Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 13 December 2019

(p. x) List of Figures

(p. x) List of Figures

  1. 3.1. Inequality in Canada, Sweden, the USA, and the UK, by year 41

  2. 3.2. Probability density functions for countries A and B (kernel density estimates) 47

  3. 3.3. Pen's Parades (quantile functions) for countries A and B 48

  4. 3.4. Lorenz and generalized Lorenz curves for countries A and B 49

  5. 4.1. Gini indices of market income in 16 countries (percent) 82

  6. 4.2. Gini index of market income (percent) 83

  7. 4.3. The distribution of equivalent disposable income in 32 countries 84

  8. 4.4. The distribution of real disposable income in 32 high- and middle-income economies 87

  9. 4.5. Gini index of disposable income (percent) 88

  10. 4.6. Gini indices of market income and disposable income in 16 countries (percent) 93

  11. 4.7. Equalizing effect of taxes and transfers: absolute difference between the Gini index of market income and the Gini index of disposable income (percent) 94

  12. 5.1. Labor's % share of total income, 1948–2005, USA: various definitions 107

  13. 5.2. Labor's shares: US national income, 1948–2005, % of net value added 110

  14. 5.3. Labor's shares: US business, 1948–2006, % of net value added 111

  15. 5.4. Employee compensation as % of US national income, 1948–2006 112

  16. 5.5. Ninety-nine percent labor's share as % of US business net value added, 1948–2005 113

  17. 5.6. Labor's share adjusted for self-employment as a percentage of GDP, OECD countries and the USA, 1960–2005 114

  18. 5.7. Labor's share: percentage of gross income, OECD countries, 1960–2005 115

  19. 5.8. Long-term series for labor's share 118

  20. 6.1. Wealth shares of top 1%, time series for France, Sweden, the UK, and USA 139

  21. 7.1. Income share of richest 10% in Anglo-Saxon countries 159

  22. 7.2. Income share of richest 10% in non-Anglo-Saxon countries 160

  23. (p. xi) 7.3. Income share of richest 1% in Anglo-Saxon countries 160

  24. 7.4. Income share of richest 1% in non-Anglo-Saxon countries 161

  25. 7.5. Top income shares and LIS Gini coefficients 163

  26. 9.1. The structure of the longitudinal employer–household dynamics program 207

  27. 9.2. The longitudinal employer–household dynamics program 214

  28. 9.3. Industry earnings differentials—attributes, worker effects, and firm effects 220

  29. 10.1. Union gap and coverage 239

  30. 10.2. Bargaining centralization and inequality 242

  31. 11.1. Wage distribution and low pay 260

  32. 11.2. Incidence (%) of low pay among full-time workers 265

  33. 11.3. Minimum wage as percentage of median wage and low-wage employment as percentage of employees (full-time) 275

  34. 12.1. Women's labor force participation, ages 25–54; selected countries 288

  35. 12.2. Male and female average earnings, USA, UK, and Germany, 2006 291

  36. 13.1. Expenditure on cash transfers (as % of GDP) and relative poverty incidence among working-age population 330

  37. 13.2. Gini coefficient for disposable income and relative income poverty (60% median) 333

  38. 14.1. Possible relationships between leisure and consumption 349

  39. 14.2. Trade-offs between household production and market earnings 351

  40. 15.1. The Income Evaluation Question (IEQ) 368

  41. 15.2. General Satisfaction Question 369

  42. 16.1. A nonlinear relationship between income and health 387

  43. 16.2. GDP and mortality in OECD countries (c.2005) 388

  44. 16.3. Changes in inequality and mortality in OECD countries (c.1980–c.2000) 396

  45. 17.1. Estimated effects of family background on students' test scores across countries 409

  46. 17.2. Youths participating in tertiary education by educational attainment of their parents, 1994–1995 411

  47. 17.3. Participation rate in non-formal job-related continuing education and training for the labor force, 25–64, by level of educational attainment, 2003 412

  48. 17.4. International education levels, 2005 420

  49. (p. xii) 17.5. Relative supply–demand framework 421

  50. 18.1. Probability distributions of US male and female earnings, 1979 438

  51. 18.2. Probability distribution of married-couple household income under alternative assumptions about rank correlation of husband and wife earnings 439

  52. 18.3. Simulated impact of husband–wife earnings rank correlation on household-size-adjusted personal income inequality 440

  53. 19.1. Scatter plot of the Gini coefficient as a function of the share of foreign labor 458

  54. 19.2. Scatter plot of the Gini coefficient as a function of the share of foreign labor with a locally weighted line plot 458

  55. 19.3. Gains from immigration: homogeneous labor 470

  56. 19.4. Heterogeneous labor markets: unskilled immigration 472

  57. 19.5. Heterogeneous labor markets: skilled immigration 473

  58. 19.6. The effects of a rise in the relative wages of the low skilled on the Gini coefficient by share of skilled labor 474

  59. 19.7. Gini coefficient as a function of the share of skilled workers 475

  60. 19.8. The effects of immigration on the Gini coefficient by shares of skilled labor among natives and immigrants: the case of inflexible wages 476

  61. 19.9. The effects of immigration on the Gini coefficient by shares of skilled labor among natives and immigrants: the case of flexible wages 477

  62. 19.10. Scatter plot of the Gini coefficient as a function of the share of labor force with post-secondary or higher education 478

  63. 19.11. Line plot of the nonparametric locally weighted regression of the Gini coefficient as a function of the share of labor force with post-secondary or higher education 479

  64. 19.12. Immigrant adjustment in the host economy 482

  65. 19.13. Inequality as a determinant of the migration decision 484

  66. 19.14. The two-dimensional non-negative ethnosizer 486

  67. 20.1. Estimates of intergenerational income elasticities for fathers and sons and cross-sectional disposable income Gini coefficients in 11 developed countries 502

  68. 20.2. Estimates of brother correlations in long-run annual earnings for five countries 503

  69. 20.3. A simple path model of intergenerational effects 513

  70. (p. xiii) 24.1. Income levels and inequality around the world 613

  71. 24.2. Income levels and poverty around the world 614

  72. 24.3. Trends in the incidence of absolute poverty in less developed countries, by region 616

  73. 24.4. Global inequality and its components, 1820–1992 619

  74. 24.5. Inter-country inequality and international inequality, 1950–2000 620

  75. 24.6. Absolute and relative inequality in the world, 1970–2000 622

  76. 24.7. Growth in poverty headcount against growth in survey mean consumption or income in less developed countries, 1981–2004 625

  77. 24.8. Empirical growth elasticities of poverty reduction against initial Gini index: less developed countries in 1981–2004. 627

  78. 25.1. Welfare state size and income redistribution, percentage change in Gini, after taxes and transfers, c.2000 645