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date: 17 June 2019

Abstract and Keywords

The peculiar polarization between pietism’s affective ‘theology of the heart’ and the Enlightenment’s rationalistic philosophical theology, both resting on foundationalist bases, resulted in these rival movements’ criticism of certain elements of Luther’s thought and appropriation and adaptation of other elements. For different reasons both viewed Luther as a man who misunderstood himself and failed to depart sufficiently from medieval Catholicism. In a more peaceful Europe, with various kinds of progress at hand, neither movement could grasp the apocalyptic eschatology at the heart of Luther’s efforts. Deeper, more precise analysis of Luther’s thought can speak to changes in modern scholarly estimates of religious spirituality and rational mastery of reality.

Keywords: foundationalism, rationalism, pietism, Philipp Jakob Spener, August Hermann Francke, Samuel Pufendorf, Christian Thomasius, Johann Arndt

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