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date: 21 October 2019

Abstract and Keywords

Tuoma Mannermaa and his students argue that Luther taught justification through God’s favour and gift, which brings about the ‘theosis’ or divinization of the believer that takes place when faith grasps Christ for itself. Members of the ‘Finnish school’ have investigated Luther’s insistence on the reality of new righteousness in the Christian, his use of the Golden Rule, his view of the Holy Spirit’s eliciting love from faith, and more recently his view of gift and ‘divine sociality’. Others have explored the relationship of this position to that of Andreas Osiander and ‘union with Christ’ as a concept in later Lutheranism. The Mannermaa school emphasizes the necessity of both forensic and effective (transformatory) affirmations of justification, the ‘real-ontic’ unity of Christ and Christian, and use of ancient and medieval concepts of salvation to describe union with Christ. This view has been particularly significant for ecumenical discussions.

Keywords: justification by faith, forensic justification, theosis, Finnish school, union with Christ, gift, Golden Rule

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