Abstract and Keywords
The literature of a deepening fifteenth-century monastic spirituality focused on humility, based on Bonaventure and Bernard of Clairvaux, expressed in works from the 'Upper-Rhenish' circle, especially JohannesTauler, provided significant impetus to Luther's theological development. He turned away from Dionysian mysticism, but Taulerian mystical theology, emphasizing the centrality of penance, remorse for sin, and the comfort given by Christ's suffering and death, played a crucial role in cultivating his sense of the unconditional nature of God's grace. These ideas led him into his critique of indulgence practice and to editing the Theologia deutsch, his first published work. He grasped many insights of 'mystical theologians' and transformed them, largely moving beyond them.
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