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date: 13 December 2019

(p. 709) Index

(p. 709) Index

Note: page numbers in italics refer to Figures and Tables.

Aaberge, R. 538
Aaron, H. 4
Aarts, L. 398 n. 21
Ǻberg, R. 242
ABI/INFORM dataset 215
Abowd, J. 10, 208, 213, 217, 237
Abraham, K. G. 195, 350, 351
absolute income hypothesis 386–7, 387
absolute inequality 621, 622, 625
absolute poverty 614, 621, 622, 625
Acemoglu, D. 211
ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act) 398
Adema, W. 329, 336, 645–6
Agell, J. 178, 231, 243, 244
agricultural wages 108–9
Aguiar, M. 345
Ahn, N. 303
Akerlof, G. 307
Albania 602
Albertini, M. 645
Albrecht, J. 293, 295
Alesina, A. 184–5, 374, 390, 681, 683, 685
Algeria 602
Allen, R. 697–8
Alvaredo, F. 153
American Time Use Survey (ATUS) 346
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) 398
Anbarci, N. 561
Andersson, F. 209
Andrews, D. 168
Anglo-American countries
low pay 265–6
trade unions and collective bargaining 236–7 see also individual countries
Anglo-Saxon countries
inequality reduction 93
tax rates 165
top incomes 159, 159, 160, 164, 165, 166
Angrist, J. 418
Anker, R. 289
Annual Survey of Manufactures 215
anonymity: as inequality measures axiom 162
Apps, P. 304–5, 350–1
Argentina 152–3, 602
Armenia 602
Arneson, R. 31, 32
Arthur, M. M. 306
Arulampalam, W. 293–4, 295
Ashenfelter, O. 232–3
Asplund, R. 270
Atkinson, A. B. 4, 9, 10, 73, 392
definition of equivalent income 76 n.
disposable income 85
income distribution 7, 10
and LIS 46
market income 653
personal income 102 n., 157 n. 9
poverty 318, 335
redistribution 95
social inclusion 335
social inequality 530
top incomes 156, 161, 165, 170
wealth 138, 140, 144
Atkinson inequality indices 51–2, 53, 55, 163, 526 n.
ATUS (American Time Use Survey) 346
Austen-Smith, D. 684
Australia
child poverty 656
collective bargaining coverage 189
cross-national patterns of family associations 502
disposable income 84–5, 84, 87, 93
earnings inequality 184
education 409, 414, 420
gender pay gap 290
household balance sheets 136
immigration 459, 464, 467
income inequality 446–7
intergenerational income mobility 503
labor market participation 464, 467
living standards 87
(p. 710) market income 82, 93
mortality 400, 401
part-time employment 286
poverty 321, 323, 327, 602, 656
social spending 667
taxes 165
time use 348
top incomes 152–3, 158, 159–60, 165, 167, 170
trade unions 235, 246
unemployment 464, 467
wage inequality 186, 187á, 246, 414
wealth inequality indicators 131
welfare state 640, 642, 645, 654
Austria
disposable income 84, 84, 87
education 409, 412, 414, 420, 466
immigration 459, 461, 462, 463, 465, 466
labor market participation 461, 462
mortality 400, 401
poverty 321, 323, 327, 602
social spending 667
trade unions 238, 246
unemployment 463
wage inequality 246, 414
welfare regime 647, 654
Autor, D. H. 192, 194
disability 397
sbtc 425, 426
skills 216
wage inequality 193, 423
women and technology 300
Ayala, L. 535–8
Azerbaijan 602
Azmat, G. 117
Babcock, L. 307
Backlund, E. 387
Baghli, M. 116
Bailey, M. J. 302
Baker, G. 213
Baker, M. 531–2
Bandiera, O. 209, 213
Bane, M. J. 324
Banerjee, A. V. 565, 568
Bangladesh 602
Banks, J. 392
Barber, D. 336
Barr, N. 641, 642
Barro, R. J. 566
Bartel, A. 213
Bartels, L. 681, 682, 688
Bassanini, A. 236
Bauer, T. 456 n. 2
Bayard, K. 297
Beblo, M. 293
Becker, G. S. 342, 344, 364, 492, 494, 623
Becker-Tomes model of intergenerational income mobility 493, 494, 495, 496, 513
Belarus 602
Belgium
child poverty 656, 656, 660
disposable income 84, 84, 87
education 409, 411, 412, 414, 420, 466
gender pay gap 290
immigration 459, 462, 463, 464, 465, 466
mortality 400, 401
labor market participation 462
non-market work 347
poverty 321, 323, 325, 327, 602, 656, 656, 660
social spending 667
time use 348
trade unions 246
unemployment 463, 464
wage dispersion 242
wage variability 246, 269 n. 15, 414
welfare regime 647
Bell, B. 423
Bénabou, R. 621, 681–2, 683
Bender, S. 209, 213
Benelux countries, see individual countries
Bentolina, S. 117
Bergh, A. 652 n., 655
Bergmann, B. 289
Berkman, L. 390
Berman, E. 194, 215, 424, 425
Bernanke, B. 102
Bertola, G. 178, 181, 236, 245 n.
Betts, J. 34
BHPS (British Household Panel Study) 132, 532, 533
Bianchi, S. 353
Biewen, M. 58
Bismarck, Otto von 133
Black, S. 397
Blackaby, D. 295, 307
Blanchard, O. 117
Blanchflower, D. G. 238, 272
Blanden, J. 507, 515
Blank, R. M. 5, 317
Blau, D. M. 505
Blau, F. 269 n. 14, 274, 289, 292, 296
Blaug, M. 101
Blázquez Cuesta, M. T. 271
Blinder, A. S. 195, 579
Boadway, R. 92
(p. 711) Böheim, R. 73
Böhlmark, A. 499
Bolivia 602
Bolvig, I. 273
Booth, A. L. 231, 237, 276, 294–5, 344
Borjas, G. J. 194–5, 451, 480, 482, 483, 593
Bosnia & Herzegovina 602
Botswana 602
Bourguignon, F. 10, 34, 102 n., 334, 527, 608
world inequality estimates 618–19, 619
Bradley, D. 673
Bradstreet/NETS dataset 215
Brandolini, A. 322, 392
Bratberg, E. 505, 508
Bratsberg, B. 494, 508
Brazil
education 420, 630
and globalization 581
inequality 34, 593–4, 602, 630
inflation 630
poverty 629, 630, 631
trade 593–4
unemployment 631
wage differentials 220, 221, 222
Breen, R. 325
Bresnahan, T. 216
Brickman, P. 370
British Household Panel Study (BHPS) 132, 532, 533
British Institute of Directors 579
Brough, I. 230
Brown, C. 210, 211, 223–4
Brown, W. 234, 241–2, 242
Browning, M. 344, 356
Brush, J. 389
Bryson, A. A. 238
Buchmueller, T. C. 234
Bucks, B. K. 130
Bulgaria 409, 602
Burawoy, M. 697
Burda, M. 184 n. 10, 355
Bureau of Economic Analysis, USA 107
Bureau of Labor Statistics, USA 346
Burgess, S. 210, 211
Burkhauser, R. V. 354, 398
Burkina Faso 602
Burniaux, J.-M. 328
Burton, P. S. 347, 355
Burundi 602
Bynner, J. 411
Calmfors, L. 236
Cambodia 602
Cameron, D. 702
Cameroon 602
Campbell, D. T. 370
Canada 41
child poverty 656
collective bargaining coverage 189
cross-national patterns of family associations502
disposable income 84–5, 84, 87, 88–9, 88, 93, 94
earnings inequality 182, 183, 184
education 195, 409, 412, 420
foreign population 459
household balance sheets 136
income inequality 447
intergenerational income mobility 503, 505, 508
labor's share 118
market income 82, 83, 93, 94
mortality 400, 401
poverty 321, 323, 325, 327, 602, 656
redistribution 95
SLID (Survey of Income and Labor Participation) 532
social spending 667
Survey of Financial Security 129 n. 1
taxes 165
time use 348
top incomes 152–3, 158, 159, 160, 164, 165, 167, 169
trade unions 235, 239, 246
wage inequality 185, 186, 186, 187, 188, 190, 239, 241
wealth inequality 131, 146
welfare state 645, 654
Cancian, M. 300–1
Cantillon, B. 330 n.
Cape Verde 602
capital gains: and income 158
capitalism, global 577–8, 578
Carbonaro, W. 251 n. 11
Card, D. 195, 196, 273, 415, 451
unions 239, 240
wage inequality 194 n. 16, 196, 239
Carlin, W. 114
Case, A. 386
CDFs (cumulative distribution functions) 46, 47, 54–5
Cecchi, D. 62 n.
Census Bureau, USA: Longitudinal Employer Household Dynamics (LEHD) program 213–14, 214
Censuses of Population 216
(p. 712) Central African Republic 602
central Europe 93: see also individual countries
CGE (computable general equilibrium) models 631–2
Chakravarty, S. 334
Checchi, D. 103, 105, 494–5, 514
Chevalier, A. 410
child allowances 11
child poverty 331, 450, 655–6, 656, 657, 660
childcare 304–5
Chile 409, 420, 593, 602
China
earnings/income inequality 591
education 580
and global capitalism 577–8, 578
and global economy 5
and global inequality 592
and globalization 577–8, 578, 580–1, 581, 585–6, 589
inflation 630
multinational research and development centers 580–1
per capita income changes 589–90, 590
poverty 603, 615, 629, 630
top income series 152–3
Chiswick, B. R. 468, 480, 481, 483 n. 27
Chong, A. 557
Christian, C. 154
Christopher, K. 358
churning 210
Citro, C. 317, 358
civic engagement: education and 419
Clark, A. E. 369, 373
Clarkwest, A. 395 n.
Clegg, H. A. 231
CMEs (coordinated market economies) 674
CNEF (Cross-National Equivalent File) 10, 46, 532
Cobb-Clark, D. 294
Cobb-Douglas production function 105
Cobb-Douglas utility function 367
coefficient of variation (CV) 50, 53
Coffee, J. 112
Cohen, G. A. 28, 31
Coleman, M. T. 185
Collado, D. 344
collective bargaining 188–9, 189, 236–7, 241–2
Colombia 409, 603, 630, 631
communism, collapse of 577–8, 578
competition: and labor's share 116–17
competitive (Walrasian) equilibrium 25
Compustat dataset 215
Congressional Budget Office, USA 77 n. 5
Conlon, G. 410
Connolly, S. 305
Constant, A. 480, 484, 485
constant (CARA) utility function 367
consumption 342
definition of 343
income and 343–5
as inequality assessment variable 42–3, 44–5
leisure time and 347–50, 349
as living standards indicator 72–4
as measure of welfare 601
and time use 345
consumption inequality 345, 358
continental Europe 85, 159, 265–6, 331, 647–8: see also individual countries
Cook, A. H. 233, 306
Corak, M. 331, 508, 509, 655
corruption 559
cosmopolitanism 36
Costa, D. L. 289, 349
Costa Rica 603
Côte d'Ivoire 603
Coulter, F. 45
Council of Economic Advisors 582
Cowell, F. A. 162, 525 n. 5, 527
CPEs (centrally planned economies) 696, 697
credit constraints: poverty and 553
crime 6, 419, 554
Croatia 603
Cross-National Equivalent File (CNEF) 10, 46, 532
cross-sectional inequality: intragenerational mobility and 524–7
Crossley, T. F. 344
Crouch, C. J. 244
CRSP dataset 215
Cuba 697
cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) 46, 47, 54–5
current income: as measurement of living standards inequality 73, 74
Current Population Survey, USA 76 n., 212, 216, 240, 533
Currie, J. 397, 408
CV (coefficient of variation) 50, 53
Cyprus 409
Czech Republic
disposable income 83–4, 84, 87, 93
education 409, 412, 420
immigration 459, 464
market income 82, 93
mortality 400, 401
poverty 335, 603
(p. 713) trade union membership and wage inequality 246
unemployment 464
welfare state 644, 645
Czechoslovakia 85
Dahl, M. 539
Dalton, E. J. 377
Dalton condition 377
Daly, M. C. 449
DALYs (disability adjusted life years) 393
Dang, T. 653
Dardanoni, V. 62 n.
Datt, G. 629
Datta Gupta, N. 293, 296
Daudey, E. 103
Davies, J. 494
Davis, S. J. 206, 223–4
De Serres, A. 114, 115
Deaton, A. 72, 73, 86, 394 n. 17
health 387 n. 7, 393 n., 394
mortality 395
decomposability 162, 527–32
DeGrip, A. 210
Deininger, K. 77, 158, 566
Deininger and Squire (DS) dataset 389, 392, 561, 564, 566–7
DeLeire, T. 355
Dell, F. 153
Dell'Aringa, C. 242–3
demographics
baby boomer generation 145–6
economic inequality and 12, 435–54, 444
immigration 450–1
and income distribution 452–3
and income inequality 145, 146
wealth accumulation and 144–6
Denmark
child poverty 656, 659
cross-national patterns of family associations 502
disposable income 84, 87, 93
earnings inequality 182, 183
education 409, 411, 412, 414, 420, 466
elderly poverty 331
gender pay gap 296
health 515
household balance sheets 136
immigration 459, 461, 462, 463, 464, 465, 466, 480, 484
intergenerational income mobility 508, 509, 515
labor market participation 461, 462
living standards 87
low pay 266
market income 82, 93
maternity leave 293
mortality 400, 401
poverty 321, 323, 325, 327, 331, 336, 603, 651, 656, 659
redistribution 94
sibling associations 503
social-democratic regime 646
social spending 667
trade unions 235, 246
unemployment 463
wage dispersion 242
wage inequality 185–6, 190, 246, 414
wealth inequality indicators 131
welfare state 644, 645, 648 n., 654
deunionization: wage inequality and 196
developing countries 103
advanced countries and 582–3
globalization and 577–82, 578, 581
Devereux, P. J. 301
Devroye, D. 192, 269
Dickens, L. 234
Dickens, R. 323, 539
difference principle (Rawls) 26
digitalization: and globalization/ offshoring 576, 579
DiNardo, J. E. 58, 59, 194 n. 16, 196, 274–5
disabilities 397, 398, 443
discounted utilitarianism 35–6
disposable income 74–5, 93, 127, 333, 502
cross-national comparisons of 82–92, 84, 87, 88, 90, 91, 93, 94
distributive justice 25–7
divorce 354
Dohmen, T. 515
Dolado, J. J. 289
Dominican Republic 603
Donald, S. G. 58
Driffill, J. 236
Dryzek, J. S. 687
Ducros, B. 102
Duflo, E. 565, 568
Duggan, M. 397
Duhautois, R. 273
Duncan, G. J. 354
Dunlop, J. 207
Dunn dataset 215
Dunne, T. 215
Dupuy, A. 210
Dustmann, C. 469
Duval, R. 236
(p. 714) Dworkin, R. 28–31
Dynan, K. E. 558
Earned Income Tax Credit, USA 11
earnings distribution
data access 214–15
data sources 211–14
defining employers 217–18
firm/worker dynamics 209–11, 223–4
and product markets/technologies 206–7, 207
and supply and demand 206–7
technology and skills 215–17
wage differentials 207–8, 208–9, 219–22, 219, 220, 221
worker/firm match effect 208–9, 222–3
earnings functions 413–15, 418
earnings inequality
conceptual framework 179–81
decomposition of 182–5, 182, 183
national 295–6
supply and demand factors 193–6
trade union attitudes to 243–5
wage rate inequality and 184
wage setting and 196
earnings mobility 270, 272
East Asia 630: see also individual countries
Easterlin, R. A. 375
Easterlin paradox 375
Easterly, W. 585
eastern Europe 85, 287, 290: see also individual countries
Ebbinghaus, B. 234, 244–5
ECHP (European Community Household Panel) 10, 77 n. 6, 325, 356, 532–3, 538
Economic Council (Okonomisk Raad), Denmark 651 n.
economic equality 23–5
economic growth
absolute poverty and 625
inequality and 6, 549–69
investment and 558–9
middle class and 555–7
poverty and 552–5, 556–7, 625
top incomes and 168
transmissions mechanisms 551–61
wealth and 557–9
welfare states and 6
economic inequality
analytical framework 10–12
concept/coverage 7–9
and demographics 12, 435–54, 444
gender and 284–307
global context 12
and health 384–401
importance of 4–7
income distribution graphs/charts 46–9
racial identity and 443–5, 444
research on 9–10
and welfare state 12, 639–60
economic inequality measurement 42–5: see also PPPs (Purchasing Power Parities)
economic resources distribution 6
economic well-being: marriage and 438–41, 439, 440, 452
Ecuador 603
Edin, P. A. 178 n., 193
education 12, 181, 195–6, 697
adult/lifelong learning 411–12, 412
and civic engagement 419
compulsory 408–10
and crime 419
early childhood 407–8
and earnings 416
and equality of opportunity 703–6
family background and 409, 513, 513
health and 398, 419
immigrants and 460 n. 5, 466, 477–9, 478, 479
and inequality 406–27, 630, 631
and intergenerational income mobility 494–5, 496, 505–6, 513, 513, 514
post-compulsory 410, 411
return to 249–51
savings and 142
and supply and demand 199
tertiary 411, 580
wage differentials 414
and wage inequality 192–5, 419–26, 420, 421, 422, 425
and wages 413–19, 417, 418
women and 297–300
educational inequality 374, 622
Egypt 603
Ehrenberg, R. G. 177
Eibner, C. 385
Eichengreen, B. 115–16
Eide, E. R. 508, 513, 513
EIRO 234
El Salvador 603
elder (long-term) care 142
elderly poverty 331, 332, 657
Elias, P 272
Ellwood, D. T. 323, 324
Elster, J. 230, 244
Elteto-Kones-Sculc (EKS) method 609
employee compensation 107, 111–12, 112
(p. 715) employers/businesses: definition of 217–18
employment
gender gap in 286–9
part-time 182, 184, 264 n. 8, 286–8, 305
women's participation in 286–8, 287, 288, 442
Engels, F. 230
England 409: see also United Kingdom
English-speaking countries 85, 95: see also individual countries
entrepreneurship 698, 700
entropy: and distribution of well-being 524
equality
attitudes to 695
global 36–7, 592
and heredity/inheritance 24
and scarce resources 24
and welfare 24–5
equality of opportunity: welfare and 31, 32–4
Erickson, C. L. 196
Erikson, R. 499 n., 515
Ermisch, J. F. 507
Esping-Andersen, G. 303, 331, 683
ESS (European Social Survey) 234–6
estate multiplier estimates 132
estate tax data 129, 138
Estevez-Abe, M. 674
Estonia
disposable income 84, 85, 87
education levels 420
poverty 321, 327, 603
time use 348
Ethiopia 603
ethnicity/ethnic identity 485–6, 486, 683–5
Etienne, J. 396 n. 20
Ettner, S. L. 397
EU-SILC (EU Statistics on Living Conditions) 43, 77, 321–2, 356
EU 25: 461, 462, 463, 464, 465, 466: see also individual countries
Europe 263 n. 5, 317, 492: see also individual countries
European Central Bank 130
European Commission 105
European Community Household Panel (ECHP) 10, 77 n. 6, 325, 356, 532–3, 538
European Economic Community 316
European Social Survey (ESS) 234–6
European Union 289, 290, 293–4, 303–4, 321–2, 347: see also individual countries
Eurostat 9–10, 76 n., 321–2
Evans, W. 385
Expert Group on Household Income Statistics 44
Expert Group on Household Income Statistics— The Canberra Group 74, 75, 157 n. 9
Faggio, G. 219
Fairness at Work legislation 234
Fajnzylber, P. 389
family associations
adopted children 512
cross-national patterns 501–4, 502, 503
different family types 511–12
and education 409, 513, 513
intergenerational association 497–500
intergenerational income mobility 491–517
mechanisms behind 506–15
and neighborhood 510–11
sibling associations 500–1, 503, 509–10, 511–12
family income 179
family structure 436: see also one-parent households
family wellbeing 179
Farber, H. S. 181 n. 5, 237
Federal Reserve Board 132 n.
Feenberg, D. 152 n. 1
Feinstein, L. 410, 411
Felton, A. 374
female employment 184, 286–9, 287, 288, 442, 646–7, 648
and earnings inequality 238, 241, 251, 300–1, 630–1
and family-friendly policies 305
and fertility 301–3, 302
and low pay 273
Fernandez, M. 268, 269 n. 15
Fernandez, R. 684
Fernández-Dols, J. M. 369
Ferreira, F. 34, 593–4
Ferreira, M. L. 353
Ferrie, J. P. 506–7
Fields, G. S. 62, 529–30, 540
financial assets: wealth inequality and 145–6
financial corporations 110–11 & n. 13
Finland
child poverty 656
collective bargaining coverage 189
cross-national patterns of family associations 502
disposable income 84, 87, 88–92, 88, 90, 93, 94
earnings inequality 182, 183
education 409, 411, 412, 414, 420, 466
immigration 459, 461, 462, 463, 464, 465, 466
intergenerational income mobility 507–8, 509, 514
labor market participation 461, 462
(p. 716) living standards 87
market income 79, 82, 83, 93, 94
median real income 86–7
mortality 400, 401
poverty 321, 323, 327, 603, 656
redistribution 95
sibling associations 503
social spending 667
time use 348
top income series 152–3
trade union membership and wage inequality 246
unemployment 463, 464
wage inequality 186–8, 186, 187, 190, 414
welfare state 644, 645, 654, 654
Finnie, R. 169, 170
Flanagan, 236
Flanders, A. 244
Fleurbaey, M. 34
Fong, C. 681
Forbes magazine: annual rich list 140
Förster, M. 322, 323, 329, 331, 652
Fortin, N. 299
Foster, J. E. 52, 319
France
child poverty 656, 656, 659, 660
collective bargaining coverage 189
cross-national patterns of family associations 502
disposable income 84, 84, 87, 88–9, 88
education 409, 411, 412, 414, 420, 464, 466
fertility rates/age at first birth 302
household balance sheets 136
immigration 459, 461, 462, 463, 464, 465, 466
inequality of opportunity 34
intergenerational income mobility 502–3
labor market participation 287, 288, 461, 462
labor's share 118
mortality 400, 401
poverty 321, 323, 325, 327, 603
private pensions 658
social spending 667
time use 348
top incomes 152–3, 158, 159, 160, 167
trade unions 235, 246
unemployment 423, 463
wage differentials 220, 221, 222, 238
wage inequality 186, 187, 188, 246, 414
wealth inequality indicators 131, 133
wealth shares, top 1% 139
welfare state 645, 647, 654
women's labor force participation 288
Frank, R. 150–1
Frazis, H. 350, 352
Freedman, M. 209
Freeman, R. B. 192
low pay and skills 269
time use 347
trade unions 232, 233, 240–1, 244
wages 233, 240–1, 244
Frick, J. 46, 75
Friedman, M. 73, 232
Fritzell, J. 329
functional distribution of national income
factor shares measurement 106–13
long-term trends 117–22
theoretical perspectives 104–6
Gallie, D. 327
Galor, O. 299
Gambia 603
Gan, L. 398
Gangl, M. 538
Garcia-Peñalosa, C. 103, 105
Garfinkel, I. 76 n., 95
Garicano, L. 209
GDP
disability benefits and 398
and indirect taxes 108
and infant mortality 388
labor's share as percentage of 113–14, 114
personal income total and 157
time use and 347
Geary-Khamis (GK) method 609
gender
and economic inequality 284–307
and employment 286–9
gender equality implementation 303–6
family-friendly policies 304–6
legal framework 303–4
gender pay gap 178, 290–7, 291, 438, 438
Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition 291–2
and education/technology 297–300
family gap 293
within firms 297
job assignments and glass ceiling 294–5
low pay 268–9
and national earnings inequality 295–6
general equilibrium theory 25
General Health Questionnaire 369
(p. 717) General Satisfaction 377
general satisfaction inequality 378
General Satisfaction Question 369, 370–1
Generalized Entropy 51, 52, 53, 57
Georgia 603
Gerlach, 243
German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) 532, 533
Germany
average earnings 291
child poverty 656, 659, 660
childcare/maternity leave 304–5
collective bargaining coverage 189
cross-national patterns of family associations 502
disposable income 84, 84, 87, 89–92, 90, 93
earnings inequality 184
education 195–6, 409, 412, 414, 420, 466
fertility rates/age at first birth 302
household balance sheets 136
household investment: in risky financial assets 137
immigration 459, 461, 462, 463, 464, 465, 466, 480, 484
intergenerational income mobility 502, 508
labor market participation 287, 288, 461, 462
labor's share 114, 119
market income 79, 82, 93
maternity leave 293
mortality 400, 401
poverty 321, 323, 325, 327, 603, 656, 659, 660
social spending 667
time use 347, 348
top incomes 152–3, 158, 159, 160, 167
trade unions 235, 246
unemployment 423, 463, 464
union wage differentials 238
wage bargaining 243
wage inequality 186–8, 186, 187, 246, 414
wage-setting in 244
wealth inequality indicators 131
welfare state 645, 647, 648, 654
women's labor force participation 288
Gershuny, J. 352
Ghana 603
Ghent systems 234
Giavazzi, F. 117
Gibbons, R. 208, 209
Gilens, M. 684
Gini coefficients 50–1, 52, 53, 55 n., 76 n., 562–3
and decomposability 526–7
decomposition by income source 78, 90–1
disposable income 93, 94, 333, 502
of economic inequality 445–6, 473–6, 474, 475, 476, 477
and educated labor force 477–9, 478, 479
and foreign population, share of 459
as function of share of foreign labor 458
global inequality 618–19
of household size-adjusted personal income 439–41, 440
and income mobility 62
and inequality and growth 568–9
as inequality measures within countries 590–1
for male/female earnings in USA 438
market income 93, 94
of size-adjusted personal income 450
as standard measure of redistribution 668
top incomes 163, 163
Ginther, D. K. 295
Gittleman, M. 538, 539
Glaeser, E. 681, 683, 685
global capitalism 577–8, 578
global economy 5
global equality 36–7, 592
global inequality trends 617–23, 619
global poverty 615
globalization
developing countries and 577–82, 578, 581
digitalization and 576, 579
Heckscher-Ohlin (H-O) theory 583–4
inequality and 575–95
influence on economics/politics 5
and labor's share 116, 590–2
North-South/product-cycle technology models 585
Ricardian trade models 584–5
wage differentials and 586–7, 586
GMM (generalized method of moments) 500 n. 6
Goebel, J. 528 n.
Golan, A. 217
Goldberger, A. S. 495
Goldfarb, R. S. 102
Goldfield, 233
Goldin, C. 193, 195, 298, 302, 306
Goldsmith, A. H. 554
Goldthorpe, J. H. 499 n.
Gollin, D. 109 n.
Gong, G. 398
Gonzaga, G. 593–4
Goodin, R. E. 349, 687
Goos, M. 300
Gordon, D. 333
(p. 718) Gornik, J. 347, 348
Gortz, M. 356
Gosling, A. 240
Gottschalk, P. T. 184, 195, 350, 499, 531, 535
Goux, D. 423
Grabka, M. M. 75
Gradstein, M. 557
Graham, C. 374
Graham, H. 354
Grandville, O. de la 210
Grawe, N. D. 494, 498, 508, 509
Greece
disposable income 83, 84–5, 84, 87
education 409, 411, 412, 420, 466
immigration 459, 461, 462, 463, 464, 465, 466
labor market participation 461, 462
median real income 86
mortality 400, 401
poverty 321, 323, 325, 327, 603
unemployment 461n., 463, 464
Greenhalgh, C. A. 272
Gregg, P. 10
Gregory, M. 273
Griliches, Z. 415
Gronau, R. 352
Grosh, M. 72, 73
Groshen, E. 207
growth
empirical literature and differing results 561–9, 562–3
and inequality 624–5
panel estimation methods 564–6
and poverty reduction 629
sample selection and variation in results 566
social capital/trust and 560
social polarization and 561
growth-poverty-inequality triangle 623–8, 625, 627
GSOEP (German Socio-Economic Panel) 532, 533
Guadalupe, M. 209
Guatemala 604
Guger, 238
Guinea 604
Guiso, L. 137
Guscina, A. 116, 593
Gustafsson, B. 478, 538
Gustavsson, M. 499
Gützgen, 243
Guyana 604
Haas, S. 398
Hacker, J. 687
Hagenaars, A. J. M. 73, 373
Haider, S. 499
Haig, R. M. 74
Haiti 604
half the relative mean deviation 50, 52–3
Hall, M. 234
Haltiwanger, J. 206, 211
Hamermesh, D. 352
Hansen, M. N. 508
happiness 28, 31, 73, 346, 524
assessment of 72–3
concept of 364–6
and household living arrangements 437–43, 438, 439, 440
inequality and 364–79
measurability of 366–7
satisfaction inequality 376–7
satisfaction questions 369, 369
happiness and inequality 364–79
cardinal approach 375–8
ordinal approach 371–5
happiness inequality 367, 375, 623
Harding, A. 651n.
Harjes, T. 593
Harkness, S. 296
Harmonized European Time Use Survey (HETUS) 346
Harrison, A. 103, 138, 593
Hart, P. E. 62
Hartog, J. 231, 243
Hassler, J. 495
Hatton, T. J. 468
Hayek, F. A. 698
Hayes, K. H. 295
HDI (Human Development Index) 28, 335, 601 n. 3
headcount poverty index (H) 612
health 142
economic inequality and 384–401
and education 398, 419
effects of inequality on 386–90
effects on inequality 6, 168, 386–7, 387, 388–9, 390–1
and income distribution 397–8
and intergenerational income mobility 515
and marriage market 398
and poverty 385–6
top incomes and 168
health and income inequality
cross-country evidence 394–5
cross-regional evidence 395–6
data quality 392–3
health care 12, 142, 651
(p. 719) health inequality 621–2
Heckscher-Ohlin (H-O) theory of globalization 583–4
hedonic treadmill 370
Heisz, A. 508, 509
Hellerstein, J. 211, 216–17
heredity/inheritance: equality and 24
Hertz, T. 507
Hetherington, M. 686
HETUS (Harmonized European Time Use Survey) 346
HILDA (Household Income and Labor Dynamics Study of Australia) 532
Hildebrand, V., 396
Hills, J. 319 n. 6, 640
Hipolito, S. 222
Hirsch, B. 212
histograms 46–7
Hobsbawm, E. J. 233
Hoeffler, A. 560
Hoffman, S. D. 354
Holden, S. 243
Holloway, S. 350
Holmlund, B. 178n., 193
Holmlund, H. 505–6, 514
Holzer, H. 273, 304
homicide: and top incomes 168
Honduras 604
Hong Kong 409, 603
Horn, 245
house prices: and wealth inequality 140
household balance sheets 136
household earnings inequality: female employment and 300–1
household income 11, 12, 42–5
Household Income and Labor Dynamics Study of Australia (HILDA) 532
household inequality: household production and 352–4
household investment (portfolios) 137, 140–1
household investment (portfolios) 137, 140–1
household production
children and 353–4
and household inequality 352–4
household surveys 77, 132n., 600
Households Below Average Incomes series, UK 46
Houseman, S. N. 195
housing 141, 145–6, 150–1
Housing Public-Use Micro Samples 216
Hoynes, H. 322–3
Hubbard, R. 142
Huber, E. 673
Huber, J. 683
Hughes, G. 277
human capital 127–8
Human Development Index (HDI) 28, 335, 601 n. 3
Human Poverty Index 335
Hungary
disposable income 84, 84, 87
education 409, 412, 420
immigration 459, 464
mortality 400, 401
poverty 321, 323, 327, 604
time use 348
trade unions 246
unemployment 464
Hurst, E. 345
Hyman, R. 230
Hyslop, D. R. 220, 301
IALS (International Adult Literacy Survey) 182, 184, 191, 198
Iceland 400, 409, 420
Ichino, A. 196
Ichniowski, C. 216
ICP (International Comparison Project) 20n.
IEQ (Income Evaluation question) 368–9, 368, 373
ILO (International Labor Organization) 233, 258
IMF (International Monetary Fund) 102, 116, 117
Immervoll, H. 93, 336, 337, 652
immigration 12, 455–87, 582–3
absorption 479–80
adjustment to host countries 457–68
economic assimilation 481–4, 482, 484
and education 460 n. 5, 466, 477–9, 478, 479
ethnosizer 485–6, 486
ethnicity and ethnic identity 485–6, 486
and income distribution 450–1, 452
inequality, impact on 468–79, 470, 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478, 479
labor market impacts model 469–72, 470, 472
labor market participation 461, 462
occupational attainment 464, 465
poverty and 450–1
Roy model 483–4, 484
self-selection 468, 471, 483–4
skills and 470–2, 472, 473–6, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477
and unemployment 461–4, 463, 469
income 342
capital gains and 158
and consumption 343–5
as measure of welfare 601
and mortality 400
and time use 345
unrealized 75
income distribution 5, 6, 7, 10–11, 78–96
cash/non-cash redistribution 89–96
demographics and 452–3
disposable income, cross-national comparisons of 82–9
and health 397–8
immigration and 450–1, 452
market income, cross-national comparisons of 78–82
income distribution measurement 46–9
CDFs (cumulative distribution functions) 46, 47, 54–5
histograms 46–7
kernel density estimation 46–7, 47
Lorenz Curves 48–9, 49, 53
PDFs (probability distribution functions) 46, 47, 47, 57, 58–9
Pen's Parade (quantile functions) 46, 48, 48
Income Evaluation question (IEQ) 368–9, 368, 373
income inequality 345, 358, 446–7, 516
demographics and 145, 146
infant mortality and 387, 388
and partisan politics 679–80
poverty and 332
income mobility
indices 60–2
inequality and 6, 59–62
income poverty 321, 323, 324–6, 325, 327
income scale independence: as inequality measures axiom 162
income tax 11, 76–7, 165
India
and global capitalism 577–8, 578
and global economy 5
and global inequality 592
and globalization 577–8, 578, 580–1, 581, 585–6, 589
inflation 630
multinational research and development centers 580–1
poverty 604, 629, 630
top income series 152–3
indirect taxes 75, 108
Indonesia
education 409, 630, 631
and globalization 581
poverty 604, 629
top income series 152–3
inequality 6, 34, 41, 93, 394, 701
absolute 621, 622, 625
decomposition 56–9
and economic growth 6, 549–69
education and 406–27, 630, 631
educational 374, 622
effects of health on 6, 168, 386–7, 387, 388–9, 390–1
effects on health 386–90
global index 617–23
and globalization 575–95
and growth 624–5
and happiness 364–79
immigration and 468–79, 470, 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478, 479
and income levels 613, 613
and income mobility 6, 59–62
inter-country 620
international 620
and labor's share within countries 590–2
in living standards 72–8 as measure of income/wealth concentration 557–9
measures of 601–8
and middle class 555–7
and mortality 401
and poverty 552–5, 599–633
and public spending 390
relative 617–21, 622
relative measures 608
and social capital/trust 390
social welfare and 53–5
and violent crime 389
welfare states and 640–1
inequality assessment variables 42–3, 44–5
inequality convergence 621
inequality distribution
decomposition by factor components 56
decomposition by population subgroups 56–7
multivariate regression-based approaches 57–9
Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition 58
inequality indices 49–53
Atkinson indices 51–2, 53, 55, 163, 526n.
coefficient of variation (CV) 50, 53
Generalized Entropy 51, 52, 53, 57
MLD (mean log deviations) 608
percentile ratios 50, 52–3
Pietra ratio (Ricci-Schutz/Robin Hood index, half the relative mean deviation) 52–3
and Principle of Transfers 52–3
(p. 721) properties of 50, 52–3
and replication invariance 52
and scale invariance 50
SWF-based 55
variance of logs 50, 52–3 see also Gini coefficients
inequality measures axioms 162
inequality of opportunity 34
inequality studies
datasets and 561–9, 562–3
estimation techniques 564–6
inequality between individuals and growth 559–61
measurement error 566–7
middle class and growth 555–7
poverty and growth 552–5
sample selection 566
specification of effects of inequality 567–9
wealth and growth 557–9
infant mortality 168, 387, 388, 390 n. 14, 394, 395
inflation 45, 561, 630
inheritance 143–4
inheritance taxes 144
Inland Revenue Service, USA 153
Institutional Characteristics of Trade Unions, Wage Setting, State Intervention and Social Pacts (ICTWSS) database 245
insurance
hypothetical market 29–31
social 11, 639–41, 668, 702
trade unions and 234
intergenerational associations 499, 500
TSIV (two-sample instrumental-variable) approach 498 n. 4
intergenerational equality 34–6
intergenerational immobility: and inequality 6
intergenerational income effects 504–6
intergenerational income mobility 491–517
adopted children 505–6
Becker-Tomes model 493, 494, 495, 496, 513
causality 504–6
education and 494–5, 496, 505–6, 513, 513, 514
family associations: cross-national patterns in 501–4
family associations: mechanisms behind 506–15
and family background 491–517
health and 515
income concept 495–6
intergenerational association and 497–500
and policy interventions 514
sibling associations and 500–501, 515
theory of 493–5
International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) 182, 184, 191, 198
International Comparison Project (ICP) 20n.
International Labor Organization (ILO) 233, 258
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 102, 116, 117
International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) data 238
interpersonal comparability of welfare 25
intertemporal mobility 522–42
intragenerational inequality 522–42
and cross-sectional inequality 524–7
and decomposability 527–32
literature on 535–40, 536–7
origin independence 528–9
panel data 532–5
intrahousehold inequality 354–6
investment 553, 558–9
investment income multipliers 129
Iran 409, 604
Ireland
child poverty 656
disposable income 84–5, 84, 87
education 409, 411, 412, 414, 420, 466
immigration 459, 461, 462, 463, 464, 465, 466
inequality reduction/distribution 93
labor market participation 461, 462
living standards 87
mortality 400, 401
poverty 321, 323, 323, 325, 327, 604, 656
social spending 667
time use 348
top incomes 152–3, 158, 159, 160, 166, 167
trade unions 235, 246
unemployment 463
wage variability 246, 269 n. 15, 414
wealth inequality indicators 131
welfare state 645, 654
Ironmonger, D. 346
Irvine, I. 169, 170
Ishikawa, T. 82
Israel 84–5
disposable income 83, 84, 87, 93
education 409, 420
inequality reduction 93
market income 81, 82, 93
poverty 604
Italy
child poverty 656, 656, 659, 660
collective bargaining coverage 189
cross-national patterns of family associations 502
disposable income 84–5, 84, 87
earnings inequality decomposition 182, 183
fertility rates/age at first birth 302
GDP 85–6
household balance sheets 136
household investment: in risky financial assets 137
immigration 459, 461, 462, 463, 465, 466
intergenerational income mobility 494–5, 502–3
labor market participation 287, 288, 461, 462
labor's share 119
mortality 400, 401
part-time employment 286
poverty 321, 323, 325, 327, 604
social spending 667
time use 348
trade unions 235, 238, 246
unemployment 463
wage dispersion 242
wage indexation 196
wage inequality 185–8, 186, 187, 190, 246, 414
wage variability 238, 269 n. 15
wealth inequality indicators 131
welfare state 645, 647, 654, 657
women's labor force participation 288
work hours/income 184
Iversen, T. 241, 244, 674, 678
Iversen index 241
Jamaica 604
Jäntti, M. 447
Japan
collective bargaining coverage 189
disposable income 82, 84, 85, 87
education 409, 420
foreign population 459
household balance sheets 136
labor's share 119
and mortality 400
non-market work 347
poverty 604
social spending 667
time use 348
top incomes 152–3, 156, 158, 159, 160–1, 165, 167
trade unions 246
wage inequality 185–6, 186, 187, 188, 246
wealth inequality indicators 131
Jaumotte, F. 288
Jencks, C. 168
Jenkins, S. P. 4, 9, 73, 355, 446, 498, 535
Jensen, B. 579–80
Johansson, M. 478
Johnson, D. S. 74, 345, 446–7
Johnston, D.W. 393
Jones, R.W. 580, 585
Jordan 409, 604
Joung, I. M. A. 398
Jovanovic, B. 271
Joyce, M. 195, 538, 539
Judge, K. 392, 394
Judt, T. 698n.
Juhn, C. 178, 191, 193
Juster, T. F. 346
justice 23–6
Kahn, L. 269 n. 14, 274, 296
Kahneman, D. 346, 370
Kaitz index 274
Kaldor, N. 106
Kalecki, M. 105–6 & n.5
Kalil, A. 355
Kalmijn, W. 375
Kalwij, A. 110 n. 10
Kantorovich, L. 699
Kaplan, S. N. 164–5, 169
Kapteyn, A. 373
Karoly, L. 447–8
Katz, L. F. 181, 193, 195, 208, 302, 423, 478
Katznelson, I., 233
Kawachi, I. 390
Kazakhstan 604
Keen, M. 92
Keister, L. 135, 145 n. 21
Kelly, M. 554
Kennickell, A 140 n. 13
Kenworthy, L. 641, 653, 657, 670
Kenya 604
kernel density estimation 46–7, 47
Kierzkowski, H. 580
Kletzer, L. 579–80
Klump, R. 210
Knack, S. 560
Knowles, S. 567
Koeninger, W. 247 n. 6
Koivusilta, L. 398
Kopczuk, W. 169, 539
Korea (South) 348
education 409, 414, 420
foreign population 459
mortality 400
wage differentials 414
wealth inequality indicators 131
Korinek, A. 609
Korpi, W. 331, 642, 672–3, 686–7
Kramarz, F. 273
(p. 723) Kranton, R. E. 307
Kristov, L. 686
Krueger, A. B. 112, 273
Krugman, P. 257, 423
Kumlin, S. 686, 687
Kuwait 409, 604
Kuznets, S. 108, 121, 558, 624
Kuznets Hypothesis 624
Kyrgyz Republic 604
La Ferrara, E. 681
labor force 5
labor income 177
labor market participation 286, 287, 288, 458, 461, 462, 464, 467
labor market regulation 274–6, 275
labor's share 107–8, 107, 113–14, 114, 116–17, 118, 119, 120
Ladaique, M. 645–6
LaLonde, R. J. 178, 480
Lam, K. 273
Lampman, R. 317
Landefeld, S. 343
Landers, R. M. 295
Lao PDR 604
Laschever, S. 307
Lassalle, F. 258
Latin America 374, 593–4, 630: see also individual countries
Latvia 347, 348, 409, 604
Lawrence, R. 593
Lazear, E. P. 209, 212–13, 218–19, 222–3, 294, 455
Le Grand, J. 644, 654–5
LEB (life expectancy at birth) 621–2
Lebanon 604
Lee, C. 507
Lefebvre, M. 657–8
Lefranc, A. 34
LEHD (Longitudinal Employer Household Dynamics) program, USA 213–14, 214
leisure time 355–6
and consumption 347–50, 349
Lemieux, T. 193, 194, 195, 453
Leonard, T. C. 102
Lerman, R. 449–50, 451–2
Leshoto 604
Leuven, E. 192–3, 196, 198
Levy, F. 706n., 707
Levy, G. 684
Lewis, H. G. 232, 238
Leyden School 368–71, 373
Liberman, E. 699
life expectancy 6, 168, 394
life expectancy at birth (LEB) 621–2
Lillard, D. R. 533
Lindbeck, A. 236
Lindert, P. H. 7, 94, 670, 702
Lindquist, M. J. 499
Lipton, M. 468
LIS (Luxembourg Income Study) 9, 46, 77, 158, 163, 215, 392, 395, 532n.
earnings inequality 184
market income, cross-national comparisons of 78, 79–80
poverty rates in OECD countries 320–1, 321
welfare state redistribution 649
Lisbon Agenda 460
Lithuania 348, 409, 605
living standards 87, 88, 177
living standards inequality 72–8
consumption as measurement of 72–4
current/permanent income as measurement of 73, 74
data comparability 76–8
income definition 74–6
Living Standards Measurement Surveys, World Bank 46
LMEs (liberal market economies) 674
Locke, J. 27
Lohman, H. 267
Lommerud, K. E. 178 Longitudinal Employer Household Dynamics (LEHD) program, USA 213–14, 214
Lopoo, L. M. 514
Lorenz Curves 48–9, 49, 53
low pay 257–78
data 264
definitions 263
economic analysis of 259–63
empirical analysis 265–76, 265–6, 275
female employment and 273
firm behavior and 272–3
gender pay gap 268–9
individual probability of 268–9
labor-market institutions and 274–6, 275
labor market transitions 269–71
living standards and 87
long-term effects of 271–2
measurement of 264
monopsony power and 262, 273
and poverty 267, 277
and skills 269
and unemployment 270–1
wage distribution 259–61, 260
wage inequality 267
Low Pay Commission 274 n. 23
(p. 724) low pay-no pay cycle 270–1
Lubotsky, D. 395
Lucas, R. E. B. 507–8
Lucifora, C. 252
Lundberg, S. 354
Lupu, N. 678
Luttmer, E. F. P. 373, 684
Luxembourg
disposable income 84, 84, 87
education 412, 420, 466
immigration 458, 459, 461, 462, 463, 464, 465, 466
labor market participation 458, 461, 462
living standards 87
median real income 86
mortality 400, 401
poverty 321, 323, 325, 327
unemployment levels 463, 464
Luxembourg Income Study, see LIS
LWS (LuxembourgWealth Study) 9, 130, 132–3
Lynch, J. 384, 395
Maasoumi, E. 535
McCue, K. 294
McCulla, S. 343
Macdonald, M. 355
Macedonia 409, 605
Machin, S. 110 n. 10, 240, 275, 554
Mackie, C. 350, 351
McKnight, A. 272
McLanahan, S. 353
Macmillan, H. 698n.
macroeconomic volatility 561
Madagascar 605
Madrian, B. C. 397
Mahler, V. 671n.
Maitre, B. 648n., 651, 656
Malawi 605
Malaysia 409, 605
Mali 605
Malthus, T. R. 258
Maniquet, F. 34
Manning, A. 273, 275, 300
manufacturing: labor's share 114–15, 115
Marchal, J. 102
Mare, D. 220
Mares, I. 675, 676
Marical, F. 651
Markandya, A. 61
market (original) income 74–5, 94, 653
cross-national comparisons of 78–82, 79, 80, 82, 83
Gini indices 81–2, 82, 93
market socialism 700–1
markets: functions of 697–9
Marlier, E. 335
marriage
and economic well-being 438–41, 439, 440, 452
and Gini coefficient for earnings 439–41, 440
marriage market 391, 398
Marx, K. 104–5, 258
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) 306
maternity leave 293, 304–5
Matsaganis, M. 660
Matthews, R. 115
Maurin, E. 423
Mauritania 605
Mauritius 348
Mayer, S. E. 350, 390 n. 14, 505, 514
Mazumder, B. 498, 500 n. 6, 515
MDG1 (First Millennium Development Goal) 609
mean income 614–15
median real income 85–7
Medoff, J. 232, 244
Meghir, C. 514, 554
Mellor, J. M. 395
Meltzer, A. 390
Melzer and Richard (MR) model of preferences 669–72
Menéndez, M. 34
Merz, J. 347–8
Metcalf, D. 233, 240
Mexico
disposable income 82–3, 84, 85, 87
education 420, 630, 631
foreign population 459
and globalization 581
mortality 400, 401
non-market work 347
poverty 321, 323, 327, 605
time use 348
trade and inequality 593–4
Meyers, M. 347, 408
Meyersson Milgrom, E. M. 297
Michael, R. 317, 358
Micklewright, J. 4, 9, 85
middle class 555–7
middle-income households' living standards 87–8
migration, see immigration
Milanovic, B. 587, 593, 618, 620, 643, 670, 673
Millennium Development Goal MDG1) 609
Miller, D. 391n., 395
(p. 725) Milyo, J. 395
Mincer, J. 271, 406–7, 413–14
minimum wage 258, 273, 274–6, 275
Mira d'Ercole, M. 322, 323, 329, 331
Mira, P. 303
Mishel, L. 274–5, 593
MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) 306
Moene, K. 643
Moene and Wallerstein (MW) model of preferences 670, 671–2
Moffitt, R. A. 499, 531, 643
Moisio, P. 325
Moldova 409, 605
Mongolia 605
Mookherjee, D. 446
Moore, J. C. 161
Morawetz, D. 373
Moreno-Ternero, J. 30–1
Moriguchi, C. 156, 165
Morisette, R. 146
Morocco 409, 605
Morrisson, C. 618–19, 619
mortality 393, 395, 396, 400, 401
infant 387, 388, 390 n. 14, 394, 395
Mortensen, D. 208, 222
mortgages 141
Mozambique 605
MTUS (Multinational Time Use Survey) 346
Muellbauer, J. 136
Multilateral Agreement on Investment, OECD 577
Multinational Time Use Survey (MTUS) 346
multinationals 580–1
Mumford, K. 297
Murphy, K. M. 181, 195, 478
Musgrave, R. 651
Myles, J. 319
NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) 577
Nagel, T. 36
Namibia 605
NAS (National Accounts System) 608
National Academy of Science, USA 357
national accounts: employee compensation 107, 111–12, 112
National Accounts System (NAS) 608
national income 101–24, 110
National Research Program (NRP), USA 153
NDP (Net Domestic Product): USA 107, 108
near-cash benefits 75
Nepal 605
Netherlands
child poverty 656, 660
collective bargaining coverage 189
disposable income 83–4, 84, 87, 88–9, 88, 93
earnings inequality 182, 183, 184
education 409, 411, 414, 420, 464, 466
elderly poverty 331
female hours/part-time employment 184
household balance sheets 136
household investment: in risky financial assets 137
immigration 459, 461, 462, 463, 464, 465, 466
income inequality 447
labor market participation 461, 462
labor's share 120
living standards 87
low pay 264 n. 8, 274
low pay-no pay cycle 270–1
market income 81, 82, 93
mortality 400, 401
part-time employment 264 n. 8, 286, 305
poverty 321, 323, 325, 327, 605
social spending 667
time use 348
top incomes 152–3, 158, 159, 160, 167
trade unions 235, 238, 246
unemployment 463, 464
union wage differentials 238, 414
wage inequality 186–8, 186, 187, 190, 246
welfare state 645, 647, 654
Neumark, D. 211, 262, 304, 306
New Earnings Survey, UK 212
NewWorld 457: see also individual countries
New Zealand
collective bargaining coverage 188–9, 189
education 409, 420
elderly poverty 331
gender pay gap 290
household balance sheets 136
mortality 400
poverty 4, 331, 605
social spending 667
time use 348
top incomes 152–3, 156, 158, 159, 160, 165, 166, 167
trade union membership and wage inequality 246
wage differentials 220, 221, 222
wage inequality 186, 187, 188, 196
War on Poverty 4
wealth inequality 131, 138
wealth shares, top 1% 139
(p. 726) welfare services 654
work hours/income 184
NFCs (non-financial corporations) 110, 111
Nicaragua 605
Nickell, S. 236, 423
Nicoletti, C. 507
Nielsen, H. S. 306
Niger 605
Nigeria 605
NIPA (national income and product account), Bureau of Economic Analysis, USA 107
NNI (net national income) 109–10
Nolan, B. 157 n. 10, 277
non-Anglo-Saxon nations 160, 161
non-market work 346–7, 350–2, 351
Nordic countries 83–4, 85
child poverty 657, 660
childcare 304
citizen homogeneity 702–3
family background and income inequality 516
fertility rates/age at first birth 302
intergenerational income mobility 503, 507
labor force participation 287
poverty policies 336
redistribution 95
sibling associations 509
solidaristic wage policy 703
welfare state 644, 646–7, 648 see also individual countries
Nordström-Skans, o. 219
North American countries, see Canada USA
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 577
northern Europe 83, 93, 461: see also individual countries
Norway
child poverty 656
disposable income 84, 87, 93
earnings inequality 182, 183
education 409, 420
family associations: cross-national patterns of 502
family associations: and neighborhood 510
foreign population 459
intergenerational income mobility 505, 508, 509
living standards 87
market income 82, 93
mortality 400, 401
part-time employment 286
poverty 321, 323, 327, 605, 656
redistribution 94
sibling associations 503
social spending 667
time use 348
trade unions 246
union wage differentials 238
wage compression 196
wage dispersion/centralized bargaining 243
wage inequality 190, 191, 193, 246
wealth inequality indicators 131
welfare state 645, 654
Nozick, R. 24, 26–7
NPI (net property income), USA 109
NRP (National Research Program), USA 153
Nurkse, R. 557
Oaxaca, R. 294
Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition 58
OECD 20n.
Earnings Database 198
female employment and family-friendly policies 305
functional distribution of national income 102
gender pay gap 290, 292
Health Data 2007: 395
labor market earnings 591
Multilateral Agreement on Investment 577
occupational distribution of women's employment 289
part-time employment/women's labor force participation 286–8
poverty 324, 326–8
women and education 298
OECD countries
baby boomer generation 145–6
disability benefits in 398
earnings mobility 272
functional distribution of national income 103
gender pay gap 290
global economy and 5
immigration and education 477–8
inheritance taxes 144
labor force participation 287
labor market earnings 591
labor market transitions 271
labor's share: as percentage of GDP 114
labor's share in manufacturing 114–15, 115
mortality 396
poverty rates 320–1, 321
wage levels/minimum wage 258
(p. 727) welfare state 644, 645
women's labor force participation/employment 286 see also individual countries
offshoring 195, 576, 579
Ohlsson, H. 138
Ok, E. A. 62, 529–30, 540
Okonomisk Raad (Economic Council), Denmark 651 n.
Olson, M. J. 234
one-parent households 358, 436, 443, 449, 657, 659–60
O'Neill, D. 500
ophelimity, see happiness
Oreopoulos, P. 505
original income, see market income
O'Rourke, K. 594 n.
Osberg, L. 319, 347, 681, 682, 686
Oswald, A. J. 369, 373
Ours, J. 344
Pagani, L. 242–3
Page, M. E. 510
Pakistan 605
Palme, J. 331, 642, 686–7
Palme, M. 514
Panama 605
panel estimation methods 564–6
Panel Study, Living in Luxembourg (PSELL) 533
Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) 532
Papadopoulos, F. 331
Papua New Guinea 605
Paraguay 606
Parente, S. 347
Pareto, V. 367
part-time employment 182, 184, 264 n. 8, 286–8, 305
Paugam, S. 327
Paxson, C. 386, 394 n. & 17, 395
PDFs (probability distribution functions) 46, 47, 47, 57, 58–9
Pekkala, S. 507–8
Pekkarinen, T. 514
Pen, J. 48
Pen's Parade (quantile functions) 46, 48, 48, 54
Pencavel, J. 231, 301, 514
Pendakur, K. 344
Penn World Tables (PWT) 609
Penninx, R. 233
pension schemes 331, 668
pension wealth 133–5, 140
pensions 133, 435–6, 442–3, 641, 658
DB (defined benefit) plans 128, 134, 135, 140, 141–2
DC (defined contribution) plans 128, 134, 135, 140, 141–2
private 11, 134, 658
Peoples, J. 276
percentile ratios 50, 52–3
permanent income 73, 74
personal income 102 n., 157, 439–41, 440, 443–6, 444, 450
Persson, T. 677–8
Peru 606
Pew Global Attitudes Project 594 n.
Phelps Brown, E. H. 237
Philippines 409, 606
Phipps, S. A. 347, 355
Piachaud, D. 317
Pietra ratio 50, 52–3
Pigou-Dalton transfer principle 52, 54, 162, 525–6
Piketty, T. 103, 112, 140 n. 11, 153 n., 157, 681, 701
top incomes 156, 164, 165, 168
PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) 298
Plasman, R. 242
Plug, E. 505
Poland
disposable income 84, 87, 90, 92, 93
education 412, 420
fertility rates/age at first birth 302
immigration 459, 464
market income 79, 81, 82, 93
mortality 400, 401
poverty 321, 323, 327, 335, 606
time use 348
trade unions 235, 246
unemployment 464
wage inequality 246
women's labor force participation 288
political economy: and redistribution 665–88
political institutions: and social spending 676–9
Pollack, R. A. 354–5
Pontusson, J. 653
Portugal
child poverty 660
disposable income 82, 83, 84–5, 84, 87
education 409, 411, 412, 420, 466
immigration 459, 461, 462, 463, 464, 465, 466
labor market participation 461, 462
median real income 86
mortality 400
social spending 667
time use 348
trade unions 246
unemployment levels 463, 464
wage inequality 246
Posso, A. 168
post-transition OECD countries 457, 464: see also individual countries
Postel-Vinay, F. 208, 222
Poterba, J. 152 n. 1
Poupore, J. G. 528, 538
poverty 4, 8, 315–37, 651, 652
$1 a day 610, 614–16, 616
$2 a day 611, 616
absolute 614, 621, 622, 625
aggregate poverty gap 332 n. 13
children and 331, 450, 655–6, 656, 657, 659, 660
and credit constraints 553
and crime 554
cross-country variation in 328–31, 330
definitions 263 n. 5, 316–20
and economic growth 552–5, 556–7, 625
elderly and 331, 332, 657
in EU 5
and fertility rates 554–5
headcount index 623, 627–8
health and 385–6
and immigration 450–1
and income inequality 332
and income levels around the world 614, 614
and inequality 552–5, 599–633
and inflation 630
and investment 553
low pay and 267, 277
and mean income 614–15
measures 316–20, 601–8, 612
non-monetary indicators 332–5
one-parent households and 436, 449
poverty gap 318, 650
and productivity 554
profile/characteristics of the poor 326–8
reduction of 629, 630
Sen-Shorrocks-Thon measure 319
and social exclusion 317, 332–5
and social spending 329–31, 330
and taxes/transfers 331
top incomes and 151, 163–4
trends in 615–17, 616
and unemployment 631
wage inequality and 267
Watts index 612, 630 n.
welfare states and 655–8
poverty gap 318, 650
poverty gap index (PG) 612
poverty lines 650
poverty mobility, temporal patterns of 6
poverty policies 336–7
poverty transmission 6
power resources theory (PRT) 672–3, 676
PPPs (Purchasing Power Parities) 20–1, 86, 589, 609–12
PR (proportional representation) 677–8
preference drift 370
primary goods 25–6
principal-agent problem 698
principle of population 162
Principle of Transfers 52–3
Pritchett, L. 620
private pensions 11, 134, 658
probability distribution functions (PDFs) 46, 47, 47, 57, 58–9
productivity: poverty and 554
Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 298
property income 108, 122, 122
PRT (power resources theory) 672–3, 676
PSELL (Panel Study, Living in Luxembourg) 533
PSID (Panel Study of Income Dynamics) 532
public pensions 133–4
public spending 390
Puhani, P. A. 423
Purchasing Power Parities (PPPs) 20–1, 86, 589, 609–12
PWT (Penn World Tables) 609
QALYs (quality adjusted life years) 393
quantile functions (Pen's Parade) 46, 48, 48, 54
Raaum, O. 510
race 145, 178, 683–5
racial identity: and economic inequality 443–5, 444
racial minorities 233
Rainwater, L. 86, 652, 660
Ramey, V. A. 194–5
rank correlation ratio 78
Ransom, M. 294
Rauh, J. 164–5, 169
Rawls, J. 23–4
difference principle 26
distributive justice 25–6
primary goods 25–6
responsibility for tastes 26
(p. 729) Rayo, L. 364
redistribution 24, 94, 95
horizontal/vertical 640
measurement of 648–52, 667–8
Melzer and Richard (MR) model of preferences 669–72
Moene and Wallerstein (MW) model of preferences 670, 671–2
political economy and 665–88
theories of 641–5
trade union membership and 676
voter preferences and 669–72, 678, 679, 680–7
welfare state and 640–1, 652–3, 666–9
Redmond, G. 76 n.
Reed, D. 300–1
Rees, A. 232
Rees, R. 304–5, 350–1
relative income hypothesis 388–9
relative poverty 617–21, 622
relative risk aversion (CRRA) utility function 367
religion: and social spending 682–3
Research Data Centers 215
resources: distribution of 29
responsibility for tastes (Rawls) 26
retirement savings 142
Reynolds, A. 153 n.
Reynolds, L. G. 232
Ricardian trade models of globalization 584–5
Ricardo, D. 6, 102, 104, 258
Ricci-Schutz index 50, 52–3
Richard, S. 390
risk aversion 243–4
risk homogeneity 702
risk pooling 642
Ritakallio, V.-M. 329
Roach, S. 103
Robin, J.-M. 208, 222
Robin Hood index 50, 52–3
Rodrik, D. 36 n.
Roemer, J. E. 682 n., 683–4, 685
Roine, J. 154, 156, 161, 165, 166
Romania
disposable income 84, 84, 87, 93
education 409
inequality reduction 93
market income 81, 82, 93
poverty 606
Roosblad, J. 233
Rose, E. 355
Rosen, S. 209, 232–3, 294
Rosnick, D. 347
Ross-Hansberg, E. 209
Rothstein, B. 234
Rouse, C. 306
Rowthorn, R. 105
Roy model of immigration 483–4, 484
Royal Commission on the Distribution of Income and Wealth, UK 4, 155
Rueda, D. 676, 680
Ruggles, P. 356–7
Ruiz-Belda, M. A. 369
Russia
disposable income 82–3, 84, 85, 87
education 409
and globalization 581
median real income 86
poverty 323 see also Russian Federation; USSR
Russian Federation 420, 606
Rwanda 606
Ryscavage, P. 76 n.
Sacerdote, B. 505, 512
Saez, E. 103, 112, 140 n. 11, 153 & n., 701
personal income 157
top incomes 156, 164, 165, 168
St. Lucia 606
Saint-Paul, G. 117
Sala-i-Martin, X. 587
Samuelson, P. 366
Sarin, A. 390 n. 14
Sastre, M. 535–8
satisfaction, see happiness
savings 141–2, 558
life-cycle model 135–6, 145
top incomes and 168
sbtc (skill biased technology change) 423–6, 425
Scandinavia 182, 265, 289, 290, 643: see also individual countries
scarce resources 24
SCF (Survey of Consumer Finance), USA 129 & n. 1, 130
Schettkat, R. 347
Scheve, K. 165–6, 682–3
Schuetz, G. 409–10, 409
Schumacher, E. 212
Schumpeter, J. 698
Schwabish, J. 85, 94, 390
Scotland 409: see also United Kingdom
self-employment income 108–9, 121 n. 16
Sen, A. 4, 7, 8, 9, 27–8, 71, 318
and happiness 28, 31, 73
Sen-Shorrocks-Thon measure of poverty 319
Senegal 606
Senik, C. 373
(p. 730) Serbia & Montenegro 606
set-point theory 370
sex discrimination legislation 303–4
Shaw, K. 218–19, 222–3
Shea, J. 505
shock management 561
Shorrocks, A. F. 54, 62, 78 n. 7, 143 n. 16, 446
on inequality indices 52, 56, 524–5, 526
intragenerational mobility 524, 527–8, 530–1, 540
probability matrices 528–9
Shorrocks R measure of intragenerational mobility 524, 527–8, 530–1, 540
Showalter, M. H. 513, 513, 508
Sierra Leone 606
Simons, H. C. 74, 353
Singapore 409, 606
skills 178, 192, 193–4, 215–17, 269
immigration and 470–2, 472, 473–6, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477 see also education
Slemrod, J. 153–4
Slesnick, D. T. 72
SLID (Survey of Income and Labor Participation), Canada 532
Slovakia
disposable income 83–4, 84, 87
education 409, 412, 420
immigration 459, 464
mortality 400, 401
poverty 606
trade unions 246
unemployment 464
wage inequality 246
Slovenia
disposable income 84, 84, 87
education 409, 420
median real income 86
poverty 321, 327, 606
time use 348
trade unions 246
wage inequality 246
SMD (single-member districts): and social spending 677
Smeeding, T. M. 184, 451, 644
poverty 323–4, 451, 652, 655, 660
redistribution 681, 682, 686
social spending 655, 668
Smeets, V. 209
Smith, A. 6
Smith, D. 558
Smith, N. 293, 306
Smith, P. 297
Smith, R. S. 177
Snower, D. J. 212, 213, 236
social conflict 560–1
social democracy 695–6, 701–3
social exclusion 5, 317, 332–5
social inclusion 335
social inequality 530
social insurance 11, 639–41, 668, 702: see also pensions
social polarization 561
social risks 642
social security wealth 135
social spending 329–31, 330, 655, 666–7, 668–9, 676–9
social welfare functions (SWFs) 53–5
socialism 695, 696
Solon, G. 492, 493–4, 499, 507, 510, 531–2
Soskice, D. 114, 236, 674, 678
South Africa 409, 606
South Korea, see Korea
southern Europe 85, 93
elderly poverty 331
fertility rates/age at first birth 302
immigration 461
labor market participation 287, 461
living standards 87
welfare state 643 see also individual countries
Soviet Union, see USSR
Spain
child poverty 656, 659, 660
disposable income 83, 84–5, 84, 87
education 409, 411, 412, 414, 420, 466
household balance sheets 136
immigration 459, 461, 462, 463, 464, 465, 466
labor market participation 288, 461, 462
mortality 400, 401
poverty 321, 323, 323, 325, 327, 606, 656, 659, 660
social spending 667
time use 348
top incomes 152–3, 158, 159–60, 167
trade unions 235, 246
unemployment 463, 464
wage dispersion 242
wage inequality 246
wage variability 269 n. 15, 414
wealth inequality indicators 131
welfare state 644, 645, 647, 654
women's labor force participation 288
Spitz-Oener, A. 300
Spoloare, E. 535
squared poverty gap index 612
(p. 731) Squire, L. 77, 158, 566, 593
Sri Lanka 606
Stafford, F. 346
Stahlberg, A. C. 640
Stanig, P. 683
Stasavage, D. 165–6, 682–3
Steinbrück, P. 102, 103
Stephen, 243
Stephens, J. 673
Stern report 36
Stewart, J. 350, 352
Stewart, M. B. 268 n. 12, 272
Stigler, G. 102
stock ownership 137
Streeck, W. 231, 244
subsistence agriculture 43
suicide 168
super-rich 140, 169 n.: see also top incomes
Survey of Consumer Finance (SCF), USA 129 & n.1, 130
Survey of Financial Security, Canada 129 n. 1
Survey of Income and Labor Participation (SLID), Canada 532
sustainability 35–6
Svallfors, S. 687
Svenson, P. 230
Swaffield, J. K. 268 n. 12
Swaziland 606
Sweden 41
centralized bargaining in 244
child poverty 655–6, 656
collective bargaining coverage 189
cross-national patterns of family associations 502
debt 133
disposable income 84, 85, 87, 88–92, 88, 90, 93, 94
earnings inequality 184, 296
education 193, 298, 409, 411, 412, 414, 420, 422, 422, 466, 505–6
family-friendly policies 305
fertility rates/age at first birth 302
gender pay gap 296, 297
immigration 459, 461, 462, 463, 465, 466
income inequality 447, 516
intergenerational income mobility 499, 503, 503, 505–6, 509, 514
intrahousehold inequality 355
labor market participation 286, 287, 288, 461, 462
living standards 86–7
market income 79, 82, 83, 93, 94
maternity leave 293, 305
median real income 86–7
mortality 400, 401
part-time employment 286
pension wealth 133
poverty 4, 321, 323, 327, 606
private pensions 658
redistribution 95
social spending 667
time use 348
top incomes 152–3, 156, 158, 159, 160, 165, 167
trade unions 235, 238, 246, 274
unemployment 463
wage compression 196
wage dispersion 242
wage inequality 185–8, 186, 187, 190, 191, 193, 196, 238, 246, 414, 422, 422
wage policies 178 n.
wealth inequality indicators 131, 133
wealth shares, top 1% 139
welfare state 640, 644, 645, 646, 648, 654
Swenson, P. 675
SWFs (social welfare functions) 53–5
Switzerland
disposable income 84, 84, 87, 93
earnings inequality 182, 183
education 409, 412, 420
foreign population 458, 459
inequality reduction 93
living standards 87
market income 82, 93
mortality 400, 401
part-time employment 286
poverty 321, 323, 327, 606
social spending 667
top incomes 152–3, 158, 159, 160, 167
trade unions 246
wage inequality 190, 191, 246
wealth inequality indicators 131
work hours/income 184
Syme, L. 390
Szreter, S. 390
Tabellini, G. 677–8
Taft, C. H. 232
Taiwan
disposable income 84, 85, 87, 91, 92, 93
education 409, 630
inequality reduction 93
market income 80, 81, 82, 93
women and earnings inequality 630–1
Tajikistan 606
tamed housewife problem 31
Tanzania 606
(p. 732) Tawney, R. 151
tax-and-transfer systems 89–95
tax avoidance/evasion 153–4
tax data 152, 153–4, 162
tax rates 165
tax returns 169
taxes 331
estate 129, 138, 144
income 11, 76–7, 165
indirect 75, 108
middle class and 555–6
and top incomes 152, 155, 162, 165
Taxpayer Compliance Research Program (TCRP), USA 153, 154
technology 215–17, 299–300
Temin, P. 706 n., 707
tertiary education 411, 580
Teulings, C. 231
Thailand 409, 607
Theil, H. 524, 525, 526–7
Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 409–10, 409
Thompson, J. 75
time use 345, 346–7, 348
Timor-Leste 603
TIMSS (Third International Mathematics and Science Study) 409–10, 409
Tirole, J. 681–2, 683
Tomes, N. 492, 494
top incomes 170
effects of changing distribution 166–8
factors affecting 156, 164–6, 168, 169
Gini coefficients 163, 163
income definition 157
income units 156–7
and marginal tax rates 165
methodology for estimating 152–9
and occupation 169
and other inequality measures 161–4
part-year incomes 155
and partisanship 166, 167
and poverty 151, 163–4
tabulated income distributions 154–5
taxation and 152, 155, 162, 165
trade unions and 166
trends in 159–61
wages and 161
world wars and 161
Topel, R. H. 178, 478, 480
total income 107
Townsend, P. 333
trade union membership 238, 239–41, 243, 274, 676
and wage inequality 241, 245–51, 246, 247, 248, 250
trade unions 230–51
and collective bargaining 236–7
earnings inequality, attitudes to 243–5
effects/contribution of 232–3
and female wage inequality 238, 241, 251
and insurance 234
and power resources theory (PRT) 672–3
and racial minorities 233
representation and inequality 233–7
and top incomes 166
and unemployment 236
wage bargaining 166, 181
and wage compression 239–41
and wage differentials 237–9, 239
and wage dispersion 239–43
and wage inequality 241, 245–51, 246, 247, 248, 250
wage policies 237–9
and women 233, 238, 241, 251 see also trade union membership
Trannoy, A. 34
Trede, M. 60, 535
Trinidad & Tobago 607
Tsakloglou, P. 331
Tsui, K. 334
Tunisia 409, 607
Turkey 400, 409, 420, 607
Turkmenistan 607
Turner, H. A. 232
Uganda 607
Ukraine 607
UN World Institute for Development Research 591
UNDP (United Nations Development Program) 28
Human Development Index (HDI) 28, 335, 601 n. 3
Human Poverty Index 335
unemployment 236, 270–1, 423, 461 n., 464, 467, 631, 648
immigration and 461–4, 463, 469
United Kingdom 41
average earnings 291
child poverty 331, 656, 659
collective bargaining coverage 188–9, 189
cross-national patterns of family associations 502
disposable income 83, 84–5, 84, 87, 88–92, 88, 91, 93, 94
earnings inequality 184, 296
(p. 733) education 195, 412, 414, 420, 422, 422, 466
Fairness at Work legislation 234
fertility rates/age at first birth 302
gender pay gap 290, 293 n. 7, 296, 297, 303
health 394
household balance sheets 136
household investment: in risky financial assets 137
Households Below Average Incomes series 46
immigration 459, 461, 462, 463, 464, 465, 466
income inequality 446, 447
intergenerational income mobility 503, 507, 508, 509, 515
intrahousehold inequality 354–5
job assignments and glass ceiling 295
labor market participation 286, 287, 288, 461, 462
labor's share 120
low-income households' living standards 87
low pay 272
Low Pay Commission 274 n. 23
low pay-no pay cycle 270–1
market income 80, 81, 82, 83, 93, 94
minimum wage 274 n. 23, 275
mortality 400, 401
New Earnings Survey 212
part-time employment 286, 305
poverty 323, 325, 321, 327, 607
poverty line 650
redistribution 93, 95
Royal Commission on the Distribution of Income and Wealth 4, 155
social spending 667
Statistical Office 350
time use 348
top incomes 152–3, 156, 158, 159, 160, 165, 166, 167
trade unions 233, 235, 239, 240, 246
unemployment 463
wage dispersion 5, 240
wage inequality 186, 187, 188, 193, 196, 239, 241, 246, 414, 422, 422, 423
wealth inequality 138
wealth inequality indicators 131
wealth shares, top 1% 139
welfare state 640, 645, 648, 654
United Nations Development Program (UNDP) 28
United Nations Human Development Report 346–7, 348, 591
United Nations Statistical Office 355–6
United Nations University-World Institute for Development Economics Research 77–8
United States of America
American Time Use Survey (ATUS) 346
average earnings 291
Bureau of Economic Analysis 107
Bureau of Labor Statistics 346
business sector, percentage of net value added 111
Census Bureau 213–14, 214
child poverty 655–6, 656, 659, 660
collective bargaining coverage 188–9, 189
Congressional Budget Office 77 n. 5
consumption inequality 358
cross-national patterns of family associations 502
Current Population Survey 76 n., 212, 216, 240, 533
disposable income 82–3, 84, 85, 87, 88–92, 88, 91, 93, 94
Earned Income Tax Credit 11
earnings inequality 182, 183, 184, 296
economic inequality 445–6
education 181, 195–6, 298, 304, 409, 411, 412, 414, 420, 422, 422, 494–5
employee compensation 113
estate taxes 144
fertility rates/age at first birth 302
401(k) plans 129 n. 1, 134, 142
GDP 85–6
gender pay gap 178, 290, 296, 297, 438, 438
and globalization 581
health 142, 387, 394
household balance sheets 136
household investment: in risky financial assets 137
immigration 459, 464, 481, 483
income distribution 453
income inequality 358, 387, 447, 516
inequality 34, 41, 93, 394, 701
Inland Revenue Service 153
intergenerational income mobility 492, 494–5, 499, 503–4, 503, 505, 506–7, 508, 509, 514
intrahousehold inequality 355
IRAs 129, 134
job assignments and glass ceiling 294, 295
Keogh accounts 129, 134
labor income 177
labor market participation 286, 287, 288, 464
labor's share 107–8, 107, 114, 120
living standards 87, 88
low pay and skills 269
market income 80, 82, 83, 93, 94
maternity leave 305
(p. 734) minimum wage 274–6, 275
mortality 400, 401
National Academy of Science Consumer Expenditure Survey 357
national income 110, 112, 113–17
National Research Program (NRP) 153
NDP (Net Domestic Product) 107, 108
NPI (net property income) 109
non-market work 347
occupational distribution of women's employment 289
offshoring 579–80
one-parent households 358
part-time employment 286
pensions 133, 658
per capita income changes 589–90, 590
population shares/personal income 443–6, 444
poverty 4, 5, 177, 317, 321, 322–4, 323, 325, 327, 607, 655, 656, 659, 660
poverty definition 263 n. 5, 356–8
redistribution 95, 688
sex discrimination 304
skills and wages 178, 192
social spending 667
Survey of Consumer Finance (SCF) 129 & n. 1, 130
Taxpayer Compliance Research Program (TCRP) 153, 154
time use 348
top incomes 152–3, 156, 158, 159, 160, 165, 166, 167, 169
trade unions 235, 238, 239, 246, 274
unemployment 464
wage differentials 220–2, 221, 414
wage dispersion 5, 240
wage inequality 185–8, 186, 187, 190–1, 191–2, 193, 196, 241, 246, 422, 422, 423
wealth inequality indicators 131, 133
wealth shares, top 1% 139
welfare state 643, 644, 645–6, 645, 654
Universal Declaration on Human Rights 258
UNU-WIDER 132–3
Uruguay 348, 607
USSR 85, 697, 698–9
utilitarianism 24–5, 35–6, 37
utility, see happiness
Uzbekistan 607
Valetta, R. G. 449
van Doorslaer, E. 651
Van Herwaarden, F. G. 373
Van Kerm, P. 60, 62, 396, 535, 540
Van Reenen, J. 425
Veall, M. 164, 165
Veenhoven, R. 375
Venezuela 607
Vickery, C. 358
Vickrey, W. 353
Vietnam 607
Vijverberg, W. 505
Vilhuber, L. 214
violent crime 389
VofC (varieties of capitalism) 674, 676
Voitchovsky, S. 85
Von Wachter, T. 209
voter preferences and 669–72, 678, 679, 680–7
and beliefs 680–2
and race/ethnicity 683–5
and religion 682–3
wage compression 196, 239–41
wage differentials 207–9, 219–22, 219, 220, 221
and globalization 586–7, 586
trade unions and 237–9, 239
wage dispersion 5, 239–43, 242
wage distribution: low pay 259–61, 260
wage inequality 180–1, 239, 241, 246, 414
and deunionization 196
education and 192–5, 419–26, 420, 421, 422, 425
factors affecting 189–96, 190–1
international differences in 185–9, 186, 187
and poverty 267
sbtc (skill biased technology change) and 423–6, 425
trade unions and 241, 245–51, 246, 247, 248, 250
wage setting 196, 244
wage variability 246, 269 n. 15, 414
wages 161, 178, 192, 233, 240–1, 244
agricultural 108–9
education and 413–19, 417, 418
Wagner's Law 643
Wagstaff, A. 651
Waldenström, D. 154, 156, 165
Waldfogel, J. 293
Waldman, M. 209
Wallerstein, M. 643, 684
Walrasian (competitive) equilibrium 25
War on Poverty, USA 4
(p. 735) Warzynski, F. 209
Wascher, W. 262
Watts poverty index 612, 630 n.
wealth 127, 128
accumulated 8
and consumption 135–6
and corruption 559
data sources 129–30
definition 128–9
and economic growth 557–9
Gini coefficient 127
and income 135–6