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date: 18 November 2019

Abstract and Keywords

By reflecting on the different contributions in the handbook, the conclusion discusses the problematic arguments surrounding the existence of a “European Islam” and unearths misconceptions. While the different chapters have highlighted the data about the loyalty of Muslims to their country of residence, suspicions and doubts about the integration of Islam into European cultures, nevertheless persist. The reason is that symbolic boundaries are constructed around the “national community” both inter-nationally and intra-nationally, which tends to externalize Islam and transform Muslims into internal and external enemies. While requiring dramatic changes in the current liberal and secularist narratives, the conclusion proposes that European Islam is possible.

Keywords: Islam, Europe, Minorities, Immigration, Secularism, Hijab, Salafism, Euro-Islam, symbolic integration

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