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date: 26 May 2019

(p. 593) Index Introductory Note

(p. 593) Index

Introductory Note

References such as ‘178–9’ indicate (not necessarily continuous) discussion of a topic across a range of pages. Wherever possible in the case of topics with many references, these have been divided into sub-topics and/or only the most significant discussions of the topic are listed. Because the entire volume is about ‘Adam Smith’, the use of his name (and certain terms which occur throughout) as an entry point has been minimized. Information will be found under the corresponding detailed topics.

abilities 2, 4, 29, 31, 60–1, 338, 342–3
above-subsistence consumption 277
above-subsistence wages 279
abstraction 33, 48, 50, 109, 170–1, 235, 549
abundance 293, 381, 508
accumulation 4, 270, 273–4, 277, 279–82, 284, 298
acquired rights 394–5
activity levels 275, 284–5
actual spectators 208, 251, 561, 567, 574–6, 578–9
Adam Smith Problem 14, 203, 254–5, 376, 563
administration of justice 68, 277, 336, 397, 399, 405, 411
admiration 26, 47–8, 139–40, 233, 341, 365, 568–9
adultery 508–9
advantage 95–7, 123, 153, 245–6, 248, 279, 504
Aeneid511
aesthetic judgments 105, 110–11, 118, 120, 124, 163, 449
aesthetic theory 110–12, 121, 124
aesthetic thinking 106–8, 118, 124
aesthetics 105–24, 126, 160, 530
anti-Platonic 138
centrality 108, 121
discourse 106, 120–1
Kantian model 106, 124
affections 160–4, 166–7, 212–13, 223–4, 246, 374, 381–2
benevolent 238, 256, 475
private 507–8
African King 335–6
age of commerce 154, 422, 502, 505–7, 513, 519
Age of Reason 38, 47
agency 203–4, 207–11, 213, 215
intersubjective 207
persuasive 206, 213
agents 162–3, 177–9, 181–98, 212–13, 252–8, 561–2, 568–9
ambitious 238, 261
conscientious 186, 188–9, 192, 195
fiscal 319–20
moral 241, 334, 502
rational 198, 208, 549
aggregate demand 274–5, 277
growth of 274–5
agriculture 7, 9, 116, 122, 276, 398, 426
ahistorical analysis 526, 530, 533, 549
Al-Ubaydli, O. 346–7
Aldrich, Henry 379
alienated labour 532
alienated power 530, 532
alienation 66, 220, 479, 532
and division of labour 362–4
workers 268, 411, 532
(p. 594) ambassadors 420, 429, 431
ambition 7, 114, 166, 210, 359–60, 366–7, 479
non-blameworthy 260
and prudence 259–61
ambitious agents 238, 261
ambivalence of civil society 458–60
American colonies 14, 314, 330, 398, 422–3, 425–7
American independence 420, 426–7
amiable virtues 192, 222, 516
amour de soi243, 246, 248 see also self-love
amour-propre65, 69, 243, 247–8, 250
Amsterdam 316, 319–20
amusement 115, 118, 153, 155, 293, 343, 507
analogical thinking 107, 120
ancient languages 154–7, 169, 531
ancient philosophy 201, 211
ancient republics 61–2
anger 229, 260, 367, 479, 488, 491, 511
animosity 56, 211, 434, 458, 460
anonymous strangers 346–7
anthropology, economic 354–5, 368
anti-contractualism 408–11
Anti-Corn Law League 433
anti-Platonic aesthetics 138
anti-utilitarianism 408–11, 413
anxiety 55, 85, 145–6, 234, 367, 479, 507
appetites 65, 114, 166, 249
approbation 83, 203–5, 207–10, 225, 340–1, 358–9, 565–6
principle of 83, 223, 231
appropriateness 10, 148, 207, 210, 213, 409–10, 591
approximation 48–9, 130, 196, 489
successive 40–1, 48
archetype of perfection 130, 237
architecture 109, 117, 120, 123, 160, 167, 448
archival bonfire 23–4
ardent love 227, 259
aristocratic manners 360, 366, 368
aristocrats 358–9, 367
Aristotelian ideas 81–2, 525, 533
Aristotelian method 11, 79
armies 6–7, 92, 116, 343, 434, 471
artificers 14, 245, 258, 337
artificial reasoning 383, 477
artistic goods 122
artists 105, 110, 122, 130–1, 164
arts 56–60, 105–7, 109–13, 115–17, 120–4, 132–7, 140–1
liberal 57, 60, 112
two-dimensional 111, 113
visual 132–3, 160
Asia 357, 424
Aspromourgos, T. 281–5, 290, 298, 304
astronomy 11, 24, 43, 46–7, 49, 113, 233–5
history of 3, 5, 24, 34, 47, 106–8, 233–5
atheists 78, 474
atomistic individualism 67, 228
atonement 474–5
Augustine 168
austere morals 472–3
Austria 542–3
Author of Nature 560, 563
authority 139–40, 189–91, 214–15, 385, 427, 473, 507
of conscience 567–8
factual 178, 190
political 65, 202, 397
principle of 203, 394
and utility 202–4
aversion 83, 85, 194, 338, 401, 456, 459
axioms 25–6, 29, 34, 37, 82
Ayr Bank 7, 314–19, 328–9
Bacon, Francis 45, 77–83, 86, 88, 164
Bagehot, Walter 16, 321
Bagehot's rule 321
balance 70, 92, 279–80, 308, 421, 430, 435–6
balance of bargaining power 279–80, 284, 286
balance of labour demand 280–1
balance of payments deficit 327
balance of power 203, 279, 418, 429–30, 433–5
balance of trade surplus 308
ballads 140, 154, 314
Balliol 16, 466–7
Bank of England 312, 314–16, 319–21
Bank of Scotland 7, 308, 311, 313, 316
banking 7, 307–30
crises/panics 309–11, 313–17, 321
excess of 328
fractional reserve banking system 309–11
real bills doctrine 317–18, 321, 329
regulation 321, 577
small notes 311–14, 327, 329
system 7, 308–9, 311, 313, 329
banks 7, 307–18, 320, 328–9, 574–7
central 316, 318–20, 330, 574
limited liability 308–9
local 309, 317
private 320, 327
regulation 321, 577
Scottish 308–9, 311, 314–15
barbarism 444, 447–9, 456–7, 513, 590
barbarous nations 152, 447–8
bargaining power 279–80, 282–4, 286
approach to theory of wages 283–4
balance of 279–80, 284, 286
barter 33, 49, 128, 254, 291, 295–6, 355–6
Baumgarten, A.P. 108, 111
beasts 91–2
wild 32, 71, 334, 340, 446
beauty 105, 108, 110, 120–1, 129, 159–60, 224–5
love of 121, 292
beavers and deer 299–300
Beccaria, Cesare 393, 408–12, 414
beggars 252, 257, 407, 493
behaviour 587–8
economic 273, 544–5, 550
moral 27, 60, 97, 159, 334–5, 341, 345–7
beliefs 193–4, 236, 238, 469, 476–8, 480–1, 586
moral 550, 567
religious 8, 36, 432, 464, 470, 478, 570
bellicosity 61, 455–7
beneficence 211, 220, 225–6, 228–30, 232, 259, 451–2
benefits, economic 64, 425–6, 567
benevolence 96–7, 161–2, 223–4, 228–30, 253–7, 407, 475–6
disinterested 223, 401
limited 380, 382
universal 97, 480
benevolent affections 238, 256, 475
Bengal 342–3, 424
Bentham, Jeremy 67, 393, 409–14, 543, 551, 582–4
Berry, Christopher 38, 55, 144, 151, 169, 257, 494–5
better citizens 58, 60
bettering our condition, desire of 32, 81, 273
bills of exchange 317
biography 23–35, 203, 249, 474, 570; see also life
birth 1, 91, 202, 382, 385, 397–8, 495
of justice 401, 412
birth of justice 401, 412
Bishops 473–4
Blair, Hugh 167, 173, 473
blameworthiness 92, 244, 252, 260–1
Blaug, M 46, 293–4, 298, 560
Bolingbroke, H. 150
Boole, George 377, 379
bourgeois society 70, 448, 524
bourgeois virtues 61, 63–4, 124, 359
Boyle lecturers 45
brewers 127, 257–8, 285, 354, 587–8
British moralists 16, 378
Broadie, A. 161, 163, 188, 195, 201, 203, 221
Brockliss, L. 42, 45
Brown, Vivienne 188, 290, 487, 494
Bryce, J.C. 126, 140, 160, 164, 169–70, 172
bubbles:
Mississippi 328
South Sea 328–9
Buchanan, James 485, 542–4, 547–50, 555
Burke, Edmund 127, 425, 516
business plans 574–5
butcher, brewer and courtier 354–9
butchers 127, 257–8, 354, 572, 587–8
Butler, J. 78, 168, 249
Calvinist theology 3, 465
Campbell:
Archibald 3
George 172
Cantillon, R. 280, 302, 479
capacity:
growth 274–5
human 162, 355, 428, 491
intellectual 235, 363
sympathetic 127, 516
capital 267–86, 304, 313, 317, 319–21, 525–6, 528–32
accumulation 267, 275–7, 285, 298, 398
and economic development 272–5
human 285
circulating 270–1, 276, 317, 526–7
concept 270–2
constant 526, 528
fixed 270–1, 286, 317
and Marx 528–30
non-wage 271–2
stock 272, 275–6, 283
theory 276, 528
variable 526–7
capital punishment 447, 591
capitalism 286, 413, 514, 530, 535–6, 583
liberal 268, 274, 282, 286
no-nonsense 582, 584
capitalist exploitation 523, 527
capitalist mode of production 525, 533
capitalist production 503, 524–5, 527, 533
capitalist society 523, 530, 532–3, 536
Carmichael, Gersholm 13, 26, 90–1, 160, 417, 419–21, 424
carpets 110, 131, 133, 141
Carrasco, Maria A. 177–8, 182, 186, 189–90, 195
Cartesianism 39, 45, 49, 553
Catholic church 507, 510, 512
causation, final 565–7, 570
central banks 316, 318–20, 330, 574
chains 11, 25–6, 49, 107, 210, 317, 470
real 47, 49, 561, 564
character 117–18, 129–30, 168–71, 206–7, 236–7, 252–3, 258
human 114, 117, 344, 347, 354, 491–2
importance of 111–16
and Marx 530–3
moral, see moral character
and rhetoric 162–7
virtues of 219, 222
chastity 451, 504, 508–9
cheapness of provisions 31, 33
Checkland, S.G. 311, 314, 316, 577
chemistry 9, 107
chess-board 387–8
childhood credulity 465
China 335, 338, 423, 591
choice
public 547–9
rational 586–7
reasoned 585–7
Christian ethos 214
Christian theology/doctrine 464, 474–5, 480
Christianity 214, 423, 464, 466, 468–9, 474–5, 477–8
church 9, 26, 45, 59, 67, 464, 470–3
Catholic 507, 510, 512
church government 8, 473
Church of England 2, 465–6, 473
Church of Scotland 8, 468, 471, 473
circulating capital 270–1, 276, 317, 526–7
circulation 270, 308–9, 313, 316, 323, 328, 563
cities 2, 7, 141, 313, 316, 385, 398
citizens 65–7, 93, 394–5, 404–5, 407–8, 451, 494
better 58, 60
fellow 67, 257, 343, 407, 454, 458–60, 577
ordinary 363, 460
citizenship 56–7, 93, 205, 362
and civil society 454–5
and liberty 64–8
civic empathy 459
civic ethos 355, 362
civic virtue 67, 160, 362, 410
civil government 88–9, 212, 397–8, 444, 446–8, 452, 454–6
civil law 404, 446, 517, 576
civil magistrates 397, 407, 455, 471–2, 577
civil rights 497–8
civil society 10, 80, 87, 90, 368, 394, 460–1
ambivalence 458–60
(p. 597) and citizenship 454–5
and division of labour 455–8
genealogy of 445–9
and justice 451–4
and manners 449–51
Scottish theory 454
in Smith's time and ours 443–5
Civil War, English 83, 325, 466
civility 10, 63, 94, 213, 362, 443–61
cultivation of 446, 455
disposition of 444, 453, 456, 459
general rules of 194, 451
virtue of 449, 452, 461
civilization 12, 25, 28–9, 34, 68–70, 448, 456–7
commercial 354–5, 368, 448, 454, 457, 461
progress of 32, 60, 144, 353, 417
civilized nations 122, 291, 403, 407, 447–9, 456
civilized society 58–9, 63, 69, 123, 381–2, 453, 456–7
Clairaut, Alexis Claude de 44–5
clannishness 454–5
classes 9, 155, 229, 234, 245, 258–9, 530–1
classical languages see ancient languages
classification 146, 170–1, 395, 404
clergy 59, 165, 399, 471, 473, 492, 509
climate 505
clipping of coins 325–6
closed impartiality 589
coarse clay 495–6
Cobden, Richard 433
coercion 191, 229–30, 341–2, 401, 546, 549, 573
cognition 231–2, 258
Cohen, Bernard 38, 40, 42
coherence 107–8, 279, 374, 568
coins 269, 297, 307–8, 311–12, 322, 325–6, 377
clipping 325–6
silver 312, 325–6
colonial management 424–5
colonial policies 420, 426
colonies 316, 328, 420, 422–8
American 14, 314, 330, 398, 422, 425–7
colonists 420, 424–5
commerce 13–15, 60–2, 308–10, 334–7, 340–4, 346–8, 455
age of 154, 422
doux 60, 62, 347
foreign 12, 356–7, 456
and martial spirit 361–2
moral effects of 56, 72
and self-interest 253–9
commercial civilization 354–5, 368, 448, 454, 457, 461
commercial corruption 353, 361–4, 366, 368
commercial ethos 360
commercial exchanges 215, 256–7
commercial growth 226
commercial interdependence 355–6
commercial manners 364–6
commercial modernity 354–5, 358, 361
commercial motivation 258, 261
commercial nations 410, 455
commercial prosperity 61, 336
commercial relations 333–48
commercial sociability 209, 514
commercial society 61–4, 220, 272–4, 282, 334–6, 340–4, 533–5
modern 153, 202, 204, 212, 454, 456
Rousseau's critique of 54–5
well-ordered 273, 359
commercial spirit 361, 411
commercial virtues 227, 353, 360
commodities 31, 268, 270, 278, 280–1, 293–304, 526–7
exchange of 151, 256, 528
prices 33, 276, 301–2, 528
commodity production 269, 275, 301
common humanity 424, 458
common rules of morality 179, 193, 196–7, 199
commonality 172, 444, 530–1
commonwealth 14, 67, 78, 91–2, 386, 407, 531
community 50, 66, 69, 172–3, 180, 402–4, 445
cultural 178–9, 189
moral 359, 486–7
political 444–6, 454, 461
social 178, 189–90, 194
commutative justice 407, 452
compassion 127–8, 181, 365, 381, 516
competition 273–4, 278, 281, 321, 385, 387–8, 524–5
complexity 37, 44, 156, 206, 208, 242–3, 573–4
composition 39, 41, 44, 50, 153–7, 160–1, 167–8
concealed connections 48–9, 470
Condorcet, Marquis de 68, 485, 581
(p. 598) Conduitt, John 43
conjectural history 31–2, 113, 145, 151–2, 157, 165, 207
extraordinary 34
of government 211, 214
of law 201–2
connecting principles of nature 48–9, 107, 235, 469
conquest 116, 156, 420–1, 423, 432, 479
conscience 65, 177–9, 185–93, 196, 198, 205–6, 567–9
authority of 567–8
faculty of 178–9, 186, 188
conscientious agents 186, 188–9, 192, 195
conscientious moral self-judgment 178, 184–92, 195
conscientious spectators 187
consensus 98, 115, 344
modern 87
moral 178, 241
consent 71, 89, 405, 410, 548
consequentialist defence of liberty 541, 544, 550, 555
conservatives 541–2
Considerations concerning the First formation of Languages111, 113, 137, 152–7, 167, 169–71, 531
conspicuous consumption 277, 354, 366–7
constancy 144, 296–7, 516, 562
constant capital 526, 528
constructivism 551–2
consumer goods 273, 572–3
maximal 572
consumption 272, 274–7, 280–1, 283–5, 308, 456, 503
above-subsistence 277
conspicuous 277, 354, 366–7
luxury 278, 357
per capita 267, 274, 285
unproductive 276, 285
contact mechanism 39–40
contemporary relevance of Adam Smith 581–92
contempt 115, 122–3, 341, 365–6, 451, 489
contingency 280, 379, 381, 448, 505
continual state of war 66, 336, 356
contract(s) 88–9, 277, 279, 447, 451, 573, 589
labour 280–1, 283, 286
contractarianism 445–6, 589–90
contractualism 410, 412–13, 554
conveniences 32, 120, 122, 261, 277, 292–3, 335
conveniencies 120–1, 250, 261, 277, 297, 488, 504
conventions 35, 355–6, 363, 375, 380, 383, 421
social 279, 281
conversation 5, 28, 131, 135, 164, 339, 491
Cooper, Anthony Ashley, see Shaftesbury, third Earl of
cooperation 160, 256, 336, 345–7, 356, 382, 546
in production 345
self-interested 60
corn 295, 297, 310, 323–4
correspondence 105, 138, 144, 163, 270–1, 488, 513
corruption 57–8, 62–4, 69–70, 215, 399, 564–5, 569
classical topology of virtue-corruption 353–4
commercial 353, 361, 366, 368
of moderate virtues 364–6
of moral perception 250–3
of moral sentiments 354, 360, 364, 457–8
political 353–4
Smith as theorist of 353–68
Counter-Enlightenment 54–72
courage 62–3, 84, 114, 361, 430, 448, 531
intellectual 232, 237
mental 62
courtiers 354–5
coxcombs 193, 341, 366–8
creatures of desire 81, 85
credit 141, 315, 320, 432, 465, 504, 543
crunch 573–4, 576
credulity, childhood 465
crisis:
of 1772 314–17
economic 584, 587–8, 590
critic, Smith as 126–41
criticism 139, 159, 172, 251, 281, 353, 552–3
literary 140, 150
cultural community 178–9, 189
cultural groups 178, 189–90
(p. 599) cultural institutions 143–5, 150
historical 147, 150
cultural prejudices 178–9
culture 17, 30, 94, 111, 145–6, 151–2, 159
enlightenment 393, 414
customary subsistence 279–80, 283–4
customs 12, 32, 387, 444, 449, 464, 544
Daedalian wings of paper money 310, 321
D’Alembert, Jean 58, 77, 80, 88
Darwall, S. 94, 177, 207, 359, 486–8, 496, 562
Darwin, Charles 373, 579
dead labour 529
debts 315, 328, 344, 432, 447, 499, 573
deer and beavers 299–300
defence:
external 15, 277, 429
national 67, 434
social 405–6, 408
Deism 464, 474, 479, 481, 559
deity 27, 154, 253, 382, 384, 475–9, 567–70; see also God
delusions 119, 123, 135, 208, 249–50, 514
demand:
aggregate, see aggregate demand
effectual 275, 302–3
labour 279–81
democracy 215, 319, 385, 433, 523
dependants 71, 336, 357
dependence 71–2, 212, 215, 257, 301, 336, 505
personal 66, 355, 357
political 354
Descartes, R. 11, 38–40, 44, 47–9, 77–81, 86, 107
descriptive theory 267, 274, 374
desire 81, 85–6, 96–7, 225, 242–6,248–9, 254
creatures of 81, 85
of persuading 210, 268, 356
detached observer 160–1
deterrence 402, 404, 406, 408
development:
economic, see economic development
socio-economic, see socio-economic development
dexterity 268–70, 361, 383
Dictator Game 345
dictators 345, 497
Diderot, D. 56, 61, 65, 68–70, 77
diffusion of imperative to act justly 383–4
digestion 80, 563
dignity 55, 192, 220, 227, 359–60, 394, 428
Dimand, Robert 504–5, 507
diplomacy 418, 429–30, 433, 435
disappointed expectations 573–4
disapprobation 191, 341, 384, 449, 530, 565, 590
disapproval 183, 211–12, 339, 373, 403, 561–2, 564
discoveries 25, 37, 39, 42, 44–5, 49, 170
Newton 37, 48–9
discrete particulars 232, 234, 237
disestablishment 59, 384
disinterested benevolence 223, 401
disinterestedness 120–1
disorders, of human life 194, 207, 250
disparity 118, 124, 133–4, 385
case for 109–11
dispersed knowledge 550, 552
disproportionate enforcement 406
distance 12, 80, 91, 118, 205, 337–9, 543
perception of 337
physical 385
social 384–5
distinction of ranks 357–8, 507–8
distress 114, 135, 192, 255, 261, 315, 514–17
distribution 121, 273, 276, 284, 301–2, 563, 565
functional 276, 284–5
income 284, 286, 301
functional 276, 284
distributive justice 406–7, 451–2, 486, 494
divine artist 130, 132, 206
division of labour 31–3, 267–74, 290–1, 354–6, 361–3, 490, 530–1
and alienation 362–4
and civil society 455–8
developed 456–7
dynamics 272, 275, 285
divorce 71, 506, 508, 510–11
(p. 600) domination 204, 212, 355, 360, 427, 430, 532
Douglass, W. 329
doux commerce60, 62, 347
Dryden, John 107, 172
duties 66–7, 320–1, 383–4, 407, 428–9, 447–8, 473–4
moral 451–2, 492
ordinary 123, 363
dynamism 434, 583
early modern consensus 78
early modern thought 77–98
East India Company 424, 590
East Indies 343, 423–4, 590
Ebenstein, Alan 544, 550, 554
eclectic synthesis 222, 230
eclectic virtue theory 219–22, 230
economic activities 282, 285–6, 329, 396, 503, 530
real 326–7
unproductive 276
economic analysis 275, 277, 393, 409, 412, 503, 526
of law 411–14
economic anthropology 354–5, 368
economic behaviour 273, 544–5, 550
economic benefits 64, 425–6, 567
economic crisis 584, 587–8, 590
economic development 28, 267–9, 272–3, 285, 429, 456
and capital accumulation 272–5
of Scotland 308–9
economic efficiency 333, 413
economic equilibrium theory, general40, 46
economic exchanges 61, 257, 587
economic growth 267, 272, 274–5, 321, 329, 333, 347
economic history 298, 307, 329, 542, 544
economic inequalities 57, 282, 360
economic liberalism 283, 542
economic markets 535, 572
economic policy 267, 282–5, 329
economic progress 367, 396, 584
economic prosperity 60, 215, 551, 583
economic security 322
economic system 50, 144, 226, 284, 304, 503, 524
economic theory 274, 285, 292, 298, 412, 544, 548
economics 14, 50, 267–348, 372, 377, 540, 542–5
experimental 334, 344
father of 14, 50, 333
and law 412–13, 586–7
mainstream 583, 587
neo-classical 50, 548, 551
economy 122–3, 294–5, 308–9, 321–2, 325–6, 412, 470–1
exchange 546, 550
manufacturing 354, 361
market, see market economy
political, see political economy
primitive 299–300
real 326, 551
social 271, 274, 277
Edinburgh 2–5, 7–10, 23, 28–30, 42, 146, 172
University 8, 43, 172, 468
education 58, 88, 277–8, 383, 448–9, 490–2, 503–4
basic 343, 582
formal 58, 496
free 122, 585
public 123, 268
educational reforms 172, 504
educators 157, 180–1, 183–4
effectual demand 275, 302–3
efficacy 78–9, 303
efficiency, economic 333, 413
egalitarianism 485–7, 490–1, 495, 498, 541, 565
moral 486, 497, 499
normative 494
political 499
radical 485–6
socio-economic 486, 498
socio-political 486, 497–9
varieties of 496–9
egocentrism 220, 243, 248, 340
egoism 248, 445
elegance 26, 34, 168, 303, 388
Elliot, Gilbert 190–1, 198
(p. 601) eloquence 5, 105, 130, 144, 169, 343
judicial 115
Eltis, W.A. 275
Elysium and Tartarus paragraph 475
embodied labour theory of value 110, 424, 523, 527, 551
emotional state 147, 149, 182
empathy 148, 205
civic 459
empire 25, 28, 92, 215, 418, 422–8, 435–6
British 354, 427
Roman 116, 510
empirical evidence 145, 327
empirical generalizations 562, 564
empirical observations 561, 564
empirical phenomena 560, 564
empiricism 82, 87–9
Locke 96
employers 271, 279, 282, 286, 303, 359, 529
employment 15, 29, 91, 245, 268–70, 278–81, 547
Encyclopédie56–7, 247–9
enemies of God 476, 569
enforcement 203, 333, 393–4, 400, 573
disproportionate 406
Engels, Friedrich 529, 532, 534
English Civil War 83, 325, 466
enjoyment 117–18, 226–7, 397, 507
undisturbed 260
Enlightenment 8, 16, 24, 35, 38, 46, 220
and Counter-Enlightenment 54–72
culture 393, 414
French 4, 56, 60, 63–4, 68, 448
Juridical 393, 402–5, 407–8, 410, 412, 414
Scotland and beyond 10–13
spreading of 56–60
thinkers 54, 56, 68, 81, 108, 113
enthusiasm 2, 11, 59, 123, 364, 466, 472
poison of 59, 364, 472
religious 59–60, 472
entrepreneurship 273
envy 366, 397, 459
epic poems 117, 511
Epictetus 94, 119, 375, 481
Epicureanism 221, 409
Epicurus 84, 224
equality 11, 92–3, 187, 211, 342, 454, 485–99
human 485–90, 494
moral 449, 453, 497
of power 92, 385
socio-economic 494, 497–8
in Theory of Moral Sentiments and Wealth of Nations 487–94
equilibrium, reflective 189, 589
equity, science of 365
erroneous moral judgments 191–6
Essays on Philosophical Subjects5, 10, 47, 49, 106, 140, 358
ethical norms 163, 431
ethical practice 502, 509, 514, 518
ethical propriety 163
ethical virtues 219, 222–32, 236
ethics 16, 30, 46, 159–60, 163, 168, 219–21
natural 393, 410
Nicomachean 81, 208
normative 450, 569
Stoic 163
virtue 221–2, 231, 566, 570
ethos 61, 82, 163–4, 358
Christian 214
civic 355, 362
commercial 360
evaluation, moral 197, 207–8, 211, 578
everyman 13–14, 382
evolution 28, 144, 151, 153, 399–400, 504–5, 551–3
cultural 553
of language 152, 157
social 514, 553
evolutionary theory 535, 553
exact propriety 130, 196, 237
excellence 193, 204, 213, 222–3, 225, 229–30, 236
moral 120, 188
(p. 602) exchange 49–50, 253–4, 256–7, 267–8, 291–3, 299–300, 355–8
commercial 215, 256–7
economic 61, 257, 587
economies 546, 550
fair and deliberate 356, 360, 376
market 256, 259, 345, 355
ratios 294, 299–301
social 29–30
sympathetic 28, 129
exchangeability of language 151
exchangeable value 110, 254, 291–3, 296, 298, 301, 528
real measure of 291, 293–8
exclusion 65, 67, 378, 502–3, 507, 511, 541
of women 502
executors 5, 24, 46, 468–9
literary 144, 468
expectation 24, 33, 191, 227, 273, 286, 475–6
disappointed 573–4
experience 28–9, 87–9, 206–9, 232, 472, 477–80, 514–15
women's 502, 509, 519
experimental economics 334, 344
experimental games 345–6
experimental philosophy 39–41, 45, 80
experiments 25, 41, 43, 159, 232, 330
field 333–48
exploitation:
capitalist 523, 527
theory 529
unethical 164
exports 308, 318, 325, 327
exposure, market 346–7
external defence 15, 277, 429
external senses 106, 108–9, 231
Fable of the Bees32, 61, 94–5, 243, 546
factions 58, 69, 361, 364, 383, 444, 458
political 59, 459, 471, 539, 549
factual authority 178, 190
fair and deliberate exchange 356, 360, 376
fairness 34, 187, 345–6, 445
justice as 588–9
familiarity principle 255
family 179, 183–4, 241–2, 245, 256, 258–9, 503–4
members 10, 339, 395
fanaticism 60, 69, 364, 458–9, 472, 480
father of economics 14, 50, 333
federal union 427
fellow citizens 67, 257, 343, 407, 454, 458–60, 577
fellow feeling 118, 159–64, 166, 168–9, 181, 192, 212–13
female morality 508
Ferguson, Adam 8–9, 93–4, 172, 254, 429, 446–7, 457
feudal lords 71, 336, 367, 385
fiat currencies 318, 328, 330
fiction 97, 118–19, 146, 150, 206
fidelity 91, 451, 476, 509, 516, 559
field experiments 333–48
Filangieri, Gaetano 393, 408, 410, 412, 414
final causation 565–7, 570
final truth 39, 49
financial crises 314, 316, 319–20
financial markets 311, 560, 571–2, 578
first perceptions of right and wrong 85, 161–2, 232
fixed capital 270–1, 286, 317
Fleischacker, S. 59, 66, 82, 188–9, 230–1, 245–6, 257–8
Force, P. 55, 68, 84, 87, 213, 221, 246–7
Fordyce, Alexander 316
foreign commerce 12, 356–7, 456
foreign policy 421, 427, 432–3
foreign trade 308, 354
formal institutions 10, 344–5
formal manners 449–50, 455, 460–1
fortitude 227, 516
founder of modern economics 546, 591
four stages theory 7, 12, 70
fractional reserve banking system 309–11
fraud 310, 384, 572–3
free markets 333–4, 461, 546
free trade 34, 421, 425, 429, 433–4, 572
freedom 65–8, 212, 336–7, 404–5, 410–11, 497–8, 585
natural 65–6, 408
true 65, 67–8
(p. 603) French Enlightenment 4, 56, 60, 63–4, 68, 448
French Revolution 77, 485–6, 498, 542
Friedman, Milton 542–8, 550, 554
friendship 119, 253, 256, 336, 356, 376, 508
frugality 61, 226, 258
just 94
full-employment equilibrium growth framework 281
functional distribution 276, 284–5
functional relations 280, 304
Gaelic 152
gaiety 59, 113, 134–5, 472, 512
game, experimental 345–6
Gascoigne, J. 42, 44–5
gender 155–6, 515–16 see also women
inequality 505
general economic equilibrium theory 40, 46
general level of natural wages 279
general level of profit rates 281–2
general rules 60, 153, 155, 207–8, 214–15, 232–3, 256–7
of justice 207, 232
of morality 194–5, 232
generalities 234–5
generalizations 82, 138, 151, 235, 459
empirical 562, 564
inductive 195
generosity 97, 148, 165, 243, 403, 517–18, 586–7
masculine 517
Geneva 4, 66, 70, 135, 473
genres 97, 144–5, 150, 153, 165, 168–9, 171
gentleness 60, 62
gestures 132–4, 181, 243, 356, 376
Glasgow 2–4, 7–9, 13, 16, 23, 30, 172
edition 16, 24, 46, 55, 60, 126, 178–9
lectures 89, 311, 321, 363
University 3, 5, 26, 36, 146, 419, 464–5
glory 227, 247, 429
God 38–41, 79–80, 86, 91, 465–6, 470, 474–81; see also deity; religion
enemies of 476, 569
gold 295–6, 300, 308–10, 312–13, 317, 323, 327–9; see also precious metals
and silver money 308, 310, 588
good government 14, 66, 336, 356, 456
good offices, mutual 67, 356, 407, 577
goods 122, 224, 246, 260–1, 291–2, 493, 497
artistic 122
capital 270, 273–4, 276, 285–6
consumer 273, 572–3
luxury 117, 367
material 55, 250, 260, 341, 493, 497–9, 571
public 13, 15, 404, 582
worldly 224, 497
government 28–34, 88–9, 201–2, 319–20, 327–30, 394–7, 534–5
church 8, 473
conjectural history of 211, 214
good 14, 66, 336, 356, 456
limited 56, 89, 578
productive activity 283, 286
grammar 120, 139, 156, 167–70, 211
parts-of-speech 168
rational 159, 167–8, 170
rules of 139, 211
grammarians 139, 168, 222
grandeur 225, 476–7
gratitude 181, 212–13, 400, 402, 478, 561, 573
gravity 11, 27, 38–41, 48–50, 96, 516, 561
law of 38, 41, 43–4
see also universal gravitation Gray, John 552
greatness 121, 148, 261, 320, 356, 367–8, 421
Greek (language) 2, 46, 168, 170, 531
Greeks 492, 510–11
Gregory, David 43
Gregory, James 42–3
grief 163, 244, 252, 514, 562, 572
Griswold, C. 54–5, 133, 178, 251–3, 395–6, 486, 566–7
growth 7, 12, 25, 32, 220, 272–3, 275–7
commercial 226
economic 267, 272, 274–5, 321, 329, 333, 347
productivity 267, 272, 274, 276, 285
Guerlac, H. 42–5
habit 32, 88, 115, 211, 233, 253, 337
and outcome of political processes 386
habitual sympathy 374, 376, 382, 385, 503
habituation 234–5
Haldane, R.B. 16
Hanley, R. 55, 82, 115, 179–80, 190, 246–7, 260
happiness 61, 81–2, 230, 382, 476, 567, 569
individual 119, 180, 367, 402
of mankind 382–3, 477, 543
public 410, 547
hard money 309, 314
harm 89, 229, 338, 402, 404, 466, 573–6
harmony 84, 108, 137–8, 141, 241, 373
of sentiments and passions 193, 238, 475
social 180, 183–4, 543, 565
Harrington, James 78, 92–3, 419
Hayek, Friedrich 95, 258, 373, 380, 540, 542–5, 550–4
health 32, 180, 226–7, 234–5, 242, 259, 499
Heath, E. 560
heaven 260, 367, 475–6, 479
Hegel, G.W.F. 16, 445, 449, 456, 534
Henrich, Joseph 345–7
heresy 8, 465, 467–8, 476
heterosexual love 502, 510, 513, 519
hierarchy 225, 394, 453, 493–4
social 357, 384, 453, 493
in Theory of Moral Sentiments and Wealth of Nations 494–6
Hirschman, A. 60, 93, 213, 244, 246, 344
historians 28–9, 116, 143, 146–7, 149, 151, 171
history of 147, 154, 171
historical actors 147–50
historical analysis 72, 150, 545
historical evolution 307, 366, 400, 413, 461, 507, 553
historical jurisprudence 395
historical time 202, 208, 449, 533, 535
historicity 31, 456, 526, 534
historiography 143–7, 150, 410
history 29–30, 47–50, 69–70, 170–1, 214–16, 233–5, 353–436
of astronomy 3, 5, 24, 34, 47, 106–8, 233–5
conjectural, see conjectural history
economic 298, 307, 329, 542, 544
of historians 147, 154, 171
of jurisprudence 214, 395
natural 35, 46, 145, 171, 201, 353, 368
and poetics 143–58
speculative 161, 169
speech, style, and character 170–1
stadial 13, 151–3, 155, 161, 507
Hobbes, Thomas 30, 78, 80, 82–92, 94–5, 248, 444–6
Hollander, S. 281, 285, 293–4, 298, 300, 375, 386
Home, Henry, Lord Kames 3, 8–9, 37, 146, 151, 172, 467
Home, John 472–3
homo economicus412, 548, 550
honesty 64, 347, 358, 450–1
Hont, I. 55, 90, 202, 215, 335, 341, 375
Horne, George 466
Horowitz, Steven 544
hospitality 194, 450–1
rustic 336, 356–7, 447, 456
human beings 40, 46, 127–8, 145, 488–93, 495–7, 586
human character 114, 117, 344, 347, 354, 491–2; see also character
human equality 485–90, 494
human happiness, see happiness
human institutions 347, 373, 436, 543, 554
human life 28, 32, 60, 82, 94, 236, 497
disorders of 194, 207, 250
human motivation, see motivation
human nature 26–7, 143–7, 149–51, 158–9, 242–3, 255, 432–4
passions of 205, 210, 255, 487, 562
perfection of 193, 475
principles of 25–7, 29, 32, 144, 146–51, 157
science of 78, 82–3, 143–6, 149–50, 153, 158
human personality, see personality
human reasoning 586–7
human understanding 29, 87, 154
humanity 12, 63, 69–70, 243, 448–52, 455–6, 517–18
common 424, 458
indulgent 192, 516
Hume, David 14–16, 27–30, 380–1, 421, 428–31, 508–10, 554–5
on contingent property 380–3
Treatise of Human Nature 3, 27, 88, 143, 377–8, 380, 508
humility 488–9
hunger 71, 243, 334, 343
hunters 70, 299, 396, 398, 423, 493, 505
hunting societies 533–4
husbands 71, 503, 506–10, 515
Hutcheson, Francis 13, 27, 85, 90–1, 94–7, 172–3, 417–22
Hutton, James 468
Huygens, Christiaan 39, 44
hypocrisy 95, 366, 368
hypotheses 39–40, 304, 346, 406, 433
testable 334, 344
ideal observer 517, 568
ideal perfection 130–2, 237–8
Ignatieff, M. 55, 68, 207, 335, 341
ignorance 11, 14, 62, 69, 88, 363, 470
imagination 28–31, 105–10, 124, 203–8, 233–4, 241, 560–4
mimetic 128–9
moral 363
sympathetic 253, 255–6
imaginative acts 252–3, 255
imitation 109–11, 126–38, 164, 366–7, 378, 518
musical 135–7
perfect 110, 131, 133
imitative arts 3, 105, 109–11, 117–18, 126, 133–5, 137–8
immoral behaviours 341–2
immunities 420, 429, 454
impartial judgments 186, 197, 207, 334, 337, 363
impartial justice 68, 383, 386, 405
impartial perspective 253, 590
impartial resentment 481, 567, 573
impartial spectator 129–30, 177–9, 188–90, 251–3, 401–4, 517–18, 568–9
and global reasonaing 589–91
impartiality 179, 182–4, 186–90, 198, 337, 339–40, 487–8
closed 589
open 571, 589
imperative to act justly, diffusion of 383–4
imperfect rights 406–7, 452
imperial powers 422, 424–5
imperialism 418, 422, 426, 428
impersonality 257
imports 308, 327, 426
improper punishment 406
impropriety 112, 129, 186, 203, 207, 212, 407
improvement 8, 11–12, 47, 68–70, 81–2, 95, 429–30
impulse 128–9, 518
incentives 32, 309, 341, 347–8, 382
incivility 444, 459–60
inclinations 63, 66, 185, 248, 381, 513, 518
income 271–2, 278–9, 309, 323, 471
distribution 284, 286, 301
functional 276, 284
nominal 323
property 529
real 326–7
surplus 284–5
increasing labour specialization 268–9, 271
independence 64, 66–7, 69, 71, 195, 206, 211–12
American 420, 426–7
personal 67–8
India 423, 425, 590–1
East India Company 424, 590
indifference 57, 85, 118, 184–5, 187, 213, 230
state of 111, 184, 187
indignation 119, 397, 402, 404, 577
individual happiness 119, 180, 367, 402
individual liberty 64, 410, 422–3, 428
individualism 87, 230, 551
atomistic 67, 228
possessive 55
individuals, liberty and security of 66–7, 336, 356
induction 40–1, 48, 173, 232–3
inductive generalizations 195
indulgent humanity 192, 516
indulgent partiality 180, 183
industry 7, 9, 15, 259–61, 281, 309–10, 324
inequality 32, 54–5, 60, 69–70, 396–7, 489, 492–3
economic 57, 282, 360
extreme 453, 458
gender 505
(p. 606) inevitable 447, 457
natural 453, 505
socio-economic 493, 495
infanticide 11, 334–5, 374–5, 396, 449–50
inferior ranks 59, 123, 283, 335, 363–4, 380, 453
infidelity 508–10
inflation 318
inflationary pressures 325–6
inhabitants 14, 65–6, 121, 187, 212, 214, 422–3
injustice 211–12, 223–4, 381, 397, 423, 434, 488
innate characteristics 89, 159, 186, 209, 337, 340, 373
innate ideas 80, 96
innovations 14, 220, 268–9, 272–4, 434, 447–8, 540
instincts 96, 210, 243–4, 246, 356, 401, 409
of self-preservation 243
institutional order 413, 545, 550, 553–4
institutionalization 42, 346, 398
of art and literature 116–17
institutions 346–7, 373–4, 385, 395, 397–400, 410–11, 530–1
formal 10, 344–5
human 347, 373, 436, 543, 554
political 28, 425
public 244, 400, 503, 531
social 89, 544
instruction 97, 123, 146, 150, 164, 383, 470
moral 146, 504
religious 383, 470
rhetorical 160
instrumental music 105, 113, 118, 133–8
integration, market 345–7
intellectual capacities 235, 363
intellectual courage 232, 237
intellectual enterprise 540–1
intellectual virtues 219, 230–7, 362, 364
intelligence 489–90, 492
interdependence 72, 160, 162, 215, 590
commercial 355–6
interest rates 281, 283, 327, 575
legal rate 318–19
lowest market rate 318–19
intérêt248
interference 65–6, 405, 459
internalization 119, 178, 188, 205–6, 496, 578
international affairs 417–21, 427, 430, 435
international law 418, 420–1, 429–31, 433, 435
international order 419–21, 429–30, 433–5
international politics 418, 421–2, 435
international relations 418–19, 421–2, 428–36, 542
theory 433–6
intersubjective agency 207
intolerance 459
investment 220, 227, 275, 285, 311, 315, 317
invisible beings 469–70
invisible hand 12, 60, 268, 399, 411, 470, 479
irregularities 279, 560, 564–5, 569, 575
of nature 469
Jacobites 6
jealousy 421, 459, 508–9
joy 128, 244, 338, 480, 514, 516, 562
judge within 186–9, 192, 194–5, 198
judgments 183–4, 190–5, 203–8, 212–16, 232–3, 337–40, 373–7
aesthetic 105, 110–11, 118, 120, 124, 163, 449
impartial 186, 197, 207, 334, 337, 363
political 201, 207, 215
spectatorial 207, 214
sympathetic 214
of taste 118, 120
judicial eloquence 115
Juridical Enlightenment 393, 402–5, 407–8, 410, 412, 414
jurisprudence 3, 24, 28–33, 46, 214–15, 276–8, 393–5
history of 214, 395
and institutionalization of art and literature 116–17
Lectures on Jurisprudence, see Lectures on Jurisprudence
natural 26, 214, 393, 395, 419, 424, 431
rights and law in 393–400
just frugality 94
(p. 607) just war principles 420–1, 431–2
justice 28–31, 210–14, 228–30, 340, 399–408, 493–4, 587–90
administration of 68, 277, 336, 397, 399, 405, 411
birth of 401, 412
and civil society 451–4
commutative 407, 452
distributive 406–7, 451–2, 486, 494
as fairness 588–9
general rules of 207, 232
impartial 68, 383, 386, 405
laws of 380, 388, 394, 410, 459
natural 34, 342, 395
role of 400–8
rules of 31, 139, 195–7, 207, 213, 222, 567
Kames, Lord see Home, Henry
Kant, I. 10, 16, 38, 110–11, 118, 121, 496–7
Kantian model of aesthetics 106, 124
Kelly, Duncan 58, 65, 223
Kennedy, G. 7, 411, 418, 424, 426, 486, 542
kindness, mutual 228
kings 26, 88, 119, 203, 357, 399, 493
Kirkcaldy 1–4, 23, 467
Knight, Frank H. 378, 543–5
knowledge 11–12, 28–9, 45–7, 87–9, 106–9, 197–8, 255–6
dispersed 550, 552
local 258, 550
moral 199, 570
perfect 229, 551
scientific 41, 108, 578
labour 121–3, 267–86, 293–301, 303–4, 361–3, 455–8, 526–32
alienated 532
contract 280–1, 283, 286
dead 529
demand 279–81
division of, see division of labour
price of 297, 527
productive 122–3, 267, 275–9, 281, 285, 526
productivity 268–9, 272, 275–6, 282, 285
growth 267, 272, 274
quantity of 293–5, 298–300, 323, 527
skills 271, 276–7, 283
slave 67, 424
specialization 268–9, 271, 273
increasing 268–9, 271
supply 279, 281
growth 279–80
theory of value, see embodied labour theory of value
unproductive 267, 275–9, 281, 285, 526
labourers 141, 220, 268–9, 271, 276, 297, 303
laissez faire307, 313, 330, 542–3, 545
landed property 92–3, 528
language(s) 28, 30–2, 108–9, 112–13, 137, 149–73, 204–6
ancient/classical 154–7, 169, 531
Considerations concerning the First formation of Languages 111, 113, 137, 152–7, 167, 169–71, 531
evolution of 152, 157
exchangeability of 151
Greek 2, 46, 168, 170, 531
Latin 2, 9, 46, 86, 157, 168, 170–2
modern 152, 154–7, 167, 169, 270
progress of 24, 31, 155
and rhetoric 159–73
and the state 372–88
theological 474, 479–80
Latin 2, 9, 46, 86, 157, 168, 170–2
Law, John 326, 328, 330
Law and Economics movement 412–13
law(s) 11–13, 65–9, 211–12, 328–9, 393–414, 451–2, 572–3
civil 404, 446, 517, 576
conjectural history of 201–2
economic analysis of 411–14
and economics 412–13, 586–7
general principles of law and government 5, 23, 394, 535
of gravity 38, 41, 43–4
international 418, 420–1, 429–31, 433, 435
of nations 77, 421, 431
natural, see natural law
of nature 89, 91, 209, 396, 481, 510
rule of 64–5, 72, 282, 336, 358, 411, 455
self-imposed 65–6
universal 38, 41, 410
leadership 260
and time 384–6
Lectures on Jurisprudence116–17, 268–71, 290–3, 393–6, 404–8, 429–32, 446–8
women in 504–13
Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres24–5, 106–7, 111–16, 145–57, 159–60, 162–3, 165–71
legacy:
Newton 37, 40, 42, 44, 48
Smith 13–17, 36, 80, 82, 267, 285, 521–92
on behaviour 587–8
contemporary relevance 581–92
early reception 581–2
global reasonaing and the impartial spectator 589–91
labour and capital 285–6
language and rhetoric 172–3
markets 571–8
Marx see Marx, Karl
methods 561–6
morals 566–71
New Right, see New Right
pursuit of justice 588–9
legal enforcement, see enforcement
legal order 396, 398, 400–1, 413
legislation 259, 314, 318, 393–5, 400, 407, 414
Science of Legislation 393, 414
legislator 71, 119, 258, 356, 395, 405–8, 410–12
science of the 55, 212
legitimate legatees 551–2
Leibniz, Gottfried 40, 42, 44–5, 78, 90–1
lenders of last resort 316, 320–1
lending 15, 317, 319–21, 574–5
Levy, David 318, 337, 341, 343, 364, 453, 486
liberal capitalism 268, 274, 282, 286
liberal societies 66–7, 230
liberalism 64, 434, 486, 541–4, 551–2, 554
economic 283, 542
liberality 258, 516
liberalization 33–4
liberty 14–15, 71–2, 169, 215, 334–6, 547–8, 553–5
and citizenship 64–8
consequentialist defence of 541, 544, 550, 555
individual 64, 410, 422–3, 428
natural, see natural liberty
negative 66–7
personal 67, 355
political 60, 65, 207, 210, 215, 355, 362
and security of individuals 66–7, 336, 356
licentious systems 84, 225
Lieberman, D. 202, 394–5, 419, 424
life 1–5; see also biography
lifestyle 366–7
limited benevolence 380, 382
limited government 56, 89, 578
limited liability banks 308–9
literary criticism 140, 150
literary evidence 512–13
literary executors 144, 468
literature 105–7, 111–16, 118–20, 122, 144–6, 150, 160–2
branches of 5, 105, 144
Livy 116, 143–5, 165, 171
loans 307, 309, 316, 572–3
local banks 309, 317
local knowledge 258, 550
location 45, 108, 259, 309, 443, 461, 505
Locke, John 77–8, 85, 87–90, 94, 202, 214–15, 444–6
empiricism 96
logic 3, 26, 30, 46, 81, 108, 377
London 6–7, 23, 311–12, 316, 358, 424, 466
lords 6–7, 71, 203, 385, 478
feudal 71, 336, 367, 385
love 213–14, 227–9, 243–4, 246–8, 428, 467, 509–13
ardent 227, 259
of beauty 121, 292
heterosexual 502, 510, 513, 519
of mankind 428, 478
mutual 253, 451
passion of 508, 510
of praise 225–8, 517
romantic 117, 511–13, 519
of self, see self-love
lovers 512–13, 515
lower classes 453, 457
luck 70, 470, 565, 575
Lukasiewicz, Jan 377, 381
(p. 609) luxury 32, 62, 93–5, 117, 122–3, 214–15, 277–8
consumption 278, 357
goods 117, 367
growth of 93, 361, 457
MacCormick, N. 13, 394–5, 410, 412–13
Macfie, A.L. 163, 178–9, 246, 254–5, 274, 374, 376
Machiavelli 92, 433
machinery 80, 83, 268–70, 273, 276, 377, 479
Maclaurin, Colin 43–4
McLean, Iain 333, 473, 485–6, 539
macroeconomic views 322–9
Magee, William 474
magistrates 385, 397, 404, 406, 424, 471
civil 397, 407, 455, 471–2, 577
magnanimity 191, 209, 225–30, 232, 236, 451, 460
Malebranche, Nicolas 26, 44, 79
Malloy, R.P. 394, 410–11, 413
man within 386–7, 477, 575
man without 477
management 8, 212, 319, 421, 424
colonial 424–5
Mandeville, Bernard 60–1, 83–4, 87, 94–5, 225, 243, 247–8
mankind, love of 428, 478
manners 10, 358, 362, 366–7, 444, 453–5, 461
aristocratic 360, 366, 368
and civil society 449–51
commercial 364–6
property and 12, 358
manufacturers 14, 33, 258, 301, 334, 341–3, 360–1
Marcus Aurelius 247
marginal utility 292
Marischal College 8–9
market economy 582–5, 587–8
unregulated 584
market exchanges 256, 259, 345, 355
market exposure 346–7
market integration 345–7
market prices 273, 278, 291, 302–4, 328, 549, 572
market rates 278, 283, 318–19, 329
market society 443–5, 546
market system 34, 548, 583, 585
market wages 279
markets 33–5, 267–8, 302–3, 333–4, 344–8, 559–61, 582–5
economic 535, 572
financial 311, 560, 571–2, 578
fostering morality 334–40
free 333–4, 461, 546
legacy 571–8
morality fostering 340–3
and morals 60–4
negative consequences on morality 343–4
testable hypothesis oncerning effects on morality 344–7
marriage 117, 335, 355, 501–2, 504–5, 508–12, 531
institution of 117, 508, 510
Marshall, Alfred 17
martial spirit 62–3, 123, 343, 348, 364, 368
and commerce 361–2
martial virtues 93, 268, 361, 457
Marx, Karl 13, 268, 280, 444–5, 456, 523–36, 583–4
and character 530–3
general attitude towards Smith 524–7
money and capital 528–30
state and change 533–6
value theory 527–8
master systems 144–5
material goods 55, 250, 260, 341, 493, 497–9, 571
material self-betterment 273–4
materialism 90, 400, 444, 456, 481, 512, 530–1
mathematics 2, 37, 43, 45–6, 49, 86
Maupertuis, Pierre Louis 44–5
maximization of utility 400, 410
meaning 108–9
meanness 258
means of production 269–70, 276, 456, 531
mechanical philosophy 39–40, 44, 47, 49
mechanistic approach 79–80
mediocrity 210, 213, 230
melodic music 137
melody 134, 137–8
Menger, Carl 544, 551
menial servants 122, 276–8
(p. 610) mental courage 62
mental mutilation 62, 220, 236, 354, 362, 368
mercantile system 14, 267, 340, 342, 360
merchants 14–15, 33, 258, 341–4, 360–1, 386, 426
mere propriety 193, 196
meta-ethics 178, 189–90, 198, 568
metaphors 56, 150, 160, 308, 310–11, 354, 399
metaphysics 26, 46, 78–9, 88, 96, 164, 378–9
methodology 39, 42, 44, 48, 50, 540–1, 570
legacy 561–6
Newtonian 36, 41, 47, 49–50, 565
Mexico 423
middle ranks 119, 360
military service 420, 447, 457, 506
militias 63, 93, 362, 420, 429
Mill, John Stuart 491, 583
Millar, John 4, 11, 30, 80, 83, 507–8, 512–13
Milton, John 107
mimesis 126, 132, 141, 167
mimetic imagination 128–9
mines 322–4, 326, 473
mint 38, 311–12
mirror, society as 85, 126, 129, 209, 477
misrepresentations 207, 242, 250–1
Mississippi bubble 328
modal logics 379
moderate selfishness 211
moderate virtues
corruption of 364–6
and obsequiousness 359–61
moderation 61, 163, 229, 411, 448, 450, 453
modern commercial society 153, 202, 204, 212, 454, 456
modern consensus 87
early 78
modern languages 152, 154–7, 167, 169, 270
modern law 411–13
modern period, early 354, 361–2
modern thought, early 81–98
modernism 84–5
modernity, commercial 354–5, 358, 361
modesty 197, 492, 504, 508–9
real 197
monetary expansion, stimulative effects of 326–7
money 291, 296, 307–30, 345–6, 533, 574–6, 587–8
gold and silver 308, 310, 588
hard 309, 314
and Marx 528–30
prices 291, 294, 297, 300
quantity of 296–7, 322, 324
real bills doctrine 317–18, 321, 329
small notes 311–14, 327, 329
supply 307–9, 317, 326, 545
money stock 322–6
money wages 283, 294, 375
monopolies 13, 310, 312, 341–2, 348, 426, 471
monopolistic spirit 353, 361
Montes, Leonidas 12, 14, 93, 219, 221, 226, 228–9
Montesquieu, C. 12, 56–7, 60–2, 64–5, 68–70, 505, 507–8
moral agents 241, 334, 502
moral behaviour 27, 60, 97, 159, 334–5, 341, 345–7
moral beliefs 550, 567
moral character 67, 161, 164, 179, 258, 461, 492
rounded 359–60
moral community 359, 486–7
moral conduct, see moral behaviour
moral conscience 178, 190
moral consensus 178, 241
moral critiques 560, 564, 566
moral duties 451–2, 492
moral education 88, 97, 144–9, 178–83, 193, 195, 198
moral egalitarianism 486, 497, 499
moral equality 449, 453, 497
moral evaluation 197, 207–8, 211, 578
moral excellence 120, 188
moral imagination 363
moral instruction 146, 504
moral judges 177, 181, 183, 187–9, 197
moral judgments 148, 177–83, 188–91, 198–9, 205, 231–2, 337–8
erroneous 191–6
naïve 180–3
(p. 611) moral knowledge 199, 570
moral life 131, 238, 241, 252, 353, 361
moral norms 189, 220, 230, 559, 566, 572
moral perception 242, 250
corruption of 250–3
moral perfection 238, 494
moral perspective 253, 568
moral psychology 81, 198–9, 255, 444
moral reasoning 209, 589
moral rules 189, 233, 410, 451, 454, 560, 568–9
moral science, see morals, science of
moral self-judgment 178, 184–92, 195
moral sense 9, 94, 96–7, 186, 570
moral sentiments 117–21, 126–8, 162, 364–6, 559–60, 563–5, 569–70; see also Theory of Moral Sentiments
corruption of 354, 360, 364, 457–8
natural 450, 560, 563, 567, 571, 577
moral superiority 278, 448, 461
moral systems 344, 374, 559
moral thought 159–60, 163, 359, 487
moral truth 188, 196
moral understanding 197, 242
moral values 347, 435, 444, 560, 567–8
moral virtues 94, 162, 363, 367
moralists 10, 63, 77, 83, 93, 139, 248
British 16, 378
Scottish 366, 458
Stoic 94
morality 117–20, 196–7, 208, 333–6, 339–40, 342–4, 565–70
common rules of 179, 193, 196–7, 199
fostering markets 340–3
general rules of 194–5, 232
markets fostering 334–40
negative consequences of markets 343–4
Stoic 560
testable hypothesis oncerning effects of markets 344–7
morals 59–60, 78–9, 241–2, 340, 345–8, 450, 559–61
austere 472–3
legacy 566–71
and markets 60–4
science of 27, 42, 81, 90, 560, 565
Morgan, A. de379
Morrow, Glenn 16, 205, 373, 382
mother 1–4, 465, 474, 482, 501, 504, 516
and Smith's religion 467–8
motivation 85–6, 198, 242, 256, 273, 376, 586–7
commercial/economic 258, 261
self-interested 382
Murdoch, Iris 251–2
music 26, 105, 109, 122, 130–1, 133–7, 154
instrumental 105, 113, 118, 133–8
melodic 137
vocal 134–5
musical imitation 135–7
mutilation, mental 62, 220, 236, 354, 362, 368
mutual adjustment, sympathetic 549, 553
mutual good offices 67, 356, 407, 577
mutual kindness 228
mutual sympathy 126, 181, 185, 192–3, 195, 197, 208
mutuality 443–4, 549
naïve moral judgment 180–3
naïve trust 179, 183, 189, 198
narration 112, 165
narrative style 149, 154
narrowness 258, 480, 586, 588
national defence 67, 434
national interest 426–7, 433, 590
national security 429, 435
nationalism 444, 459
nations 12–13, 90–1, 396, 425–9, 431, 450, 459–60
civilized 122, 291, 403, 407, 447–9, 456
commercial 410, 455
laws of 77, 421, 431
savage 71, 154, 446, 450, 457, 461
uncivilized 447–8, 456
Wealth of Nations, see Wealth of Nations
natural ethics 393, 410
natural freedom 65–6, 408
natural history 35, 46, 145, 171, 201, 353, 368
(p. 612) natural inequalities 453, 505
natural jurisprudence 26, 214, 393, 395, 419, 424, 431
natural justice 34, 342, 395
natural law 12–13, 26, 67, 86–90, 412, 421, 431
doctrine of 393–4, 410, 413
international 419
traditions 86, 291, 435, 509
natural liberty 258–9, 313, 388, 420, 434–5, 546–7, 577–8
system of 15, 67, 258–9, 388, 394, 572
natural moral sentiments 450, 560, 563, 567, 571, 577
natural obligations 89, 431
natural order 82, 160, 387, 543, 566
natural phenomena 11, 40, 42
natural philosophy 2, 11, 26, 36–7, 39–47, 81–2, 107–8
natural prices 110, 273, 278, 291, 295, 302–4, 571–2
natural rates 278–9, 281, 302–4
natural religion 30, 464, 474, 570
natural rights 394–5, 406, 412, 420, 423
natural science 45, 565
natural self-regard 225–6
natural sentiments 205, 243, 364, 374, 384, 478
natural sociability 201–3, 209, 356, 358
natural sympathy 31, 183–4, 187, 198–9, 444
natural theology 29, 45, 221, 393, 474, 570
natural wages 279–81, 302, 304
natural world 38, 108, 113, 201, 561
nature
connecting principles of 48–9, 107, 235, 469
human, see human nature
irregularities of 469
law(s) of 89, 91, 209, 396, 481, 510
state of 65, 69, 89, 91, 420, 446–7
various appearances of 48–9, 470
necessaries 121–2, 284, 292–3, 297, 335, 377, 379
necessary scarcity 379–83
negative liberties 66–7
negative virtues 207, 211–12, 403, 407
neighbours 67, 71, 178, 196, 214, 356, 474–5
neo-classical economics 50, 548, 551
neo-liberals 539, 542
nerves 80, 201, 228, 253, 403, 577
New Right 539–55
Buchanan 485, 542–4, 547–50, 555
Friedman 542–8, 550, 554
and Hume 554–5
meaning 541–5
Newton, Sir Isaac 11–12, 25–7, 36–45, 47–50, 77–8, 82, 564
death 42–3
discoveries 37, 48–9
legacy 37, 40, 42, 44, 48
methodology 36, 41, 47, 49–50, 565
Principia 38–41
reception 37, 42–5
system 9, 11–12, 25, 47, 49–50
Newtonian method 11, 37, 41, 44, 46–7, 50, 564
Newtonian physics 43, 45–6
Newtonianism 12, 36–50, 559
and Smith 45–50
Nicole, P. 84, 87, 248
nobility 226–8, 230, 237, 357, 362, 385, 425
nobles 6, 92, 123, 212, 224–5, 227–8, 358
nominal income 323
nominal prices 293, 296–7, 323
non-blameworthy ambition 260
non-intervention 282–3, 541
non-wage capital 271–2
normative egalitarianism 494
normative ethics 450, 569
norms 114, 119, 178–9, 181, 233, 241, 374–6
ethical 163, 431
moral 189, 220, 230, 559, 566, 572
social 178, 181, 183, 189, 191–2, 194, 272
nouns 155–6, 168, 235
Nozick, Robert 485, 542, 548
Nyland, Chris 504–6, 508
obedience 65–7, 86, 89, 202
objectivity 407
obligations 5, 15, 24, 92, 214, 381–3, 452
natural 89, 431
political 30, 202, 549
obsequiousness 354–60, 365, 367–8
and moderate virtues 359–61
(p. 613) observers 120, 147, 515–17, 562, 577
detached 160–1
ideal 517, 568
sympathetic 514, 516
Of the External Senses 88, 106, 108–9
open impartiality 571, 589
oppression 360, 505
option clauses 311, 313–14, 321, 327, 329
opulence 33, 116, 152, 155, 212, 220, 354–7
progress of 31–2, 34, 213, 356
universal 220, 222, 274, 279–80, 286
ordinary duties of private life 123, 363
ordinary monetary units 296–7
ordinary prices 296–7, 526
ordination 2, 466
original object 131–2, 135
over-issue, general 309, 318
Oxford 2, 9, 27, 29, 43, 47, 88
and Smith's religion 465–7
Pack, Spencer J. 55, 220, 222, 267, 377–8, 486, 498
pagan superstition 469, 477
Paganelli, Maria Pia 118, 257, 259, 283, 310, 318, 326
pain 83, 85, 96, 210, 242–4, 409, 562
Paris 4, 14, 44, 68, 83, 276, 358
Parliaments 6, 8, 15, 66, 203, 308, 313
parochialism 214, 454–5, 571, 590
partiality 109, 118, 179–80, 184, 189–90, 197, 454
indulgent 180, 183
of sympathy 203
participatory republics 65–7
particulars 233–5, 237, 511, 513
discrete 232, 234, 237
partnerships 308–9, 315, 504
parts-of-speech grammar 168
passions 181–2, 210, 242–5, 249, 257–61, 338–40, 510–13
of human nature 205, 210, 255, 487, 562
selfish 180, 184, 187, 194, 243–5, 251, 254
social 243
unsocial 119, 211, 244, 460
violent 244, 460
pastoralism 505–6, 512–13
pathos 137, 163
patience 138, 290, 360, 562
peace 86, 91, 116, 343–4, 365, 430–1, 433–4
public 407, 471, 577
Peach, T. 292, 294–5, 297–8, 300
Peart, Sandra 343, 364, 453, 458, 486, 490
peers 179, 183–4, 355, 359, 458, 576
Pennsylvania 327, 420
perception 85, 96, 108, 113, 205, 251, 337
of distance 337
moral 242, 250
subjective 108, 297
visual 160, 205
perfect imitation 110, 131, 133
perfect knowledge 229, 551
perfect rights 406–7, 452
perfection 48, 69, 96, 130, 139, 169, 192–3
archetype of 130, 237
of human nature 193, 475
moral 238, 494
pursuit of 236–8
personal dependence 66, 355, 357
personal independence 67–8
personal liberty 67, 355
personal rights 214, 395, 404
personality 26–7, 114, 354, 362
perspective 119, 121, 129, 250–1, 367–8, 487, 566–8
impartial 253, 590
moral 253, 568
perspicuity 150–1, 156, 159–60, 164, 168–9, 290
persuading 161, 210, 356
desire of 210, 268, 356
persuasion 31, 164, 204, 355–6, 376, 378, 511
persuasive agency 206, 213
Peru 295, 423
petticatus508
phenomena 39–41, 44, 46, 50, 223, 236, 560–2
empirical 560, 564
natural 11, 40, 42
social 36, 48
(p. 614) Phillipson, Nicholas 2–3, 9–10, 55, 87–8, 145, 248, 570
philosophy 23–7, 30–3, 46–9, 78–81, 105–7, 171–3, 469–70
ancient 201, 211
experimental 39–41, 45, 80
political 92, 588
physical distance 385
physics 45–6, 88, 231
Newtonian 43, 45–6
physiocrats 4, 14, 34, 258, 525–7, 543, 553
Pitt, William 15
plain style 114, 151, 154, 157, 384
Plato 77, 132, 223, 251, 375, 490–1, 590
Pocock, J. 10, 13, 56, 70, 93, 150–1, 362–4
poems 112, 118, 120, 139, 141, 510–11
epic 117, 511
poetics 143–58
poetry 112–13, 133–4, 139–40, 146, 150, 152–7, 168–9
composition of 154–5
poets 105, 119, 136, 140, 153–4, 171, 380
poison of enthusiasm 59, 364, 472
Polanyi, Karl 490
polis 23–4, 93, 444, 446, 448, 450, 457
politeness 10, 63, 94, 359, 444, 448–54, 460–1
political community 444–6, 454, 461
political corruption 353–4
political dependence 354
political economy 23–4, 29–31, 33–4, 215, 270–1, 273–5, 524–6
bourgeois 526
classical 525
principles of 29, 583
political egalitarianism 499
political faction(s) 59, 459, 471, 539, 549
political forms 215, 353, 504, 513
political institutions 28, 425
political judgment 201, 207, 215
political liberty 60, 65, 207, 210, 215, 355, 362
political obligation 30, 202, 549
political philosophy 92, 588
political power 6, 69, 202, 497
political rights 497–8
political society 29, 169, 380, 445–6
political stability 28, 34, 494–5
political theory 160, 202, 207, 214–15, 418, 544, 548–9
political thought 33–4, 87, 89, 160, 215, 231, 419
politics 28–30, 67–8, 205, 211–12, 353–436, 485, 542–3
international 418, 421–2, 435
power 430, 433
world 418, 428, 431, 433–4
poor man's son 121, 226, 260, 366–8, 479
Pope, Alexander 38, 117, 140, 150, 156–7, 172, 513
popular superstition 59, 472
population 7–8, 67, 156, 202, 268, 277, 432
positive laws 342, 394–5, 431
Posner, Richard 413
possessive individualism 55
poverty 55, 71, 128, 334–5, 342, 493, 497–8
power 91–2, 260–1, 385, 396–7, 399, 407, 505–6
alienated 530,