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date: 19 October 2019

Abstract and Keywords

Roman Catholic response to Luther’s Ninety-five Theses focused on ecclesiastical authority, penance, and justification by faith and good works. Controversy between Luther and these opponents became more diffuse as various Catholic theologians critiqued Luther’s teaching on specific teachings, e.g. Kaspar Schatzgeyer and Cardinal Cajetan on ecclesiology, Hieronymus Emser on his Bible translation, Johannes Eck on several topics. Johannes Cochlaeus pioneered polemical biography in his treatment of Luther’s life. Luther formed vital elements of his thought in dialogue with and reaction to these Catholic critics. Converts returning to Roman obedience from the Evangelical side and colloquies between Luther’s followers and Catholic theologians moved such exchanges to a different level by 1540.

Keywords: Roman Catholicism, Johannes Eck, ecclesiology, penance, good works

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