs 448, 456
Orthodox Church 431–2, 437, 468
Ottoman Empire 429–35, 440, 467, 569
personal law 438, 448–9, 456, 460
pluralism 438–9, 448
political participation/representation 461
popular Islam, attitudes to 455, 458–9
prayers 435, 443, 457–9, 461
prisoners 431, 436, 467
public opinion/perceptions 440, 455
public sphere/visibility 435, 444, 446, 449–50
publications 443, 445–9, 453–4, 462–5
Qurʾan 441, 460–1, 462–4
interpretation 446, 448, 453–4
recitation 449, 458, 461
radicalization 438–40, 443–5, 451–2, 773
reformism 435–6
refugees and displaced persons 4, 105–6, 429, 434, 462–4, 467
reintegration into wider Muslim community 435–6
religious authorities 436, 447, 453–9, 485–6
religious education 436, 441–2, 444–6, 448, 452, 459
religious identity 429, 431, 439
religious revival 430, 444–65
religiosity 430, 444, 460–1
representative bodies 429–30, 449–52, 460
revival of religion 444–5, 451–2
rituals, festivals and holidays 432, 435, 437, 441, 457–8, 460–1
Saff 451, 455–8
Saudi Arabia 438, 446–7, 462–3, 603
scholarship 431, 434–6, 443, 447–9, 453–8, 464, 468–9
alternative and mainstream, difference between 455–8
growth of mainstream 453–5
revival 447–9
Second World War 429, 434, 453
secularism 436, 439–40, 444, 446
(p. 822) security 440, 445, 453, 469
separation of church and state 437–8
September 2011, terrorist attacks on United States 430, 451, 452, 463, 469
Serbia/Serbs 430–4, 437–8, 442, 451, 465–7
shariah courts 436, 437–8, 460
shariah law 436–9, 448–9, 456, 460, 464
Shi’a Muslims 448, 450, 454, 458–9, 464
socio-economic status 431, 469
Srebrenica massacre 466
Srpska, Republic of 437, 442, 447, 466–8
state-religion relations 437
stereotyping 448
Sunni Muslims 435, 448, 451–2
symbols 444
tariqas 449–50, 460
terrorism and violence 439–40, 451, 468
traditionalists/conservatives 433–6, 438, 442, 445–51, 454, 459–61
transnationalism 443
Turks/Turkey 464–5, 604
Ustasha (Croat extremists) 434
war crimes 434, 438 n.35, 465, 467
youth 449, 451, 456
Yugoslavia
as part of 429, 434, 437, 440, 444, 446, 465
dissolution 429–30, 435, 436, 464, 465–8
liberalization 453
Britain see United Kingdom
Bulgaria 4, 565–606
abroad, studying 593–4, 602–3
assimilation 575, 580, 596–7
Alevi/Kizilbashi/Bektashi 574–5, 590, 592, 603–4
Ataka nationalist party 600–2
believing, behaving, and belonging 594–6
Bulgarian Turks for the Movement for Rights and Freedoms (MRF) 576
burial and cemeteries 578, 588
Catholics 569, 594
census data 570–1, 577, 579, 583
Chief Mufti 589–92, 592–3, 602
Christianity and Christians 566–9, 576–9, 588, 594–5, 597, 600–1, 605
Catholics 569, 594
Orthodox Church 568–9, 579, 589–90
Protestants 569, 578–80, 594, 597
citizenship 576
communism 565–6, 572, 580–2, 592, 594–8
comparative approach 584, 589, 593–4
constitutions 575, 589–90
culture and cultural heritage 4, 566–9, 575–7, 581, 587–9, 605
demographics 569–73, 605–6
demonstrations and protests 600–1
Denominations Act 590
diaspora 604
discrimination and equal treatment 572, 575, 581, 586, 589, 600
gender relations/women 576, 581–6, 595–7
Islamophobia 566, 567, 569, 599–605
Eastern Orthodox Church 568–9, 579, 589–90
economic migration 572
education and schools 568, 572–4, 582–3, 585–8
abroad, studying 593–4, 602–3
curriculum, debates on inclusion of study of religion in 594
foreign donors and influence 593, 602–3, 605
gender relations/women 596
higher education 565, 583, 593–4
illiteracy 572–3
imams, Muftis and clerics 592–3
immigration/migrants 573–4, 606
languages 592
mosques 592–3
Pomaks 579
poverty 572–3
religious education 589, 592–4
Roma 572–3, 580
textbooks 592–3
Turks 577
employment 572, 576, 581–2, 585–6, 596, 606
European Muslims 576
(p. 823) European Union 4, 584
Fethullahci 580
forced resettlement 581
foreign donors and influence 566, 599–605
freedom of religion 567–8, 575
fundamentalism 600, 602
gender relations/women 576, 581–6, 595–7, 603
generational differences 576–7, 579, 591, 593–4, 602
government policy 573–4, 583, 587, 597–8, 605
Gülen movement 577, 593
Hanafi school 590, 603
health and healthcare 572, 585
High Islamic Institute (HII) 593–4
hijab/headscarves 603
historiography 568–9
history/historical perspective 2, 567–9, 588, 597
human rights 575, 583, 585, 598, 600
identity 568, 576–80, 587, 595, 597, 601, 605
illiteracy 572–3
imams, Muftis and clerics
abroad, studying 594, 602–3
Chief Mufti 589–92, 592–3, 602
education and schools 592–3
legal status 589
literature, certification of 595
number of imams 591–2
radicalism/radicalization 579, 594, 600–2, 604
Salafism 579, 594, 596, 604
Thrace, Muftis in 359
training 591–2
immigration/migrants 4, 567, 569, 572–4, 580–7, 591, 599, 604–6
education and schools 573–4, 606
emigration 580–3
gender relations/women 597
illegal 584, 606
immigrants in Bulgaria 582–7
new migrants 567
religiosity 595–6
traditionalism/conservatism 597
Turkey, to 576
institutions/organizations 565–6, 583, 586–7, 598, 604–6
integration 573–4, 581, 587, 596, 598
interpretation 569, 589, 595
Islamic schools 592–4
Islamophobia 566, 567, 569, 599–605
Jews/Judaism 574, 597–8
Kurds 576
labour migrants/guest workers 576, 581–2, 606
language 576, 577, 579, 581, 585–6, 589, 592
legal status 589–92
marriage and divorce 582, 583–4, 588, 596
masculinity 596
millet system under Ottoman Empire 568
mixed marriages 582, 583–4, 588, 596
moderates 569
mosques 579, 589, 594–6
building/establishment 592, 594–5, 600
demonstrations and protests 600–1
education 592–3
gender relations/women 596–7
Turks 577
Movement for Rights and Freedoms (MRF) 576, 595, 597–9
multiculturalism 574, 600–1
Muslim Conferences 591
National Conference 590
national identity 568
national victimization 569
nationalism 599–602
neo-Ottoman doctrine 602, 604
number of Muslims 572, 583
Nursi activists 573, 580
organizational structure 590–2
Orthodox Church 568–9, 579, 589–90
Ottoman Empire 566–9, 575, 578, 588, 601–5
political participation/representation 566, 576, 594–602, 604
polygamy 603
Pomaks (Muslim Bulgarians) 477, 568–9, 577–9, 594–7, 600, 602, 605
poverty 572–3
prayers 579
(p. 824) Protestants 569, 578–80, 597
public opinion/perceptions 579, 586–7, 590, 594, 598–600
public sphere/visibility 566–7, 587–97
publications 588–9, 595, 599–602, 604–5
Qurʾan 578, 591–3
race and ethnicity 567, 569, 572, 574–88, 597–9, 605
radicalism/radicalization 567, 569, 579, 594–5, 599–605
Ramadan 578
refugees 567, 569, 572–4, 581, 583–5
regions 567
registration 590
religious authorities 598
religious education 589, 592–4
religious identity 576–80, 595, 597, 605
religiosity 578–9, 581, 585–6, 594–6
representative bodies 595
repression 580, 605
resettlement, forced 581
residence patterns 583–4
restitution of property 592
return 581
rituals, festivals and holidays 574–5, 578–9, 586–8, 592, 594–6, 602–3
Saudi Arabia 579, 602–3
Schengen criteria 584
scholarship 565–9, 588–9, 594, 597, 605
secularism/secularization 576–7, 581, 595, 598, 604
security services 579, 598, 601
segregation 573, 580, 601
Senior Muslim Council (SMC) 591
September 2011, terrorist attacks on United States 567, 599–605
shariah courts 568
Shi’a Muslims 572
socio-economic status 569, 572, 580–2
state subsidy 592
stereotyping 556–8, 573–5, 586, 588, 601
Suleymanists 580
Sunni Muslims 572, 574–5, 590, 603
tekkes and turbes 592
terrorism and violence 600
theology 567, 592, 595
Thrace, Muftis in 359
traditionalism/conservatism 567–8, 577, 586–7, 590–7, 599, 602–4
transnationalism 581–2, 605
Turks/Turkey 569, 573, 574–82, 587–99, 602–5
unemployment 572, 581, 596
xenophobia and racism 599–601
youth 576–7
Canada 190, 241, 582, 751
Catholics 3, 6, 626, 634–5, 637, 640–3
Ceuta and Melilla 313, 327, 332, 338
chadors 703–4, 758
Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU 701
Chechnya 534–6, 540–2
Black Widows 777
combat jamaats 774
diaspora 555
discrimination 526
elections 542
public opinion/perceptions 551–2
radicalism/radicalization 535–6, 541–2, 549, 551, 772–5, 789
Salafism 536
separatism 519, 536, 772
solidarity structures 540
suicide bombers 546 n. 72, 777
children, protection of 678
China 518, 543, 545
Christianity and Christians 11, 620, 631–2 see also Catholics
Circassia 529, 554
citizenship
citizen and Muslim, being a 11–12
culture and cultural heritage 5
Euro-Islam 804
hijab/headscarves 722–4
institutions/organizations 630, 638, 642
‘Islamic problem’ 5
clash of civilizations 745, 757–8, 762, 764
Cold War 358, 477, 519, 521, 760
colonialism 79 n.13, 223, 636, 704–5, 773 see also postcolonialism
commercial disputes, ADR in 694
communist era 3–4, 5, 532, 666
communitarianism 9, 723, 787
comparative approach 2, 5, 9, 634–43
hijab/headscarves 729–30
institutions/organizations 620, 625, 629, 633–52
tables 644–51
types of comparison 643–52
conflict of laws 190, 321, 629–30, 677–82, 695
Conseil Français du Culte Musulman (CFCM) 34–6, 37, 39, 41, 47–8
Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989 372
corporal punishment 7, 659, 663
Council of Europe (CoE) 518, 624, 748
Crimean War 517
criminal law 7–8, 672–4, 677, 691
criminology 105–6, 109, 133, 775, 777, 780
Croatia/Croats 430, 432–4, 438, 442, 451, 465–7, 499
Crusades 745–6
culture and cultural heritage
acculturation 3, 16, 635, 802
believing, behaving, and belonging 11–12
citizenship 4, 5
culturally sentimental Muslims 10
discrimination and equality 805
diversity 702, 722–4, 729, 803–4
education and schools 724
Euro-Islam 802–4
family law 688–9
hijab/headscarves 702–3, 717, 722–3, 729
identity 8, 793, 803
institutions/organizations 620–2, 624–7, 632, 634-5, 638, 643
Islamophobia 756
judges and administrations, sensitivity of 696
marriage and divorce 690
race and ethnicity 747
radicalism/radicalization 775–7, 782, 785–90
security/securitization 3
shariah law 8, 676, 688–90
values, rejection of European 717
Western superiority 753, 757, 759–65
Cyprus 358, 529
Da’awat-e Islami 127, 378
Danish Cartoon controversy 189, 753–4
demonstrations and riots 414, 754
freedom of expression 1, 342, 414, 753
Greece 362
Islamophobia 84, 753
Jyllands-Posten 414, 416, 753–4
Norway 416
public opinion/perceptions 10, 334, 416
radicalism/radicalization 774, 779
Sweden 411
terrorism 754
Darqawa tariqa 324–5
Dayton Peace Accords 429, 452, 467
defensive Muslims 10
definition of Islam and Islamic conception of religion 9–16
believing, behaving, and belonging 11–12
citizen and Muslim, being a 11–12
identity building 11–12
Muslim, definition of 10
public opinion/perceptions 10
religiosity of individuals 10–13, 15
Salafism, growth of influence of global 12–16
social media 10, 15
transnationalism 10, 12
democracy and democratic values
Euro-Islam 802
individuals and individualization 624
institutions/organizations 622, 633, 636, 642
radicalism/radicalization 793
shariah law 663, 668–9, 696
(p. 826) Denmark see also Danish Cartoon controversy
assimilation 399–400
asylum seekers and refugees 394
Catholics 402
census data 392
Christianity and Christians 400, 402
citizenship 400, 757
citizenship test 757
converts 395
Copenhagen 400–1, 403, 407–8
crime 404
culture and cultural heritage 403, 409, 414
Danish People’s Party (DPP) 399–400
demographics 403–4
discrimination and equality 393, 400, 404, 413–14, 750–1, 753, 763
dower 684
education and schools 404, 407–8, 645
employment 404
family reunification 394, 400
freedom of expression 414
government policy 413–14
halal/religious slaughter 409, 645
hijab/headscarves 400, 404
historical perspective 392
identity 403, 408
immigration/migrants 392, 394–5, 402–4, 413–14
institutions/organizations 407
integration 403, 409–10
international constraints 413–14
Internet 409, 416
Jews/Judaism 408
Islamophobia 393, 400, 414, 750–1, 753, 763
language 404
marriage and divorce 684, 690
media 407–8
mosques, building/establishment of 393, 407–8, 645
national identity 408
number of Muslims 395
Pakistanis 391, 393–5
parliamentary debates 408
public opinion/perceptions 400, 408–9, 413
public space/visibility 407–9
radicalism/radicalization 414
recognition 645
religious education 645
religious identity 403
religiosity 402–3
representative bodies 407, 645
right-wing populist parties 399–400, 662
September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on United States 413
shariah law 662, 690
Shi’a Muslims 407–8
socio-economic status 403–4
Sunni Muslims 407
terrorism 413–14
Deobandi ‘school of thought’ 79–80, 88, 90, 377, 393 see also Tablighi movement
diaspora 775, 787–8
discrimination and equality see also gender relations/women; Islamophobia; xenophobia
and racism
culture and cultural heritage 805
double discrimination 729
education and schools 637
employment 755, 763
European Convention on Human Rights 624
hijab/headscarves 708, 729
institutions/organizations 624
radicalism/radicalization 6, 622
rituals, festivals and holidays 84
shariah law 658–9, 663, 667–8
stereotyping 708, 754, 765, 780
underclass 5
diversity
culture and cultural heritage 702, 722–3, 729, 803–4
Euro-Islam 803–4
family law 8
institutions/organizations 622, 627, 635, 637
race and ethnicity 803
shariah law 694
dower 684–5, 689
dupattas 703
(p. 827) Eastern Europe 3–9
communist era 3–5, 532, 666
ethnic or folklore studies 3–4, 5, 352, 566
immigration studies 3–4
‘Islamic problem’ 5
Ottoman Empire 3–4, 5
religious studies 3–4
education and schools
accommodation 640–3
Catholics 6
comparative tables 644–52
culture and cultural heritage 724
discrimination and equality 637
foreign donors and influence 14, 626
higher education 626, 792
hijab/headscarves 705–30
public schools 705–30
shariah law 669–70
identity 642–3
immigration/migrants 641
institutions/organizations 621, 626–8, 631, 633–4, 637, 640–52
Islamic schools 14, 642–52, 705, 715
Jews/Judaism 640
public opinion/perceptions 642
public schools 621, 627, 637, 640–3, 705–30
radicalism/radicalization 12, 792
religiosity 724
religious education 621, 626, 628, 631, 633–4, 637, 640–52
Salafism 12
Saudi Arabia 14
segregation 642
shariah law 669–70
Tablighi movement 784
training 6, 621
universities, radicalization in 792
Egypt/Egyptians
Bosnia and Herzegovina 438, 446–8, 451, 453
Muslim Brotherhood 36
Netherlands 159, 189
United Kingdom 70
Eid al-Adha 41, 379, 671
Eid al-Fitr 84, 86, 379–80, 671
enemies, Muslims as external and internal 803–4
employment and labour market
discrimination 755, 763
globalization 5
hijab/headscarves 672, 706–7, 711, 714–18, 724–6
immigration/migrants 4, 5 n.3, 761–5
Islamophobia 755, 763
prayers 39, 50, 90, 381, 671
rituals, festivals and holidays 671–2
shariah law 671–2
unemployment 763–5
Enlightenment 339, 802
essentialism 9, 747–8, 803
Eurabia thesis 415–16
Eurocentricism 631–2
Euro-Islam 537, 539, 624, 802–5
European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR)
discrimination and equality 624
hijab/headscarves 701–2
institutions/organizations 624
public space/visibility 627
shariah law 659–60, 666–7, 694
thought, conscience and religion, freedom of 666–7, 694
transnationalism 624
Turkish Refah Partisi 659–60, 694
European Union (EU)
Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU 701
halal/religious slaughter 639
institutions/organizations 629, 631–3
Islamophobia 745, 748, 753, 755, 759
radicalism/radicalization 770
Regulation on Succession and Wills 683
Rome III Regulation on international divorce law 683
Schengen criteria 584
xenophobia and racism 748 n. 5
(p. 828) ex-Muslims 10, 657–8
external influence see foreign donors and influence
family law see also marriage and divorce
accommodation 684
culture and cultural heritage 688–9
diversity 8
dower (mahr or sadaq) 684–5, 689
equality of religion and beliefs 658
freedom of religion 658
gender relations/women 658, 662, 687, 691
information to immigrants, provision of 695
optional civil law 683–4
public policy 677, 684–5
recognition of foreign decisions, lack of 687–8
family reunification 785–6
fatwas 14, 674–5
female genital mutilation (FGM) 168–71, 177
feminism 241 n.28, 244, 246, 251–2, 456, 657, 727–9
Fethullah Gülen movement 125, 393, 418, 463–4, 482–3, 577, 593, 604–5
finance 682–3
Finland
education and schools 637, 640–1, 645
halal/religious slaughter 645
integration 635
Ireland 635, 640–1
mosques, building/establishment of 635, 645
multiculturalism 635
number of Muslims 637
recognition 645
registration 637
representative bodies 645
socio-economic status 635
symbols, display of religious 637
Fitna (film) 189
foreign donors and influence see also Salafism; transnationalism and transnational
networks
education and schools 14, 626
institutions/organizations 626, 631–2
Internet 14
mosques, building/establishment of 14, 709
publications and literature, distribution of 14
radicalism/radicalization 599, 774
folklore and folklore studies 4–5, 531, 566, 580, 605
foreign policy 753, 759–60, 771, 777, 783, 796
former Muslims 10, 657–8
forum shopping 85
framing 131, 196, 414, 762, 776, 779, 784, 803
France 23–51 see also France and headscarf affairs
Al-Qaeda 47–8
Algeria 26–7, 37, 39, 625, 681, 704
Algerian War 24, 29–30, 47
radicalism/radicalization 47–8
terrorism 47
assimilation 23, 27, 41, 635, 763–4
banlieues 24–5, 28–9, 45, 49–50
believing, behaving, and belonging 41–2
Beur movement 24–5, 30, 34
beurgeoisie 29–30
burials and cemeteries 34, 39–40
catholaïcité 31
Catholicism 31, 34–5, 39, 709, 712, 715
CFCM and other groups 34–7, 39, 41, 47–8
Charles de Gaulle Roissy airport, security at 49–50
Christian crosses, restrictions on large 32
Christianity and Christians 29, 31–2, 34–6, 39, 709, 712, 715
citizenship 43
civilization mission 626
Collectif Contre L’Islamophobie en France (CCIF) 30, 46, 48
colonialism 636
Constitution 31
converts (Français de Souche) 24, 26, 28, 43
culture and cultural heritage 24, 27, 31–2, 37, 39–41, 47
demographics 26–7, 30, 51
demonstrations and protests 24–5
(p. 829) deportation 49
discrimination and equality 25–9, 30–9, 45–51
gender relations/women 26, 28, 30–7, 41–2, 44 n.8, 46, 51
Islamophobia 29, 38, 45–51, 746, 749, 751–2, 755, 763–4
xenophobia and racism 25, 34, 45, 50
diversity 637
DNA testing 49
dower 684
education and schools
beurgeoisie 29
culture 31
discrimination and equality 764
foreign donors and influence 35
funding 31, 34–5
institutions/organizations 640, 642
Islamic schools 34–5
Islamophobia 764
language 31
levels 29–30
public schools 31–4, 46, 709, 712–15, 721–6, 728–30
religious education 14, 34–5, 640, 646
religiosity 31
Stasi Commission 32, 713–14
employment 24–31, 34, 45–6, 49–51, 755
European Convention on Human Rights 627, 666
family law 51
family reunification 25, 30, 49
feminization of immigration policy 30–1
foreign donors and influence 35, 626
Front National (FN) 25, 38, 47–9
gender relations/women 26, 28, 30–7, 41–2, 44 n.8, 46, 51
generational differences 25, 27, 29, 31, 34, 37, 41–52, 44–5, 51
government policy 25, 30–1, 48–9, 622
halal/ritual slaughter 29, 34, 38, 40–1, 638–9, 646
historical perspective 23–7, 38–9, 626
identity building 25, 31
imams, Muftis and clerics 34, 37–8, 41
immigration/migrants 23–30, 38–9, 47–50, 763–4
individuals and individualization 36, 41
industrialization 24–5, 30
institutions/organizations 34–41, 51, 625–6, 634
integration 29, 35–7, 49–50
Internet 40
invisibility, equality through 27
Islamic schools 34–5
Islamism 38, 47
Islamophobia 29, 38, 45–51, 746, 749, 751–2, 755, 763–4
Jews/Judaism 32, 34–6, 39–40, 47, 714
laïcité 6, 23, 27, 31, 34, 39–40, 42, 51, 622, 666, 805
language 31, 38, 49
Machelon Report 38
Maghreb origins 24–6, 43–4
marriage and divorce 679
media 40–1, 43
Mohamed Merah incident 47–8
Moroccans 26–7, 36, 625
mosques 38–9, 42
building/establishment of 24, 36, 38–9, 50, 625, 635–7, 639, 646
illegal 50
imams, training of 38
Marseillle, Mosque of 39
Paris Mosque 24, 36, 38
nationality discrimination 28
neutrality 627
North African immigrants 24–6, 28–31, 50
number of Muslims 23–7, 42–3
pan-Islamic globalized Islam 34
police, discrimination by 45, 49–50
political participation and representation 23, 25, 38, 43–5, 47–9, 51
polygamy 46–7
postcolonialism 2, 3
poverty 28, 45
prayers 34, 38–42, 50
Protestants 32, 34–6, 39
public perception/opinion 24–6, 48–50, 663
public space, religion in 23, 33–4, 38–42
publications 43
race and ethnicity 31, 45–6, 49
radicalism/radicalization 37, 47–50, 51, 774
(p. 830) recognition 646
regionalisms 31
religiosity 30–1, 34, 41–5, 51
religious education 14, 34–5, 640, 646
repatriation 25
representative bodies 6, 34–9, 41, 47–8, 637, 646
Republicanism 23, 763–4
research 23–4, 31, 34, 41, 44, 48
right-wing populist parties 25, 38, 47–9, 662
riots 24, 45, 46–50, 785
rituals, festivals and holidays 39, 41–2
Salafism 37, 48
Saudi Arabia 37
scholarship 23, 29–33, 36–7, 45, 47–9, 51
security/securitization 48–9
segregation 28
separation of state and religion 6, 23, 27, 31, 34, 39–40, 42, 51, 622, 666, 805
September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on United States 45–6, 47–9
shariah law 40, 51, 662–3, 666, 679
social housing projects (banlieues) 24–5, 28–9, 45, 49–50
social mobility 29–30
social movements 25, 30
socio-economic status 24, 26, 27–30, 43–7, 51
state-religion relations 31
Stasi Commission 32, 713–14
statistical studies 23–30
stereotyping 41
stigma 46
stop and search of vehicles 49
street prayers 38–9, 42
symbols, ban on religious 32–4, 666
talaq, recognition of 679
terrorism and violence 47, 49, 773–4
traditionalism/conservatism 37
Turks/Turkey 26–7, 625
unemployment 25, 27–30, 45–6
xenophobia and racism 25, 34, 45, 50
youth 24, 27–9, 32, 34, 42, 47–8, 50
France and headscarf affairs 23, 30–5
age 43, 730
assimilation 723, 724
Bayrou Decree 32, 713
burquas 33, 43, 669–70, 722, 730, 757
Catholicism 712
citizenship 723, 729
colonialism 704
converts 669–70, 730
discrimination and equality 29, 33, 46, 50, 727, 752 n.12
diversity 723
education and schools 31–5, 44, 46, 627, 712–15, 723–6, 729
employment 29
European Convention on Human Rights 627, 666, 714
freedom of religion 723
full-face covering 33, 37, 43, 669–70, 721–2, 730, 757
gender relations/women 30–4
Gerin Report 33–4, 37, 729
hijabophobia 46, 50, 752 n.12
identity 724
immigration/migrants 30–1, 712, 723
Internet 730
Islamic schools 34–5
Islamism 33, 44
Islamophobia 46, 50, 714, 752 n.12
Jewish kippa, restrictions on 32
laïcité 23, 31–2, 712–14, 723–5, 729
media 43
neutrality 725
niqabs 33, 37, 43, 721–2
patriarchy 727
penalties 33
political history 704
political participation/representation 45, 50, 723
public opinion/perceptions 31, 33 n.5, 712, 721–2
public space/visibility 30–3, 722–3
religiosity 42–3
representative bodies 713
Salafism 37
schools 31–3, 46
security/securitization 33, 729
(p. 831) segregation 723
shariah law 669–70, 694
Stasi Commission 32, 713–14
stigma 34
symbols and signs, ban on conspicuous 714, 724
teachers 32, 34, 713–15, 725
thought, conscience and religion, freedom of 666
unemployment 29
freedom of expression 1, 252, 342, 414, 416, 727, 753, 691 n.200
freedom of religion
family law 658
halal/religious slaughter 639
hijab/headscarves 701–2
institutions/organizations 624, 629, 632
mosques, building/establishment of 664
private international law 678
shariah law 658, 661, 664–8, 676, 695
thought, conscience and religion, freedom of 666–7, 694
Freedom Party (PVV) (Netherlands) 169, 172, 176, 197–9, 201, 707, 720, 762–3
Front National (FN) (France) 25, 38, 47–9
fundamentalism
hijab/headscarves 726–9
institutions/organizations 625
interpretation 624
Islamism 726
Islamophobia 758
patriarchy 726–8
radicalism/radicalization 624, 637, 771, 776, 789, 792–3
Salafism 783
terrorism 726, 728–9
gender relations/women see also hijab/headscarves
Euro-Islam 802–3
family law 658, 662, 687, 691
feminism 241 n. 28, 244, 246, 251–2, 456, 657, 727–9
honour crimes 168–71, 411, 757, 761
Islamophobia 751
patriarchy 717, 726–8, 731, 802
private international law 678–9
Salafism 803
segregation 496–8
shariah law 658–9, 662–3
generational differences
believing, behaving, and belonging 11
hijab/headscarves 710
individualization 623, 637–8
Islamophobia 749–50
radicalism/radicalization 773, 785–7
Gerin Report 33–4, 37, 43
Germany 104–45 see also Germany and hijab/headscarves
1945, after 107–8
accommodation 104, 129–30
arbitration 130
asylum seekers 117–18
attitude test 756–7
believing, behaving, and belonging 105, 108, 110–14, 131
Bosnians 105–6, 687
burials and cemeteries 130
Catholics 109, 717, 723
census data 109–10
Christianity and Christians 111, 115, 123–4, 128–30, 143
Catholics 109, 717, 723
Protestants 109, 137
citizenship 109, 115, 756–7
constitutional law 129–30, 657, 666, 668–9
converts 105, 107–8
criminal cases, informal dispute resolution in 674
culture and cultural heritage 106–8, 128, 135, 140, 689–90
democracy and democratic principles 106, 133–4, 139
denominations 115–16, 124
demonstrations and protests 140
dialogue initiatives 135–6
diaspora 127
discrimination and equality 117, 120–2, 129, 134–5, 139–44
gender relations/women 105–8, 118–24, 128, 132, 135, 139, 676, 685–7, 691
Islamophobia 140–3, 746, 749, 751–2, 755–7, 763–4
(p. 832) Islamoprejudice 141–2
xenophobia and racism 142
dower 684–5
diversity 105–7, 123
double citizenship 109
education and schools 105–6, 114, 118–20, 122, 137, 140, 637
higher 118, 138
institutions/organizations 637, 642
public schools 6, 105–6, 118, 130, 137–8, 716–17, 725–6
radicalism/radicalization 133–4
religious education 105, 130, 137–8, 641, 647
university chairs 106, 130, 138–9
employment 117–22, 128, 140, 671–2
access to labour market 117–20
asylum seekers, ban on 117–18
conditions 105
discrimination 117–20, 140
gender relations/women 118–19, 132, 139, 685–6
Islamophobia 755
labour migrants/guest workers 105–6, 114, 137
presumptions 685–6
radicalism/radicalization 121
unemployment 119
equality of religions 669
European Union 128
family law 690–1
family reunion 105, 137
federal government 104
finance 683
foreign donors and influence 106, 130, 138–9
former Muslims, movements of 10
framing 131
freedom of religion 669, 672
gender relations/women 105–8, 118–24, 128, 132, 135, 139, 676, 685–7, 691
generational differences 105, 114, 117, 119
German Islam Conference (DIK) 104, 110, 122–4, 126, 131–2
governmental policy 104–6, 126–7, 130–8, 145, 715, 762
guest workers 105–6, 114, 137
halal/religious slaughter 639, 647
hate speech 763
historical perspectives 105–25, 143
home-grown extremists 133
housing 120
identity 116–17, 127–8, 135
imams, Muftis and clerics 107, 121, 122–3, 138
immigration/migrant backgrounds 105–15, 120, 124, 131–2, 136, 144–5, 763
individuals and individualization 108, 144–5
inner-Muslim debates 105
institutions/organizations 6, 105–7, 110, 116–17, 124–31, 136–7, 140, 625, 667–8
integration 104, 106, 110–11, 121, 131–5, 138, 144–5
Internet 128–9, 140–1
Islamic Studies 105–6, 138–9
Islamism 134
Islamophobia 140–3, 746, 749, 751–2, 755–7, 763–4
Islamoprejudice 141–2
Jews/Judaism 107, 111, 131, 134, 137, 142, 717, 763
jihadis 133, 139
journals 139
knowledge production 3, 105, 108–9, 138–9, 142–5
Kurds 674
labour migrants/guest workers 105–6, 114, 137
Länder 104, 131, 633
language 111, 119, 122–4, 129, 143
legal issues 105, 129–30
male circumcision 672–3
marriage and divorce 679, 681–2, 688
media 105–6, 109, 134 n.26, 141, 686
mosques 106–8, 121, 122–4, 138, 143
associations 122–3, 128–9, 131
building/establishment 104, 108, 128, 140–1, 647, 665
conflicts 140–1
multiculturalism 600 n. 22, 763
national identity 104
nationality 109, 112
Nazi regime 38, 107
(p. 833) networking 128, 143
numbers and characteristics of Muslim populations 109–16
Pakistanis 112, 133
Palestinians 105–6, 112
political participation, activism and representation 124, 135–7, 140–2, 665
polygamy 681–2
prayers 123–4, 128–30
Protestants 109, 137
public opinion/perceptions 105–6, 139–44, 669
public space/visibility 105–6, 122, 128–30, 139–44, 666
publications 104–5, 124, 138–9
race and ethnicity 111, 121, 124, 129, 141 n.30, 142–3
radicalism/radicalization 106, 110, 132–5, 139, 141, 145
discrimination and equality 121, 134–5
education 133–4
home-grown extremists 133
jihadis 133, 139
security 132–3, 135
surveillance 132–5
terrorism and violence 133–5, 141
recognition 126–7, 647
refugees 105–6
religious education 105, 130, 137–8, 641, 647
religious identity 116–17, 128
Religion Monitor 110, 116
religiosity 105, 108, 110, 114, 116–17, 122, 135, 143–4
representative bodies 6, 105, 108, 647
residence patterns/concentrations 104, 106–7, 114
return 105
right-wing movements and parties 142
rituals, festivals and holidays 124, 134
scholarship 109, 131, 134, 138–9, 141–2
security/securitization 104, 132–3, 135, 763
separation of church and state 129–30
September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on United States 104, 108–9
Shi’a Muslims 115–16, 125, 143
socio-demographic category, Muslims as a 105, 108–9, 144
socio-economic status 120–1
stereotyping 141, 144
Sufism 116 n. 7
Sunni Muslims 115–16, 143
surveillance 132–5
talaq, recognition of 679
terrorism and violence 106, 108, 127–8, 133–5, 141
theology and pedagogies 137–9, 141
traditionalists/conservatives 135
transnationalism 116, 124, 127–8
Turks/Turkey 110–17, 120–8, 142–3, 715–16
dower 684–5
education and schools 137, 637
gender relations/women 687
institutionalization of Islam 125–6, 625
Islamophobia 142
political participation and representation 135–7
religiosity 108, 114
shariah law 687
unemployment 119
university chairs 106, 130, 138–9
xenophobia and racism 142
youth 105, 107, 114, 133
Germany and hijab/headscarves 107, 121–2, 130, 135–6
assaults 120
ban 705, 708, 710, 717, 720
burquas 710
Christianity and Christians 716, 723
citizenship 715–16, 723–4, 728
Constitution 716–17
discrimination and equality 120, 122
education and schools 118, 130, 140, 633, 666, 715–17, 725–6
employment 118–19, 121–2, 672
freedom of religion 716–17
full-face covering 710, 720
government policy 715
immigration/migrants 715–16
institutions/organizations 633
integration 728
(p. 834) male members of family, influence of 122
media 716
motives for wearing 122
multiculturalism 715–16
neutrality 715–16, 725
niqabs 710
patriarchy 727
political participation/representation 137
public opinion/perceptions 717, 720
public space/visibility 717
race and ethnicity 723
religiosity 122
reunification 723
separation of religion and state 716
shariah law 668
state-religion relations 715
stigma 716
teachers 118, 130, 140, 633, 666, 717, 725–6
Turks 121, 715–16
GIA (Armed Islamic Group) 47–8, 773
globalization 1, 5, 12–13, 34, 623
Golden Dawn (Chrisi Avgi) (Greece) 371
Global Salafi Jihad 781–2, 790
good Islam and bad Islam, distinction between 803
government policy
halal/religious slaughter 638
hijab/headscarves 715, 729
institutions/organizations 631, 636, 638
Islamophobia 759, 762–3
multiculturalism 9
radicalism/radicalization 793–5
Great Britain see United Kingdom
Greece 350–82 see also Thrace, Muslim minority of
Albania 352, 363–6, 368, 477–9, 481
asylum seekers 363, 368
Athens 352, 355–7, 368–9, 371, 375–9, 381
central mosque 351–2, 362–3, 369, 372–3, 377, 379
internal migration 355–6, 362
believing, behaving, and belonging 354–7, 379–81
Bulgarians 354–5, 358–9, 686
burial and cemeteries 372, 376
census data 352, 364
Christianity and Christians 361–2, 366, 380–1
citizenship 363, 366, 368–9, 757
Code 366 n. 13
test 747
comparative approach 362, 382
Constitution 357–8, 372
contentious issues 369–72
conversions 366, 377, 381
culture and cultural heritage 353, 355, 358, 361, 370, 378
Cyprus 358
democracy and democratic principles 371
demographics 366
demonstrations/protests 371–2
diaspora 380–1
discrimination and equal treatment 352, 357–8, 362, 370–2, 380–1
diversity 380
Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union 363–4
economic migration 364, 368–9
education and schools 351, 360–1, 641–2
higher education 361
mosques 376
Programme for the Education of Muslim Children (PEM) 361
religious education 357, 361, 372, 380–1, 641, 647
Roma 357
socio-economic status 361
Egyptians 362, 364–8, 370, 377, 379–81
enemies, Muslims as internal and external 804
European Convention on Human Rights 357, 360, 372
European Union 358, 364
exclusion 355, 357
family law 359, 373, 686
freedom of religion 358, 360, 372–3
gender relations/women 359, 366–7, 370–1, 686
generational differences 363
Golden Dawn (Chrisi Avgi) 371
government policy 357–9, 363, 368–9
Greco-Turkish War 352
(p. 835) Greek-Arabic Cultural Centre 377
Greek civil war 354–5, 366 n.13
Greek nation-state 351–3
Greek War of Independence 351
halal/religious slaughter 370, 378, 647
hijab/headscarves 370
history/historical perspective 350–61
housing 368, 380
human rights 368
immigration/migrants 350, 361–82
institutions/organizations 352, 362, 375, 376–9
integration 361, 363, 382
international law 372
Internet 377
Iraqis 380
Islamophobia 370–1, 757
Kemalists 354, 356, 358
labour migrants/guest workers 363–4, 366–9
Lausanne, Treaty of 352–4, 357, 360, 373, 686
legal disputes 372–3
living conditions 367
Macedonia 352, 359
marriage and divorce 359, 370, 381
media 358, 362, 379
Middle East 364
millet system 350, 354, 359
mixed couples 370, 381
moderates 369
mosques
Athens, central mosque in 351–2, 362–3, 369, 372–3, 377, 379
building/establishment 351–2, 362–3, 372–6, 377, 379, 639, 647
education 376
informal 374–6, 378
recognition 357
Mufti courts 359
multiculturalism 351, 369
Muslim Association of Greece (MAG) 377, 379
national identity 350–1, 363, 369–71, 380–1
nationalism 350–2, 369–71
networks 362
new Islam (recent immigrants) 4, 350, 361–82
New Lands, annexation of 351–2
number of Muslims 351–3, 361, 364–6
old Islam 350–61
Orthodox Church 351, 366, 369, 372
Other 350, 354, 358
Ottoman Empire 350–1, 354, 359, 569, 686
Pakistanis 362, 364–8, 371, 375–81
Palestinians 362, 365, 380–1
Piraeus 368, 379
plural identity 357
police, Islamophobia and racism amongst the 371
political participation/representation 358, 369, 371
population exchange 352–4
prayers 366, 373–5, 377, 379, 381
public opinion/perceptions 362–3, 369–72
public sphere/visibility 379–81
publications 362
race and ethnicity 4, 351–3, 357–8, 362–3, 366, 370–1, 375
radicalization 371–2
Ramadan 370, 379
recognition 357, 372, 380, 647
refugees 362, 368, 376–7
religious education 357, 361, 372, 380–1, 641, 647
religious identity 369, 380, 599
religiosity 355–7, 362, 366, 370, 375, 379–81
representative bodies 352, 362, 375, 376–9, 647
residence patterns 352–3, 355–6, 368–9
return 364
right-wing parties 369, 371
riots 371
rituals, festivals and holidays 362–3, 370, 378–81, 647
Roma (gypsies/Athiganoi) 355–7
scholarship 353, 359, 365, 376, 381
Second World War 353–4
secularism/secularization 356, 371
security 477
(p. 836) segregation 354, 368, 375
shariah law 359, 373, 686
Shi’a Muslims 375–6, 377, 379
socio-economic status 361
South Asia 362, 364, 367–8, 375, 377–8, 381
special celebrations and everyday religious practice 379–81
stereotyping 351, 357, 370
stigma 357
Sufis 377–8
Sunni Muslims 375–6
terrorism 370–1
theology 377
thought, conscience and religion, freedom of 360, 372
traditionalists/conservatives 355–6, 358, 369, 374, 376, 380
transnationalism 356, 362, 377, 379–81
Turkey/Turks 351–61, 366, 369–70, 381
unemployment 357, 368
xenophobia and racism 363, 370–1
youth 364
Grenada, invasion of 759–60
Group for Call and Combat/Al-Qaeda of the Islamic Maghreb) (GSPC) 48, 773
Gülen movement 125, 393, 418, 463–4, 482–3, 577, 593, 604–5
Gulf War 1991 135, 334, 704, 786
Habashi movement 418
halal/religious slaughter
Aid el-Kebir festival 282, 638
animal welfare 639
comparative tables 644–52
Eid al-Adha 41
Euro-Islam 804
European Union 639
freedom of religion 639
government policy 638
institutions/organizations 626, 628, 631, 633, 638–9, 644–52
Jews/Judaism 639
state-religion relations 638
Hanafi school 375, 435, 441, 451, 480 n.4, 490, 532, 540, 590, 603–4
Hanbali school 532, 580 n.5
headscarves see hijab/headscarves
healthcare 631
hijab/headscarves 2, 7, 701–31
assimilation 729
bandannas 703
bans 708, 731
chadors 703–4, 758
Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU 701
citizenship model 722–4
colonialism 704–5
comparative approach 729–30
culture and cultural heritage 702–3, 722–3, 729
definition 702–5
discrimination 708, 729
dupattas 703
education and schools 669–70, 705–30
employment 672, 706–7, 711, 714–18, 724–6
Euro-Islam 804
European Convention on Human Rights 701–2
feminism 705, 726–9
freedom of religion 701–2
fundamentalism 726–9
generational differences 710
government policy 715, 729
historical perspective 704–5
identity 702, 723
immigration/migrants 704, 722–4, 731
interpretation 703–5, 722–30
Islamism 721–2, 726
Islamophobia 704
jilbabs 703, 707–9
less formally restrictive regulation 705–9, 717–22
London bombings 2005 704, 709, 728
Madrid bombings 2004 704, 710, 728, 774
media 729–30
modesty 701–4, 707–8
more restrictive policies and cases 705, 709–12, 719–20
most restrictive regulation 705, 712–17, 720–1
(p. 837) multiculturalism 724
Qurʾan 703–4, 719
patriarchy 717, 726–8, 731
pluralism 724
political meanings 704–5
postcolonialism 704
public opinion/perceptions 10, 701, 705, 717–22, 729–30
public schools 705–30
public space/visibility 702, 704
radicalism/radicalization 774
reasons for wearing hijab 701–2, 710–11
regulations 705–17
religious authorities 704
Salafism 15, 669, 803
sartorial meaning 702–3, 705
scholarship 705
seclusion, as mobile form of 702
security/securitization 702, 717, 731
September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on United States 704
shariah law 669–71, 694
social relationships, impeding 717
state-religion relations 729
stereotyping 708
terrorism 704, 709–10, 726, 728–9, 731, 774
theological meaning 703–5, 717
traditionalists/conservatives 702–3, 707, 710, 716, 727–8, 803
xenophobia and racism 706, 717, 728–9
historical lands of Muslims in Europe 2, 4
historical perspective 2–3, 7, 11, 13, 704–5, 773–5, 785–6
Hizb al-Tahrir al-Islamiyya 12 n.19, 407, 536, 540, 555, 663, 786, 789, 793–4
Hofstad group 190, 192–3, 779
homogenization 16, 623, 633–5, 637, 730, 762
homosexuality 177, 189, 248, 295
honour crimes 168–71, 411, 757, 761
human rights see also European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR); freedom of religion
Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU 701
cultural identity, right to 8
Euro-Islam 802
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) 372
private international law 678
shariah law 7, 659, 667–8
humiliation 754, 776, 782, 787–8, 790
Hungary
Austro-Hungary 429–30, 433, 436, 440–1
Islamophobia 751–2
right-wing populist parties 662
Ibadis 115, 117
identity
building 11–12
culture and cultural heritage 793, 803
education and schools 642–3
Euro-Islam 803–4
hijab/headscarves 702, 723
institutions/organizations 635, 643
national identity 702, 723, 803
postcolonialism 4
race and ethnicity 11–12
radicalism/radicalization 775, 777, 785–90, 792–3
religious identity 643, 804
residence 11–12, 635
socio-economic status 11–12
transnationalism 10, 12
ijtihad 96, 244, 290, 296, 299, 435–6, 438, 537, 659
imams, Muftis and clerics
binding decisions 693–4
institutions/organizations 621, 632
radicalism/radicalization 789
Salafism 14
training 631
immigration/migrants 2–5
culturalization 5
cycles 3
Danish Cartoon controversy 754
Eastern Europe 4
education and schools 641
employment 4, 5 n.3, 761–5
Euro-Islam 802
family law, provision of information on 695
family reunification 785–6
hijab/headscarves 704, 722–4, 731
(p. 838) illegal/irregular immigrants 760
immigration studies 3–5
institutions/organizations 620–7, 634–8, 643, 652
integration 4–5
‘Islamic problem’ 5
Islamophobia 751–3, 756, 759–65
labour, source of low-skilled 4, 5 n.3
multiculturalism 761–2
new immigration countries 4
postcolonialism 3
radicalism/radicalization 773, 785–6
refugees 4
security/securitization 3, 749, 756, 760–2
socio-economic status 4–5
stigma 756, 762
individuals and individualization
analytical approach 777
assimilation 782–3
cognitive openings 782–4
criminology 777, 780
culture and cultural heritage 777, 782
definition of individualization 623
democracy and democratic values 624
deradicalization 794–5
descriptive works 777
deterministic approaches 777–9
development approaches 780–2
discourse 784
foreign policy 777
frame resonance 782
framing theory 779, 784
generational differences 623, 637–8
globalization 623
identity 777, 792
institutions/organizations 623–4, 628
Internet 777–8, 781
interpretation, liberalization of 624
Islamophobia 782
jihadis 778, 784
mobilization 777
pathways 780–1, 796
personal issues 793
political, spiritual and social needs 778
prisons 792
private affair, religion as a 11, 623, 627–8
processes 780–2, 794, 796
psychology 777–8, 782
radicalism/radicalization 623–4, 771–96
secularism/secularization 804
shariah law 668, 676–7, 687
social conditionalities 777
social learning theory 777, 780, 783
social networks 781
social validation 784
socio-economic status 777
terrorism and violence 777–84, 793
institutionalization/organizations 619–52 see also representative bodies
acculturation 635
accommodation 629–31, 635–52
assimilation 620, 630, 635
bottom-down process 619
Christianity and Christians 620, 626, 631–2, 634–5, 637, 640–3
citizenship 630, 638, 642
colonialism 636
comparative approach 620, 625, 629, 633–52
context 620–3, 626, 632, 635
controlled institutionalization 625
cooperation between political and religious authorities 620–1
country-related variables 634–5, 641
culture and cultural heritage 620–2, 624–7, 632, 634-5, 638, 643
definition 619, 629–33
democracy and democratic principles 622, 633, 636, 642
demographics 634
discrimination and equality 624
diversity 622, 627, 635, 637
dynamics 626–8, 630, 635–6, 638, 640
education and schools 621, 626–8, 633–4, 637, 640–52
Eurocentricism 631–2
Euro-Islam 624
European Union 629, 631–3
foreign donors and influence 626, 631–2
freedom of religion 624, 629, 632
fundamentalism 625
funding 621, 628
geography 632, 637
(p. 839) governance, modes of 632
government policy 631, 636, 638
halal/religious slaughter 626, 628, 631, 633, 638–9, 644–52
historical perspective 636–7, 643, 652
homogeneity 623, 634
identity 635, 643
imams, Muftis and clerics 621, 631
immigration/migrants 620–7, 634–8, 643, 652
imperfect institutionalization 631
individuals and individualization 623–4, 628
institutionalization of Islam 619–52
integration 623–5, 628, 635–6, 643, 652
international law 624
interpretation 619, 629–33
Islam Councils, creation of 631
literature review 628–53
local level, at 632–3
marriage and divorce 628
media 621, 631
moderates 622
mosques, building/establishment of 621, 626, 628, 630, 633, 635–40, 643-52
comparative tables 644–52
funding 636–7
public opinion/perceptions 636
multiculturalism 635
Muslim communities, initiative of 619–22, 632, 638
Muslim Communities-related variables 635–8
nationality 622
nationhood 630
neutrality 626–8
official institutionalization 623
players 622–6
pluralism 626–8, 635–6
political and legal status of Muslims 622
political opportunity structures 630
political participation and representation 631, 638
politics and religion, distinction between 620–1
politics of countries of origin 625
prayers 625, 631, 637
prisoners 631
privatization of faith 624, 627
public authorities, initiative of 619
public opinion/perceptions 637–8
public schools 621, 627, 637, 640–3
public space/visibility 6, 626–30
publications 628–53
race and ethnicity 622
radicalism/radicalization 622, 624–5, 634, 637, 772, 786
recognition 619, 621, 624–6, 629, 631–2, 637, 644–52
reform 624
registration 637
religious authorities 621–3, 630–1
representative bodies 621–3, 626, 629, 631–2, 637, 644–52
resource mobilization 630
revival of traditional religion 624
rituals, festivals and holidays 631, 638
secularization/secularism 620–1, 627
security/securitization 625
segregation 625, 635
separation of church and state 6, 620, 622
September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on United States 622
shariah law 626–8, 632, 661, 667–8, 676, 687–8, 695
socio-economic status 631, 638
state-religion relations 624, 626, 632, 635, 638, 643
strategies 622–3
supra-nationalism 632
terrorism and violence 631, 773
thematic approach 630–2
theoretical approaches 630–2
top-down processes 619, 623
traditionalists/conservatives 623–4, 632
transnationalism 7, 12, 624, 629, 631–2
variables 634–43
country-related 634–5, 641
interplay between 638–43
Muslim Communities-related 635–8
youth 623
integration
Euro-Islam 803–4
hijab/headscarves 731
(p. 840) immigration/migrants 4–5
institutions/organizations 623–5, 628, 635–6, 643, 652
Islamophobia 751, 756, 763–5
lawyers, role of 628
political agendas 3, 4–9
public space/visibility 6, 7
radicalism/radicalization 785–6, 794
representative bodies 7
secularism/secularization 805
symbolic integration 803–4
intergenerational differences see generational differences
international constraints 2, 9, 413–17, 506–9
International Court of Justice (ICJ) 467
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) 372
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) 465 n.135, 466–7
international law 186, 190, 466, 624 see also private international law
Internet
hyper-radicalization 791
radicalism/radicalization 771, 777–8, 781, 791–3
Salafism 12, 14–16
social network 791
training 791
interpretation
fundamentalism 624
hijab/headscarves 703–5, 722–30
ijtihad 96, 244, 290, 296, 299, 435–6, 438, 537, 659
individuals and individualization 624
institutions/organizations 619, 629–33
literal interpretation 13–14, 37, 483, 553
pluralism 658–9
Qurʾan 13, 37, 483, 553
Salafism 803
shariah law 658–9, 666, 694
‘intolerable subjects’ 5
investments 682–3
IRA (Irish Republican Army) 770, 782
Iran
Bosnia and Herzegovina 463–4
chadors 703
Iranian Revolution 1979 444, 704, 757
recognition of foreign decisions 688
Sweden 397
Iraq
Greece 380
Gulf War 1991 135, 334, 704, 786
invasion (2nd Gulf War) 84, 334, 709, 759, 773–4, 779, 785–7
jihadis 773
Kurds 362
Norway 393
refugees 4, 112, 159, 398, 498, 584–5, 688
Sweden 397, 405
Ireland
accommodation 635
Catholics 634–5, 637
diversity 635
education and schools 640–1, 648
Finland 635, 640–1
halal/religious slaughter 648
institutions/organizations 634–5, 637
IRA 770, 782
model of extended privileges 635
mosques, building/establishment of 635, 648
multiculturalism 635
recognition 648
representative bodies 637, 648
socio-economic status 635
symbols, display of religious 637
ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham) 509
Islamic law see shariah law
Islamic marriages 178, 190, 195, 689–90
Islamic Movement Millî Görüş 125, 126–7, 133, 786
Islamic schools 14, 642–52, 705, 715
Islamism
hijab/headscarves 721–2, 726
Islamophobia 746, 751
neo pan-Islamism 12
radicalism/radicalization 770–7, 779–80, 782, 785–6, 789–91, 793–6
shariah law 656, 669, 675
(p. 841) Islamophobia 2, 9, 745–65
anti-Muslim racism and prejudice 746–9
anti-Muslimism 746
assimilation 753
citizenship 756–7
clash of civilizations 745, 757–8, 762, 764
Council of Europe 748
Crusades 745–6
culture and cultural heritage 756–7, 759–65
Danish cartoon crisis 84, 753–4
definition 745–7
demonstrations and protests 755
employment 755, 763–5
essentialism 748
European Union 745, 748, 753, 755, 759
fundamentalism 758
gender relations/women 704, 751
generational differences 749–50
government policy 759, 762–3
governmentality, as form of 755–64, 765
hijab/headscarves 704
immigration/migrants 751–3, 756, 759–65
integration 751, 756, 763–5
invasion of the West 747
Islamophobia Watch 749 n.7
Israel 750
Italy 750, 752
Jews/Judaism 763
language 763
media 746, 755
Middle East, crisis in 759
mosques, building/establishment of 664
multiculturalism 749, 756, 760–4
natural and normal, as being 745
Orientalism 747
Other 745, 759–60
political ideology, Islam as 745
political participation/representation 765
political relevance of the term 749–55
public opinion/perceptions 749–56, 762–4
Qurʾan by American pastor, burning of 753, 754–5
race and ethnicity 747, 756
radicalism/radicalization 782
right-wing populist parties 759–63
Runnymede Trust 84, 709, 745–6
scapegoating 749
scholarship 746, 749
security/securitization 748–9, 756–64
segregation 755
September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks 9, 745, 748–9, 753–4, 759–61, 765
shariah law 660, 664
socio-economic status 749, 753
stereotyping 754, 765
stigma 748, 756, 762–3
terrorism and violence 751–4, 756, 759
traditionalists/conservatives 746, 755
transnationalism 757
United Nations 748
Western superiority, idea of 753, 757, 759–65
Israel
Islamophobia 750
Israel/Palestine conflict 250, 786
Italy 265–99
activism 273–4, 285, 288, 294–7
Albanians 268–9, 272, 291
believing, behaving, and belonging 289–90
bilateral agreements between state and confession (‘intesa’) 281–4
Bossi-Fini Law 271
burials and cemeteries 282
Catholic Church 266, 274, 277–84, 291–3, 643, 709–10, 723, 725
census data 267
chaplains 282
Christianity and Christians 268, 270, 296, 709–10
Catholic Church 266, 274, 277–84, 291–3, 643, 709–10, 723, 725
crucifixes/crosses 277, 709, 725
Protestants 279, 292–3
Christmas 277
citizenship 272–3, 275, 291, 293, 296–7, 638
Committee for Italian Islam 282
comparative approach 278
crucifixes/crosses 277, 283 n.2, 709, 725
culture and cultural heritage 265, 274–7, 279–80, 284–5, 289, 295–9
democracy and democratic principles 279
demographics 270, 279
demonstrations and protests 277, 288, 296
deportations 297–8
(p. 842) diaspora 268, 288, 299
discrimination and equal treatment 275–80, 281, 284
gender relations/women 268, 270, 272–3, 275, 289–90, 294–6, 299
homosexuality 275, 295
Islamophobia 267, 274–80, 298, 709, 750, 752
xenophobia and racism 274–7, 291
diversity 268, 274, 280–1
dual citizenship 273
education and schools 276–7, 289
agreements with state 640
crucifixes 277
higher education 294, 297
hijab/headscarves 709
Islam of Europe masters 297
language 292
public schools 277, 282, 710, 724
religious education 282, 289, 291–3, 640, 648
Egyptians 265, 268, 271–4, 284, 289, 292, 294–5, 298
employment 268, 270–1, 273, 285, 296–7
entrepreneurship 273
Eritreans 268
ethnography 273, 290, 299
exclusion 283, 298
family reunification 268, 270, 285
foreign donors and influence 284
freedom of religion 277
full-face covering 719–20
gender relations/women 268, 270, 272–3, 275, 289–90, 294–6, 299
gender roles 273, 299
hijab/headscarves 266, 295–6, 669, 705, 709–10, 719–20, 723, 725, 730
generational differences 272–4, 285, 288, 290–1, 294–8
GMI association 294–7
government policy 265–80, 298
halal/religious slaughter 273, 289, 290, 299, 648
health and healthcare 276
hijab/headscarves 266, 295–6, 669, 705, 709–10, 719–20, 723, 725, 730
historical perspective 265–6, 286
homosexuality 275, 295
human rights 277
ijtihad 290, 296, 299
imams, Muftis and clerics 282, 287–8, 296, 294
immigration/migrants 265–80, 284, 293, 295–9, 638
Bossi-Fini Law 271
irregular 265–6, 270, 276–7
Martelli Law 271
policy 266, 267–80
regularization 271
sending countries, cooperation with 268
Sicily 268
Turco-Napolitano Law 271
youth 293–7
individuals and individualization 267–8, 293, 299
institutions/organizations 6, 266, 274, 281–2, 284–8, 293, 294–5, 298, 621, 667
integration 267, 270–3, 284, 291, 298
inter-faith dialogue 291, 292–3, 295–6
‘intesa’ 281–4
Islam of Europe masters 297
Islamic Council 282
Islamic Cultural Centre of Italy 285
Islamophobia 267, 274–80, 298, 709, 750, 752
Jews/Judaism 268, 279, 281, 292, 295–6
jihadis 297–8
labour migrants/guest workers 268, 270–1, 285
Lampedusa, arrivals on 26