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date: 17 February 2020

(p. 1258) Subject Index

(p. 1258) Subject Index

Note: all law cases are indexed under ‘legal cases’.

Abu-Grahib 230
Abuja 515, 516
accountability:
and changed concepts of 490
and coalitions 200
and comparative politics 554, 555
and institutional design 774
and multi-party systems 200
and party systems 620–1
and perverse accountability (clientelism) 657
and political representation 199, 201
and representative democracy 891
accounting standards 233
action:
and institutions of democratic governance 480–1
and reconciling logics of 490–4
and rules 479
relationship with 481–5
adaptation, and institutional change 168–9
administrative review, and judicialization of politics 255
administrative state, and bureaucracy 849–50
advertising, and impact on voting behavior 795–7
advocacy coalitions 895
and policy change 906–8
affective intelligence 348–9
Africa:
and political culture 326
and state formation 581
African Union 517
and regulation 233
Afrobarometer 322, 326
agency, and structure 149–50, 471–3
agenda control:
in the legislature 792
and selective retention 945–6
agent-based modeling, and party competition 631–2
agreement theories 95
agriculture, and influence on political theory 91
Algeria, and civil war onset 1177–8, 1180–3
Alliance for the Mentally Ill 975
alternative medicine 905–6
altruism 800, 868
and cooperation 868
and mutualistic cooperation 869–71 see also cooperation
ambiguity, and public policy 967–8, 971, 972
American Journal of Political Science 16, 68
American National Election Studies (ANES) 347
American Political Science Association 8, 9, 243, 616
Foundations of Political Theory section 68
Political Methodology Section 1037
Qualitative and Multi-Method Research section 1037
Theory, Policy and Society group 81–2
American Political Science Review 15, 16, 68, 243, 244, 1006, 1021
American Social Science Association 9, 13
American Society for Political and Legal Philosophy 68
Americans with Disabilities Act 298
anarchy, and international relations theory 748, 749, 750–1, 763
Annual Review of Political Science 17
anti-slavery movement 534–5
appropriateness:
and institutions of democratic governance 480–1
and logic of 478
and reconciling logics of action 490–4
and rule-based action 479
and rules of 478
dynamics of 485–9
relationship with action 481–5
arbitration 299
Argentina 639
and clientelism 649, 653–4, 661, 665
and Supreme Court 259
Arrow’s theorem 685, 811, 815, 826
ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) 256, 517
AsiaBarometer 322
Association for Political Theory 69
attrition, and field experiments 1123–4
audit society 220, 233
(p. 1259) Auschwitz concentration camp 507
Australia 261
and political science 144–5
and welfare state 905
Australian ballots 664
Austria 621
authoritarianism 550
and democratization 598, 599, 600, 602, 603, 604, 606–11
and government as steering 897–8
and warfare 577
authority:
and global society 754
and public policy 983–4
autocracy 550
and power 6
Autonomia movement 71–2
balance of power:
and the English School 737, 740
and policy dynamics 939–40
Balkans 511
balloting systems, and clientelism 664–5
Bangladesh 260
Bank of England 219, 226
bargaining theory 832
basic income/endowment 72
Basle Committee 233
battered woman syndrome 315
Bayesian learning, and processing of information 353–6
behavioral decision theory 353
behavioral revolution 10–11, 13, 21
and impact of 321–2
and institutionalism 161
and sources of 23
behavioralism:
and political methodology 1005–7
and weaknesses of 1007
Beijing 506
Belgium 260
and party system 625–6
benchmarking 901
Berkeley Free Speech movement 69
Berlin 507, 509
Bhopal disaster 230
biopolitics 21, 26
Bittburg 508
bona fide pipeline (BFP) 358
Bonn 507
Brasilia 515
British Committee on the Theory of International Relations 732
British Journal of Political Science 16, 68
British South Africa Company 226
Buchenwald concentration camp 507
Bundestag 394, 395
bureaucracy:
and administrative state 849–50
and delegation 849, 850, 862–3
administrative dominance 858–9
ally principle 853, 855, 856, 859–61, 862
amount of discretion 851–3, 854–5, 862
appointment processes 861
asymmetric information 850–1, 859–60, 862
bureaucratic capacity 860
conflicting objectives 850, 856, 862
core arguments about 850–4
empirical tests 854–7
ex ante instruments 850, 853, 854, 856
ex post instruments 850, 853, 856
modeling of 851–3
multiple principals 860–1
outcomes of processes 857–9
policy uncertainty 852–3, 854–5, 856, 862
political conflict 858
political control 857–8
political uncertainty 853–4, 856–7, 862
substitution effects 853, 856
theoretical robustness of models 859–61
and need for 849
and regulation of 850
and ‘soft’ bureaucracy 895
and street-level bureaucrats 896
business cycles, political 557
cabinets, and stability of 387–8
Cambodia 261
Cambridge school 69
Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics 17
Cambridge Studies in International Relations 17, 731
campaign advertising, and voting behavior 795–7
Campbell Collaboration 235
Canada 261
and judicial review 264
and Supreme Court 258, 262
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms 258
Canadian Law and Society Association 292
Canberra 515
capital cities:
and characteristics of 501–2
and creation of 514–16
and functions of 506–7
and natural settings 513–14
and political elites 504–5
as settings of action 508–9
and spatiality of power 502
capital mobility, and democratization 597, 599, 602
(p. 1260) capitalism:
and democracy:
class compromise 828
coalitional politics 833–6
coexistence of 826–7
democratic institutions 837–9
labor organization 829–30
new structuralism 843
partisanship 830–3
varieties of capitalism 839–42
and individualism 574
and redistribution 826–7
and rise of trade 572–3
case studies 559–60
and attributes of 1140–1
and causal analysis 1135
and causal inference 1034
and causal insight 1145–8
causal effects 1145
causal mechanisms 1145, 1146–8
pattern matching 1146
and causal strength 1152–4
deterministic 1152–3
magnitude and consistency 1153
and choice of 1171
convenience samples 1172
‘good cases’ for theory 1171–2
random selection 1174–6, 1183, 1184–5
representativeness 1172–3
selection bias 1171
stratifying on variables 1175–6
variation in dependent or independent variables 1172–4
and civil war onset, Algeria 1180–4
and contrasted with cross-case studies 1136–7
breadth vs depth 1148–9
causal insight 1145–6
causal strength 1153–4
contrasted with 1140, 1158–9
data availability 1155–8
heterogeneity vs homogeneity 1149–52
hypothesis testing/generating 1142–3
useful variation 1154–555
and data availability 1155–8
collection of new data 1156–7
comparability of 1156
information-poor environments 1157
and definitions 1137–8
case studies 1138, 1139–40, 1158
confusion over 1137
cross-case studies 1138
dependent variables 1138
independent variables 1138
observation 1138
population 1139
sample 1139
and discontent with cross-case observational research 1134
and hypothesis generating/testing 1141–4
and levels of analysis 1138–9
and methodological status of 1136
and narrative structuring 1176–8
and new analysis methods 1134–5
and population of cases, heterogeneity vs homogeneity 1149–52
and reservations about 1136
and scope of proposition 1148
breadth vs depth 1148–9
in social sciences 1133
and strengths/weaknesses 1158–9
and useful variation 1154–555
and validity 1144–5
casuistry, and value conflicts 972
Catholic Church 735
Caucus for a New Political Science 5 n6, 9, 10, 15
causality 1054
and causal thinking 1021–3
explanations of growth in 1021–2
regression analysis 1021, 1022–3
and ‘checklist’ for 1084, 1085
and counterfactual approach to 1023, 1025, 1055, 1056, 1057–8, 1069–75
closest possible worlds 1073–4
definition of causality 1072–3
experiments 1074
Lewis’s approach 1070–2
problems with definition 1074–5
and epistemological questions 1062–3
and experiments 1032–3, 1084–6
counterfactual approach 1074
manipulation approach 1076–8
pre-emption 1078–9
and inference requirements 1055
and linguistic analysis 1060
and manipulation approach to 1023, 1025, 1055, 1056
experimentation 1076–8
and meaning of 1060, 1083–4
and mechanisms and capacities approach to 1024, 1025, 1055, 1056, 1079–83
multiple causes 1083
pairing problem 1079–80
and nature of 1023–6, 1058–61
endogeneity 1024
multiple causes 1025–6
omitted variables 1024
(p. 1261) and neo-Humean regularity approach 1023, 1055, 1056, 1058–9, 1063–7, 1068–9
asymmetry of causation 1067–8
causal laws 1067
common causes 1066
INUS conditions 1064–6
sufficient and necessary conditions 1064–5
and Neyman-Rubin-Holland model 1032–3, 1086–8, 1103–4, 1113–16
average causal effect 1098–101
definition of causal effect based on counterfactuals 1088–90
independence of assignment and outcome 1090–3
observable definitions of causality 1094–8
Stable Unit Treatment Value Assumption (SUTVA) 1087, 1102–3
and observational studies 1086
and ontological questions 1061–2
and philosophical approach to 1054–5
and psychological analysis 1058–61
and qualitative tools for inference 1033–5
case studies 1034
mechanisms 1035
process tracing 1034–5
and statistical methods for establishing 1026–32
discrete choice modeling 1030–1
ecological regression 1031
estimation methods 1031–2
hierarchical modeling 1031
regression analysis 1026–8
spatial analysis 1031
time series 1029–30
center-periphery relations, and political impact 503–4
chaos theory 952–3
checks-and-balances regimes 178, 190
Chicago School 218
child welfare policy, and unattainable objectives 969–70
Chile 639
China:
and democracy 326
and international society 735
and place and politics 499
choice:
and biased processing of information 351–6
Bayesian learning 353–6
behavioral decision theory 353
handling of new information 353–6
motivated reasoning 352–3
party identification 351–2, 354–6
selectivity 352, 353
and collective preference theory 814–16, 818–19
increased alternatives/issue dimensions 817–18
large populations 818
and economics 813
and framing models 24, 25
and game theory 814, 816–17
and role of emotion 346–51
affect 346–7
affective intelligence 348–9
manipulation 349, 350
measurement difficulties 349–51
mood 347
political emotion 347
city-state 498
civic culture 92
and political regimes 549–50
Civil Aeronautics Board 225
civil disobedience, and political theory 69
civil liberties:
and judicialization of politics 255
and Rawls’ theory of justice 112
Civil Litigation Research Project (CLRP) 293
Civil Rights Act (1964, USA) 305
Civil Rights movement 69, 907
civil service, and patronage 664
civil wars 551–2, 1183–4
and Algeria 1177–8, 1180–3
and factors affecting onset of 1170
and incompleteness of statistical models 1178–80
and narrative structuring 1176–8
and random narrative approach to 1168–9, 1175–6
and statistical analysis of onsets of 1169–70
civitas 498
claims-making, and social movements 529–32
class:
and capitalism 828, 829
and decline in class voting 328–9
cleavages 1014–16
and party systems 624–5, 626
clientelism 553–4, 667–8
and brokers 653, 654, 663, 668
and commitment 655
game theoretical analysis of 655–9
and contrast with pork barrel politics 649
and contrast with programmatic redistributive politics 649
and definition of 648–50
and democracy 648
and dictatorships 648
and economic development 648
(p. 1262) and effectiveness of 666–7
and effects of 648
and fear of retaliation 653
and ideological attacks on 665
and institutions:
balloting systems 664–5
consequences for 666
electoral rules 663–4
legal restrictions 664
and obligation 653, 654
and paradox of 652–4
and party competition 621
and party systems 623
and patronage 650–1
effectiveness of 666–7
and political parties 666
and poverty 650, 661–3
as cause of 663
client’s valuation of handout 662
income distribution 662–3
risk aversion 662
and reciprocity, norms of 652–3, 654
and self-interest 653–4
and social networks 657
and studies of 651–2
and tactical redistribution 654–5
and targets of 659–60
swing voters vs core voters 660–1
and vote buying 650
and weak state apparatus 650
climate change, and world politics 773
coalitions:
and accountability 200
and comparative politics 555–6
and cooperative game theory 812
and duration of 210
and formation of 209
and public policy 185–6
and redistribution 827, 833–6
coercion:
and conflict theory 92
and social order 96
and the state 567
collective action:
and individual self-interest 91, 867
and social preferences 867–8 see also cooperation
collective preference theory 814–16, 818–19
and increased alternatives/issue dimensions 817–18
and large populations 818
collectivism, and British political tradition 142
collectivization 432
Colombia 260
colonialism, and city planning 506, 509
Columbia University 242–3
commitment:
and clientelism 655–9
and committees as commitment devices 790–1
and median voter theorem 832
and partisanship 831–2
commodification, and modernity 132–3
commodity fetishism, and modernity 133
Common Cause 907
common law, and evolution of 956
communitarianism, and political theory 73–4
Comparative Manifesto Project 372, 623
comparative politics:
and accountability 554, 555
and case studies 559–60
and changes in:
methodology 544–5
object of enquiry 544
theory building 545–6
and civic culture 549–50
and classical political theory 546
and clientelism 553–4
and coalitions 555–6
and democratization 548–9
and dictatorships 550
and economic growth and political regimes 558
and economic voting 557, 559
and electoral rules 555
as empirical political science 544–6
and federalism 556
and fieldwork 560
and formal-legal analysis of institutions 146
and game theory 562
and governance 556–9
and human behavior 562–3
and judicial independence 556
and large-n studies 559–60
and mass political mobilization 552–4
and methodological individualism 545
and methodology 559–61
and models of human action 545–6
and national identity 548
and nationalism 548
and observational studies 561
and participation 554
and party systems 552
and political business cycles 557
and political conflict 551–2
and political culture 549–50
and political parties 552–3
and political theory 80–1
and processing political demands 554–6
and public policy 994–6
and questions addressed by 543
and rationalism 562–3
and regime transitions 549
(p. 1263) and separation of powers 555
and state formation 546–8
and theory 561–3
and voters’ policy preferences 554–5
and welfare states 557–8
Comparative Study of Electoral Systems (CSES) 206, 322
competitive selection, and institutional change 167
complexity theory 136
compliance:
and global governance 759–60
and law and society 298
concept analysis 1011
conditional party government 208
Condorcet paradox 819
Conference for the Study of Political Thought International 69
conflict theory, and social order 92
Congo 260
congressional systems:
and disorderliness of 392–3
and partisanship:
behavioral foundations of 397–400
consequences of changes in 404–6
explanations for changes in 400–3
institutional influences on 393–7
and political parties 392, 393, 394, 399–401 see also legislatures; United States Congress
consequentialism 480, 490, 492, 493, 494
constables 222
Constantinople 570
Constellations (journal) 68
constitutional law, and law and politics 248
development of 243–4
constitutional monarchy 177
constitutionalism, and French political science 147
constitutions:
and classification of democratic regimes 182–4, 189
five-fold typology 184
majoritarian/consensus 182–3
unified/divided government 183
veto players 183–4
and definition of 176
and democracy duration 187–9
and development of 176
and division of powers 177–80
checks-and-balances regimes 178, 190
constitutional monarchy 177
parliamentary systems 177–8
presidentialism 178–9, 190
semi-presidentialism 179–80, 190
and dualism of political regimes 177
and economic performance 186–7, 190
and electoral rules 180–2
Micro-mega rule in choice of 181–2
reform of 181
traditional systems 180–1
and government formation 185–6
and policy performance 186–7
and public policy 185–6, 190
constructivism 143
and the English School 732, 742
human rights norms 743–4
role of theory 742–3
and ideational-material relationship 473–4
and international relations theory 80
Contemporary Political Theory (journal) 68
contentious politics 552
contextual analysis:
and classes of contextual effects 435, 452
and controlling for context 450–1
and correcting for context 451–2
and culture 454
and explanatory stories 444–6
as response to puzzlement 448
and explanatory strategies 439, 449–50
law-seeking accounts 440
mechanism-based accounts 441
propensity accounts 440
skepticism 439–40
systemic explanations 440–1
and framing models 24, 449
and general laws 435–6, 447
and history 447, 454
and ideas 453
and mechanisms 441–4
cognitive 443
distinction from laws 442
environmental 443
episodes 443
identification of 442
processes 443
relational 443
use of term 441–2
and ontologies 437–8, 439
holism 438
methodological individualism 438
phenomenological individualism 438
relational realism 438–9
and philosophy 453
and place 454
and political processes 432, 434–5
and population 454–5
and postmodern skepticism 436
and privatization of collective farms 432–4
and property rights 432–4
and psychology 453
and puzzle-solving 448–9
(p. 1264) and quantitative analysis, assumptions behind 447
and technology 455
contextualist history of political thought 69
contractarianism:
and shared-value theories 92–3
and state formation 571–2, 573
contracting out 897, 898
conventions, and public policy 984
conviction, and responsibility 977
cooperation:
and altruism 868
and cooperative game theory 811–12
core of 812
and evolution of 868–9
and evolutionary models 26
and group-level norms and institutions 869
and internal norms 876
and mutualistic cooperation 868, 869–71
and pro-social emotions 876–8
shame 877–8
and requirements for model of 870
and self-interest 867
and social preferences 867–8, 872
and strong reciprocity:
behavioral experiments 871–2, 873–4
evolution of 872–6
and world politics 770
coordination:
and institutional 98
as interest theory 97
and normative theory 96–8
and significance of 97
and spontaneous 97–8
corporatization:
and regulation 218
and securitization 226–7
and tax collection 231–2
cosmopolitanism 737–8
and global justice 123
Costa Rica 639, 665
counterfactuals, and causality 1023, 1025, 1055, 1056, 1057–8, 1069–75
closest possible worlds 1073–4
definition of 1072–3
experiments 1074
Lewis’s approach 1070–2
problems with definition 1074–5
covering laws 525, 526
creaming, and policy programs 974–5
crises:
and institutional learning 893
and intolerance 422–3
Critical Legal Studies 307
Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 68
critical theory 71, 678
and international relations theory 80, 761–2
and liberalism 75
and new liberalism 694
cross-case studies, contrasted with case studies 1136–7, 1140, 1158–9
and breadth vs depth 1148–9
and causal insight 1145–6
and causal mechanisms 1145–6
and causal strength 1153–4
and data availability 1155–8
and heterogeneity vs homogeneity 1149–52
and hypothesis generating/testing 1142–3
and levels of analysis 1138–9
and useful variation 1154–555
and validity 1144
cruise missiles 904–5
cultural community, and politics 160
cultural congruence 327
cultural evolution 27
culture, and contextual analysis 454
Cyberjaya 515
cycling, and value conflicts 972
Czech Republic 261
Daedalus (journal) 68
decision theory, and choice 813–14
decision-making:
and collective preference theory 814–16, 818–19
increased alternatives/issue dimensions 817–18
large populations 818
and framing models 25
and game theory 814, 816–17
and law and society 294–6
and nature of political decisions 814
and party identification 203–5 see also choice
Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions (Seneca Falls) 305
decolonization, and state formation 579–80
delegation, and bureaucracy 849, 850, 862–3
administrative dominance 858–9
ally principle 853, 855, 856, 859–61, 862
amount of discretion 851–3, 854–5, 862
appointment processes 861
asymmetric information 850–1, 859–60, 862
bureaucratic capacity 860
conflicting objectives 850, 856, 862
core arguments about 850–4
empirical tests 854–7
ex ante instruments 850, 853, 854, 856
ex post instruments 850, 853, 856
modeling of 851–3
(p. 1265) multiple principals 860–1
outcomes of processes 857–9
policy uncertainty 852–3, 854–5, 856, 862
political conflict 858
political control 857–8
political uncertainty 853–4, 856–7, 862
substitution effects 853, 856
theoretical robustness of models 859–61
deliberation, and participation 967, 971–2
deliberative democracy 21, 891
and liberalism 75
and political theory 67
and tolerance 420
democracy:
and capitalism:
class compromise 828
coalitional politics 833–6
coexistence of 826–7
democratic institutions 837–9
labor organization 829–30
new structuralism 843
partisanship 830–3
varieties of capitalism 839–42
and clientelism 648
and competitive elections 198
and democratic transitions 843
and duration of, impact of constitutional model 187–9
and institutional design 165–6
and legislatures 196
and political parties 196, 212, 365
and Rawls’ theory of justice 123
and redistribution 826, 827
and rules of appropriateness 480–1 see also constitutions
democratic peace, and liberal international relations theory 719
democratic theory, and tolerance 410–13, 423
marketplace of ideas 411
political minorities 410–11
restraints on freedom 412–13
scope of 411–12
democratization:
and authoritarianism 598, 599, 600, 602, 603, 604, 606–11
and British colonial heritage 593–4
and capital mobility 597, 599, 602
and comparative politics 548–9
and constitutional arrangements 187–9
and context differences 606
end of Cold War 607
historical period 606
international economic factors 606–7
type of regime replaced 606, 607–11
and democratic transitions 843
and economic development 593, 594–5, 596–7, 612
and education 595, 600, 612
and elite-citizen interactions 595, 598–9
rich vs poor 599–601
rulers vs ruled 602–5
and equality 597, 600–1
and income distribution 595, 597, 599, 600–1
and international factors 595, 605
and modernization 594
and Muslim countries 593, 594, 612
and new approaches to 593
and oil wealth 593, 594, 599–600, 612
and political behavior 326–7, 336, 337
and political culture 325, 326, 549
and research challenges 612
and revolutions 603
and social movements 528
and urbanization 595
demonstrations, and social movements 535
Demos 151
developing countries, and party systems 638–9
diaspora studies, and comparative studies 81
dictatorships 550
and clientelism 648
and oil wealth 594
difference principle, and Rawls’ theory of justice 72, 112
criticism of 118–20
differences (journal) 68
Director’s Law 835
discipline, and definitions of 7
discourse theory, and institutions 150–1
discrete choice modeling 1030–1
disputing, and law and society 293–4
distributive justice 72, 98
diversity, and Rawls’ theory of justice 122
division of powers 555
and checks-and-balances regimes 178
and constitutional monarchy 177
and constitutions 177–80
and parliamentary systems 177–8
and presidentialism 178–9
and regulation of states 233–4
and semi-presidentialism 179–80
domestic politics, and global society 755–6
domestic violence 315
Duverger’s Law 437, 1081
East Asia, and state formation 582
East Asia Barometer 322
East India Company 226
East Timor 261
Eastern Europe:
and party systems 638, 639
and state formation 580, 585, 586–7
(p. 1266) ecological regression 1031
Economic and Social Research Council (UK) 13
Economic Commission for Europe 895
economic development:
and clientelism 648
and democratization 593, 594–5, 596–7, 612
economic growth, and political regimes 558
economic performance, and impact of constitutional arrangements 186–7, 190
economic policy:
and democratic institutions:
electoral systems 837–8
federalism 838–9
and judicialization of politics 259
and political business cycles 557
economic systems, and justice 120–1
economic transition, and Eastern Europe 586–7
economic voting 557, 559
education:
and democratization 595, 600, 612
and women’s access to 305–6
effectiveness, and institutional design 774
Egypt 261
elections:
and changed nature of campaigns 378
and citizen-candidate models 832
and declining turnout 332, 379
and electoral behavior 328–30
candidate voting 329
decline in class voting 328–9
emerging democracies 330–1
issue voting 329, 330
weakening of party attachment 329
and negative feedback processes 941
and social movements 533 see also electoral rules; voting behavior
electoral geography 503–4
electoral rules 555
and clientelism 663–5
and constitutions 180–2
and judicialization of politics 260
and Micro-mega rule in choice of 181–2
and parliamentary systems 182
and redistribution 837–8
and reform of 181
and traditional systems 180–1
and varieties of capitalism 841–2
elites, and capital cities 504–5
emerging democracies:
and electoral behavior 330–1
and party systems 638–9
and political participation 334
emotions:
and political choice 346–51
affect 346–7
affective intelligence 348–9
manipulation 349, 350
measurement difficulties 349–51
mood 347
political emotion 347
and pro-social emotions 876–8
and shame 877–8
Empirical Implications of Theoretical Models (EITM) initiative 1007, 1037–8
English School:
and balance of power 737, 740
and characterization of 741–2
and constructivism 732, 742
human rights norms 743–4
role of theory 742–3
and emergence and development of 732–3
and human right 737–8, 741, 743–4
and increasing attention to 730–1
and international society 733
agency 735
common interests 736
constraints on state sovereignty 736
definition 734
membership of 734–5
mutual recognition 736
non-state members 735–6
pluralistic order 737
solidarist order 737–8
types of 736–8
and international system 738–40
and leading figures of 730
and synthetic account of global politics 733–4
and theoretical ambition of 731
and theoretical position of 731
and world society 733, 741
human rights 741
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 940, 972
epistemic communities 757
epistemology 464–5
and causality 1062–3
equal liberty principle, and Rawls’ theory of justice 112
equality:
and democratization 597, 600–1
and liberal egalitarianism 72–3
and political theory 66
The Equality Exchange (website) 73
equality of opportunity 113
ethics 6
Ethics (journal) 68
ethnic identity:
and shared values 94–5
and social construction of 1008
ethnography, and study of institutions 154
Eurobarometer surveys 322, 377
(p. 1267) European Central Bank 372
European Commission 322
European Consortium for Political Research 69
European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) 256
European Court of Justice (ECJ) 256
European integration, and party systems 637
European Journal of Political Theory 68
European political science, and formal-legal analysis of institutions 147
European Social Survey (ESS) 322
European Union 488, 490, 517
and delegation in 856
and identification 165
and network models 28
and Open Method of Coordination 901
and regulation 233
European Values Study (EVS) 322
event cascades 957
event-related potential (ERP) methods 1020
evidence-based policy-making 910
evolutionary models 25–7
and cooperation 868–9
internal norms 876
mutualistic cooperation 869–71
pro-social emotions 877
strong reciprocity 872–6
and political economy 786–7, 799–802
altruism 800
co-evolution of genes and memes 801–2
pro-social emotions 802
survival in equilibrium 800
vengeful behavior 800–2
evolutionary psychology 359
exchange theories:
and individualism 93
and social order 93
exclusion, and creaming in policy programs 974–5
experimental economics, and framing models 25
experimental psychology, and framing models 25
experiments:
and attrition 1123–4
and causal inference 1032–3, 1113–16
and causality 1084–6
counterfactual approach 1074
manipulation approach 1076–8
pre-emption 1078–9
and contrasting with observational inference 1116–18
and discontinuity designs 1124–5
and growing interest in 1134–5
and methodological issues 1126
balance and stratification 1126–7
extrapolation 1128–9
publication bias 1128
size and scope 1129
and natural experiments 1124–5
and noncompliance 1118–23
estimating treatment effects 1122–3
exclusion restriction 1119–20, 1121
monotonicity 1120, 1122
nonzero causal effects 1120, 1122
Stable Unit Treatment Value Assumption (SUTVA) 1120, 1122
and random assignment 1109 see also field experiments
explanatory stories:
as response to puzzlement 448
and social explanation 444–6
Fabianism, and institutions 151
factor analysis 1010
fair equality of opportunity, and Rawls’ theory of justice 112, 113, 123
Falkland Islands 507
Family and Medical Leave Act (USA) 293
family law, and feminist jurisprudence 312–13
farming lobby 905
Federal Agricultural Improvement and Reform Act (USA) 946
Federal Communications Commission (USA) 225
Federal Reserve (US) 219
Federal Trade Commission (USA) 225
federalism 556
and redistribution 837–8
feminism 72
and consciousness raising 311
and education 305–6
and liberalism 74
and political theory 74
and second stage of 305–6
feminist jurisprudence 306
and criticism of 310
and family law 312–13
and feminist legal reasoning 311–12
and gendered reality 307–11
difference debate 307–9, 311
difference feminism 308–9
employment disadvantages 310
gender essentialism 310–11
radical feminism 308, 309–10
situation jurisprudence 310
and male bias in law 306–7, 310
and origins of 305
and rape law 313–14
and reasonable woman concept 313–15
feminist movement 907
field experiments 1108
and attrition 1123–4
and causal inference 1113–16
and contrasted with:
laboratory experiments 1109
survey experiments 1109–10
(p. 1268) and definition of 1109–10
artefactual 1110
framed 1110
natural 1110
and discontinuity designs 1124–5
and growth and development of 1110–13
doubts about feasibility 1111–12
doubts over necessity for 1112
studies using 1112
and methodological issues 1126
balance and stratification 1126–7
extrapolation 1128–9
publication bias 1128
size and scope 1129
and methodological value of 1129–30
and natural experiments 1124–5
and noncompliance 1118–23
estimating treatment effects 1122–3
exclusion restriction 1119–20, 1121
monotonicity 1120, 1122
nonzero causal effects 1120, 1122
Stable Unit Treatment Value Assumption (SUTVA) 1120, 1122
fieldwork 560 see also field experiments
filibusters 395
finance capital, and regulation of states 233
firm, theory of, and public management 898–9
fMRI techniques 1020
folk theorem 870
Food and Drug Administration (USA) 225, 940–1
Ford Foundation 289, 521
Forest and Marine Stewardship Council 234
formal-legal analysis tradition, and study of institutions 145–7, 152–3
Anglo-American political science 146–7
centrality to political science 145
comparative approach 146
European political science 147
French political science 147
historical approach 146
inductive approach 146
rules 145
foundationalism 77
Fourth World Movement 975
framing models, and contextual analysis 24–5, 449 see also secondary reframing
France:
and electoral geography 504
and judicial review 264, 265
and political elites 504–5
and semi-presidentialism 179–80
free trade, and liberal international relations theory 717, 718
Freedom House 1157
French political science, and formal-legal analysis of institutions 147
Front National (France) 374–5
game theory 95, 562
and causal thinking 1035
and choice 814
and collective choice 816–17
and common knowledge 1009
and cooperative game theory 811–12
core of 812
and non-cooperative game theory 813
and political behavior 811–12
and strong reciprocity 872, 873–4
garbage can model of policy-making 904
gender, and political theory 79
general laws 435–6
General Social Survey (GSS) 413–14, 415
geopolitics 511–12, 517
Georgia 260
German Federal Constitutional Court 265
and Maastricht Case (1993) 262
Germany, and capital city 507
global governance 749–50, 755
and compliance 759–60
and international relations theory 763–5
global justice, and Rawls’ theory of justice 123–4
global society:
and areas of study 753–5
authority 754
compliance 759–60
global governance 755
human rights 753
international ethics and norms 754–5
international normative structures 753–4
legitimacy 754, 760
security 753
and epistemological diversity 759
and governance 749–50, 763–5
and international relations theory 748
and methodology 759–60
and objects of study:
domestic politics 755–6
individuals 758–9
international organizations (IOs) 756–7
networks 758
nonstate actors 756
transnationalism 756, 757–8
and reasons for studying 760–3
explaining change 761
practical engagement 761–3
puzzle-solving 761
and world society 749
(p. 1269) globalization:
and liberalism 78
and political economy 753
and political theory 78–9
and state formation 582
and world politics 709, 711
good, and Rawls’ theory of justice 116–18
The Good Society (journal) 68
governance:
and comparative politics 556–9
and corporate governance 218
and global society 749–50, 763–5
and government as steering 896–9
and international relations theory 763–5
and networked governance 894–6
and regulation 217
government as steering 896–9
government formation, and constitution type 185–6
governments, and stability of 387–8
graph theory, and network models 28–9
Greece (ancient) 498
green political theory 75–6
Harvard Law Review 244
health policy:
and comparative studies 995, 996
and path dependency 946
Hérodote (journal) 499
hierarchical modeling 1031
high modernism, and public policy 885–6, 897, 909–10
historical institutionalism 143
and British political science 144
and ideational-material relationship 473
history:
and contextual analysis 454
and explanation of political processes 524–5
conceptions of explanation 525–6
and formal-legal analysis of institutions 146
and political processes 536
and political science 103, 521, 536–7
and political theory 64–5, 102–4
different approaches of 104–10
histories of 102–3, 105–7
and public policy 991–4
and social movements 528–9, 533–6
anti-slavery 534–5
characteristics of 529
importance of context 536
late 18th-century 533
repertoires of claim-making performances 529–32
signaling systems 532
temperance 533–4
and state formation 521–4, 525, 526–8, 588
extraction-resistance-settlement cycle 526–7
subordination of armed forces 527–8
History of Political Thought (journal) 68
HIV/AIDS 778
holism 438
and ontological dispute over 470–1
homelessness 974
House of Commons 394
Hudson Bay Company 226
human rights:
and advocacy coalitions 895
and the English School 743–4
and security 753
and solidarist international society 737–8
and world society 741
humanitarian law, and emergence of international 741
Hundred Years War 570
Hungarian Constitutional Court 259, 265
idealist tradition, and study of institutions 148–9
British political science 148–9
Islamic political science 149
ideas:
and contextual analysis 453
and ideational-material relationship 473–4
ideational institutionalism 143
identity:
and European Union 165
and institutions 164–5, 480
and postmodernism 702
and rules 479, 482–4
and state formation 584–5
ideology:
and judicial behavior 280–1
Courts of Appeal (USA) 282–3
US Supreme Court 281–2
and legal ideology 296–7
and liberal international relations theory 716–17
and party identification 351
and political theory 65
and state formation 574–5
ideology-critique, and modernity 133–4
implicit association test (IAT) 358
incentives, and public management 896–7
income distribution 828–9
and clientelism 662–3
and democratization 595, 597, 599, 600–1
incrementalism, and institutional change 168
India 260, 261
and judicial review 265
indigenous peoples 261
individual-group relationship, and ontological dispute over 469–71
(p. 1270) individualism:
and emergence of 574
and exchange theories 93
and ontological dispute over 470–1
information:
and biased processing of 351–6
and instrumental rationality 901–2
and revelation and aggregation of 786, 794–9
and voting behavior 794
aggregation of 798–9
evaluation of 794–7
impact of advertising spend 795–7
inferences 794–9
timing of elections 794–5
uninformed voters 794–9
information technology, and world politics 773
Institute for Public Policy Research 151
Institute for Qualitative and Multi-Method Research 1037
institutional change 163, 166–7, 171–2
and adaptation 168–9
and competitive selection 167
and conflict 169
and conflict design 167
and deliberate design 167
and exploitation vs exploration 168–9
and incrementalism 168
and institutional environment 169
and institutional framework 169–70
and learning 167
and political actors 170
and punctuated equilibrium 167
and sources of 167–8
and state formation 575
institutional design:
and accountability 774
and conflict design 167
and deliberate design 167
and democracy 165–6
and effectiveness 774
and redistribution 827
and single-actor design 167
and world politics 773–4
institutionalism:
and continuing relevance of 154
and core assumptions of 160–1
and discourse theory 150–1
and ethnographic approach to 154
and formal-legal analysis tradition 145–7, 152–3
Anglo-American political science 146–7
centrality to political science 145
comparative approach 146
European political science 147
French political science 147
historical approach 146
inductive approach 146
rules 145
and historical and philosophical analysis 153–4
and idealist tradition 148–9
British political science 148–9
Islamic political science 149
and international relations theory 710
and interpretive approach to 153–4
and meaning of 160
and modernist-empiricist tradition 143–5
Australian political science 144–5
British political science 144
common approach 144
different approaches 143
new institutionalism 143–4
and processes 160–1
and socialist tradition:
Fabianism 151
Marxism 149–50
post-Marxism 150–1
and stability and order 160
and traditions in study of 142–3, 152
common core of ideas 152
focus on formal institutions 152–3 see also new institutionalism
institutions:
and action/rules relationship 481–5
and analysis of 788
and characteristics of 159
and definition of 480, 982
and different approaches to 159–60
and diversity of 162
and public policy 164, 982
and reconciling logics of action 490–4
and rules of appropriateness 480–1
and stability and order 160
and theorizing political institutions 161–3 see also institutionalism; new institutionalism
instrumental rationality 901–2
instrumentalism, and public policy 965–6
Inter-American Court of Human Rights 256
internal markets 896
International Benchmarking Panel 13
International Civil Aviation Organization 233
International Criminal Court (ICC) 261, 741
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) 261
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) 261
international law:
and humanitarian law 741
and law and politics 251
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 226, 233, 910
international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs) 735–6
(p. 1271) International Organization (journal) 16
international organizations (IOs):
and global society 756–7
and international relations theory 749
international politics, and analytical levels 617
international relations 675–6, 678
and American dominance of field 776–7
and anarchy 748, 749, 750–1, 763
and debates within 777
and domestic politics 751
and empirical concerns of 777
and future development of 781–2
alternatives to positivism 779
changing core concerns 780
material/ideational relations 780
normative commitments 778
questioning academics’ assumptions 779–80
reduced American influence 778–9
and global governance 749–50
and global society 748
and governance 763–5
and identity politics 702
and neo-neo synthesis 777
and network models 28
and nonstate actors 749
and normative concerns 687–8
attempts to substitute logic for 689–90
integration with empirical approach 690
interconnection with empirical 690–1
neglect of 688–9
rational choice theory 689–90
science/normative divide 690
and Oxford Handbook of International Relations
approach of 676
diversity of field 682
interplay between perspectives 679–80
methodology 680–1
policy relevance 681–2
subfields 681
substantive theories 680
theoretical emphasis of 676–7
theory as normative and empirical 677–9
and political theory 80
and progress in field 676, 695–702, 760–1
conceptual rigor 696
contestation 700–2
continued biases 697
evaluation of 695–6
external borrowing 699–700
lack of consensus on 699
less complacency 697
methodology 697–8
new approaches and questions 696–7
paradox of 701–2
subfield collaboration 701
subfields 699
and Rawls’ theory of justice 124
and reasons for studying 760–3, 769
explaining change 761
practical engagement 761–3
puzzle-solving 761
and reflectivism 777
and the territorial trap 749, 750–1, 752
and theorizing about:
assumptions 683
autonomy of 685
components of 676, 683–4, 702
critical/problem-solving divide 686
developments in 751–2
diversity of approaches 682–3
divisions in 686–7
empirical content 684–5
empirical evidence 685
importance of 677
logical argument 683–4
as normative and empirical 677–9, 690–5, 702–3
as practical discourse 676, 678–9, 691, 702, 761–3
questions 683
verbal/mathematical divide 686
International Social Survey Program (ISSP) 322
international society, and the English School 733
agency 735
common interests 736
constraints on state sovereignty 736
definition 734
membership of 734–5
mutual recognition 736
non-state members 735–6
pluralistic order 737
solidarist order 737–8
types of 736–8
international system, and the English School 738–40
International Telecommunications Union (ITU) 233
international trade, and transnational tribunals 256
interpretive theory:
and institutions 153–4
and rational choice theory 154–5
Interstate Commerce Commission (USA) 225
Inter-university Consortium for Political Research (ICPSR) 1037
(p. 1272) intolerance:
and causes of in individuals 418–19
closed-mindedness 418
democratic beliefs 419
personality characteristics 418–19
threat perceptions 418, 423
and change in 419–21
deliberation 420
education 420
pliability of tolerance 420–1
Sober Second Thought Experiment 420
‘spiral of tolerance’ 420
and consequences of 421–2
discouragement of disagreement 422
‘firehouse studies’ 421
perniciousness 421–2
public policy 422
in times of crisis 422–3
and definition of 410
and elite-mass differences over 410
and measurement of 413–15
breadth of intolerance 414–15
least-liked approach 414
objects of intolerance 413–14
problems with 414–15
surveys 413–14
and pluralistic intolerance 416
and political conflict 410
and prejudice 416–17
and public support of 409–10
and Red Scare 409
and research on 423
and restraints on freedom 412–13
and restriction on ‘marketplace of ideas’ 411
and threat perceptions 417, 423 see also tolerance
intradisciplinarity 23 n50
Iraq 511
and invasion of 985, 993
Ireland, and party system change 387
Islamic political science, and idealist tradition 149
Israel 260, 261–2
and accountability 200
and judicial review 265
and political representation 199–200
Israeli Supreme Court 259, 262
issue congruence 371
Italy 260
and clientelism 649, 663
Journal of Political Philosophy 68
Journal of Politics 68
journals:
and political science 16
and political theory 68
JSTOR 1021, 1027
judicial behavior 286
and attitudinal model 280–1
Courts of Appeal (USA) 282–3
ideological behavior 280–1
US Supreme Court 281–2
and definition of 275
and development of study of 245
and judges’ preferences 275
and judicialization of politics 266–7
judicial will 267
strategic approach to 266–7
and law and society 294–6
and legal influences 275, 276–7
stare decisis 277–9
text and intent 279–80
and separation of powers models 284–5
and strategic approaches 276
and typology of decision-making models 276
judicial independence 556
judicial policy-making 286 see also judicialization of politics
judicial politics, and law and politics 248–9
development of 244–5
judicialization of politics 253–4, 271
and academic discourse on 254
and administrative review 255, 265
and civil liberties 255
and expanded scope of 253–4
and institutional features 263–6
judicial review 264–6
requirements for 263
rights awareness 263
role of political actors 263
and international trade 256
and judicial behavior 266–7
judicial will 267
strategic approach to 266–7
and judicial review 253, 264–6
abstract/concrete review 264
decentralized/centralized review 264–5
standing and access rights 265–6
and mega-politics 254, 256–7
core executive prerogatives 258–9
electoral processes 260
(in)appropriateness of 257, 262
political salience of issues 257–8
regime change 259
regime legitimacy 261–2
significance of 257
transformation of supreme courts 257
transitional/restorative justice 260–1
and political determinants of 267–71
macro sociopolitical trends 267–8
prevalence of rights discourse 268–9
(p. 1273) strategic behavior of political stakeholders 269–70
and political reaction to unwelcome interventions 270–1
and public policy-making 255–6
and significance of 253
and spread of legal discourse and procedures 254–5
and transnational tribunals 253, 256, 261
jurisprudence, and law and politics 247–8
jury behavior, and race 295
justice:
and changes in meaning of 98
and criticisms of Rawls’ theory:
accommodation of diversity 122
bad luck 121
democratic political rights 123
difference principle 118–20
differences in individual traits 115–16
economic system 120–1
global justice 123–4
individual conduct 122
individual responsibility 121
luck egalitarianism 121
maximin conception 119
original position argument 119
primary social goods 115
priority of right over good 116–18
and mutual disinterest 91
and political theory 66
and Rawls’ theory of 66, 111–15
compliance with 114–15
difference principle 112
equal liberty principle 112
fair equality of opportunity 112, 113, 123
maximin conception 114
original position argument 113–14
primary social goods 112–13
social structure 113
utilitarianism 114, 116
Kenya 585
Kerala 448
Kosovo 261
labor organization, and capitalist democracies 829–30
Lagos 515
Latin America:
and party systems 638–9
and political culture 326
Latinobarometer 322
law, philosophy of, and law and politics 247–8
Law and Courts Newsletter (journal) 292–3
law and politics 241
and comparative studies 250
and constitutional law, politics and theory 248
and development of study of 242–6
constitutional scholarship 243–4
democratization 246
game theory 246
historical institutionalism 246
international law and courts 246
judicial behavior 245
judicial politics 244–5
law-and-society movement 245–6
new methodological approaches 245
and interdisciplinary connections 242
and international law 251
and judicial politics 248–9
and jurisprudence and philosophy of law 247–8
and key characteristics, comparative approach 291–2
and law and society 249–50
and origins of 289–90
and scope of field studies 241–2
and specialization 242
law and society:
and compliance 298
and decision-making 294–6
judges 294
juries 295
lawyers 295–6
private actors 296
and disputing 293–4
and future research 299–300
and key characteristics 290–2
epistemology and methodology 290–1
law in society 292
multidisciplinarity 290
policy-relevant concerns 291
and law and politics 249–50
and legal consciousness 297–8
and legal history 298–9
and legal ideology 296–7
and procedural justice 299
and regulation 298
and social context of law 289
Law and Society Association of the United States 249, 289, 291–2
Law and Society Review 291
law-seeking accounts 440
lawyers, and decision-making 295–6
learning:
and crises 893
and institutional change 167
and policy dynamics:
interjurisdictional learning 949
trial-and-error learning 948–9
and rules 486, 487, 488
(p. 1274) left-libertarian parties 374, 375, 637
legal cases:
Austerity Package Decisions (1995, Hungarian Constitutional Court) 259
AZAPO (1996, South African Constitutional Court) 261
Brown v the Board of Education (US Supreme Court) 966 n1
Chechnya Case (1995, Russian Constitutional Court) 258–9
Corralito Case (2004, Supreme Court of Argentina) 259
Eisenstadt v Baird (1972, US Supreme Court) 278
Ellison v Brady (1991, USA) 314
Fiji v Prasad (2001, Fijian Court of Appeals) 259
Grayned v City of Rockford (1972, US Supreme Court) 278–9
Griswold v Connecticut (1965, US Supreme Court) 278
Meritor v Vinson (1986, USA) 314
Muller v Oregon (1908, US Supreme Court) 309
Oncale v Sundowner Offshore Services (1998, USA) 314
Operation Dismantle (1985, Canadian Supreme Court) 258
Orr v Orr (1979, USA) 307
Quebec Secession Reference (1998, Supreme Court of Canada) 262
Roe v Wade (1973, US Supreme Court) 278
State v Kelly (1984, USA) 315
State v Rusk (1981, Maryland Supreme Court) 314
United States v Shaughnessy (1955, US Supreme Court) 278
Whitman v American Trucking Association (1999) 972
legal consciousness, and law and society 296–8
legal history, and law and society 298–9
legislatures 788–9
as arenas 161
and democracy 196
and organization of 789, 793–4
agenda control 792
committees as commitment devices 790–1
gatekeeper model 788
information explanations of 793
legislator preferences 789–90
median vote model 788
parties and collective action problems 792–3
party voting 790
and partisanship:
behavioral foundations of 397–400
consequences of changes in 404–6
explanations for changes in 400–4
institutional influences on 393–7
and political economy 786
and political parties 206–10
conditional party government 208
government duration 210
government formation 209
parliamentary systems 210
party voting 206–9, 790
voters’ preferences 208–9
as transformative 161 see also congressional systems; parliamentary systems
legitimacy:
and global society 754, 760
and institutions 166
and public policy 983–4
and state formation 568
in modern era 584–6
liberal democracy, and political science 6
liberal egalitarianism 72–3
liberal international relations theory:
and central insight of 709
and commercial liberal theories 709, 717–18
and core assumptions of 710
nature of international system 714–15
nature of societal actors 711–12
nature of the state 712–13
and democratic peace 719
and ideational theories 709, 715–17
and multitheoretical synthesis 723–5
and predictions of 720–2
changes in nature of world politics 721–2
variations in foreign policy 721
and protectionism 710
and republican liberal theories 709, 719–20
and social identity 715–17
ideology 716–17
national identity 716
socioeconomic order 717
and state preferences 709, 710, 712
distinction from strategies 712–13
impact of changes in 713
market incentives 717–18
policy interdependence 714
political representation 713, 719–20
social identity 715–17
variations in 721
as systemic theory 722–3
and warfare 710
liberalism:
and anxiety over 77
and attitudes to other traditions 77–8
and characteristics of 70, 122
and communitarianism 73–4
and critical theory 75
and critics of 71–2
and deliberative democracy 75
(p. 1275) and feminism 74
and globalization 78–9
and international relations theory 80
and liberal egalitarianism 72–3
and Marxism 70–1
and multiculturalism 78
and political theory 70–2
and politics 6
and post-structuralism 76
and republicanism 75
libertarianism, and British political tradition 142
linguistic fractionalization, and regionalist parties 375
litigation, and disputing 293–4
Lloyd’s of London 226
lobbying, and social movements 534–5
logic of appropriateness, see appropriateness
logical empiricism 1009–10
logics of explanation 439
and law-seeking accounts 440
and mechanism-based accounts 441–4
and propensity accounts 440
and skepticism 439–40
and systemic explanations 440–1
Logos (journal) 68
logrolling 790, 791
luck egalitarianism 121
lung cancer, and smoking 1055
Machu Picchu 499
macroeconomic policy, and political parties 557
Madagascar 260
Malaysia 261
markets:
and constraints on 891
and shared-value theories 95
Marxism:
and institutions 149–50
post-Marxism 150–1
and liberalism 70–1
mass belief systems 549
and political behavior 323–5, 338
mass political mobilization 552–4
Massachusetts Bay Company 226
materialism, and ideational-material relationship 473–4
maximin conception, and Rawls’ theory of justice 114, 119
May’s theorem 815
mechanisms, and explanation 441–4, 526, 1035
and causality 1079–83
and cognitive mechanisms 443
and distinction from laws 442
and environmental mechanisms 443
and episodes 443
and identification of 442
and processes 443
and relational mechanisms 443
and use of term 441–2
median voter theorem 629–30
and commitment 832
and redistribution 829
Medicaid 958
Medicare 958, 985
memes 27
mental health 974, 975, 977
mercantilism, and state formation 581–2
MERCOSUR 256, 517
meritocracy, and fair equality of opportunity 113
methodological individualism 438
and comparative politics 545
methodology, see political methodology
Metropolitan Police (UK) 222
Mexico 260, 639
and clientelism 660, 665–6
and competitive elections 198
Millennium (journal) 68
modernist-empiricist tradition, and study of institutions 143–5
Australian political science 144–5
British political science 144
common approach 144
different approaches 143
new institutionalism 143–4
modernity:
and alternative modernities 129
and characteristics of 127, 132
and ideology-critique 133–4
and Marx 132–3
commodification 132–3
commodity fetishism 133
as multicultural production 129
and nature 134–6
and postmodernism 136
and secularization of traditional order 127–8
and Weber 129–32
alienation 131
choice of meanings 131–2
disenchantment 129
meaninglessness 130–1
ongoing process 130
rationalization 129–30
science 131
and Western culture 128
and West/non-West interactions 128–9
modernization:
and democratization 594
and mass belief systems 549
and political behavior 325–6, 337
and political culture 326
and postmaterial value change 327
and revolutions 551
(p. 1276) momentum, and policy dynamics 944–5
Moody’s 231, 233
moral obligation, and world politics 773–4
Moscow 510
motivated reasoning 352–3
motivation, and self-interest 90
multiculturalism 72
and comparative study of 81
and political order 165
and political theory 78
multilateralism 755
multimethod research 1040, 1168
and choice of cases 1168, 1171
convenience samples 1172
‘good cases’ for theory 1171–2
random selection 1168, 1174–6, 1183, 1184–5
representativeness 1172–3
selection bias 1171
stratifying on variables 1175–6
variation in dependent or independent variables 1172–4
and incompleteness of statistical models 1178–80
and learning from narratives, civil war onset 1180–5
and narrative structuring 1176–8
and strength of 1168
multi-party systems:
and accountability 200
and government duration 210
and government formation 209
and political representation 199–200
‘Munich’, and meaning of 508
mutual disinterest 91
narrative:
and choice of case studies 1167–8, 1171
convenience samples 1172
‘good cases’ for theory 1171–2
random selection 1174–6, 1183, 1184–5
representativeness 1172–3
selection bias 1171
stratifying on variables 1175–6
variation in dependent or independent variables 1172–4
and explanatory stories 445
and learning from, civil war onset 1180–5
and structuring of 1176–8
National Center for State Courts (USA) 299
national debt, and securitization 225–6
National Health Service (UK) 905, 997
national identity 548
and liberal international relations theory 716
and state formation 584–5
National Labor Relation Board (NLRB) 937, 940
National Recovery Administration (USA) 225
National Science Foundation (USA) 1037–8
nationalism 548
and sacralization of territory 507
nationalization, and the provider state 224
nations, and size of 803–4
naturalism, and political ontology 472–3
nature, and modernity 134–6
neo-corporatist theory 829–30
neo-institutionalism, and state formation 572–4, 576, 579
neo-liberalism, and regulatory growth 219
neo-Marxism, and state formation 572–4
network analysis 28
network institutionalism 171
network models 28–9
and basic idea of 28
and formal methods 28–9
and sources of 28
networked governance 217
and policy studies 894–6
networks, and global society 758
neuroscience, and political psychology 359
New Deal 225
New Delhi 506, 509
New Europe Barometer 322
new institutionalism 11, 14, 21, 161
and Australian political science 144–5
and basic units of analysis 171
and British political science 144
and claims for 141
and diverse strands of 144
and impact of institutions 163–6
democratic politics 165–6
identification 164–5
legitimacy 166
political actors 165
public policy 164
rules and routines 164
and institutional change 163, 166–7, 171–2
adaptation 168–9
competitive selection 167
conflict 169
conflict design 167
deliberate design 167
exploitation vs exploration 168–9
incrementalism 168
institutional environment 169
institutional framework 169–70
learning 167
political actors 170
punctuated equilibrium 167
single-actor design 167
sources of 167–8
and modernist-empiricist tradition 144
and origins of 143
and rules 162–3
(p. 1277) and skepticism towards 171
and sources of 23
and theorizing political institutions 161–3 see also institutions
New Labour, and Fabianism 151
new liberalism, and critical theory 694
New Public Management 898
and regulatory capitalism 220
New Radical Right 374–5, 637
new structuralism 843
New Zealand 261
‘next big thing’, and political science:
and academic-political pressures for 29
and candidates for:
evolutionary models 25–7
framing models 24–5
network models 28–9
and careerism 30
and disciplinary competition 29–30
and features of ‘big things’:
broad application 22
familiarity 23
formalization 22–3
marginality 23–4
simplicity 22
and impact of 31
and nature of ‘big things’ 20–2
and opposition to 29
and significance of 30–1
Neyman-Rubin-Holland model 1032–3, 1086–8, 1103–4, 1113–16
and average causal effect 1098–101
and definition of causal effect based on counterfactuals 1088–90
and independence of assignment and outcome 1090–3
and observable definitions of causality 1094–8
and Stable Unit Treatment Value Assumption (SUTVA) 1087, 1102–3, 1115
Nigeria 261
and clientelism 653
nightwatchman state 220
NOMOS yearbooks 68
noncompliance:
and estimating treatment effects 1122–3
and exclusion restrictions 1119–20, 1121
and field experiments 1118–23
and monotonicity 1120, 1122
and nonzero causal effects 1120, 1122
and Stable Unit Treatment Value Assumption (SUTVA) 1120, 1122
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and international relations theory 749
nonstate actors:
and global society 756–7
and international relations theory 749
normative theory:
and beginning of modern political philosophy 89
and conflict theory 92
and coordination 96–8
institutional 98
spontaneous 97–8
and developments in 99
and exchange theories 93
and international relations theory 80
and rational choice theory 99
and search for novelty 99
and self-interest 90–1, 95
and shared-value theories 92–3, 99–100
shared values 94–6
social interaction 95
and strategic analysis 95–6
North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 256, 517
Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USA) 896–7
observational studies 561
and causality 1086
and contrast with experimental inference 1116–18
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OHSA) 940
oil, and democratization 593, 594, 599–600, 612
Ombudsman, and globalization of institution 233
ontology 437–8, 439
and causality 1061–2
and disputes in political analysis 469
ideational-material relationship 473–4
individual-group relationship 469–71
structure-agency relationship 471–3
and holism 438
and importance of political ontology 464–6
epistemology 464–5
methodology 465
and meaning of political ontology 462–4
assumptions about 463
impact on analytic approaches 462–3
ontological questions 463
and methodological individualism 438
and phenomenological individualism 438
and political analysis 460–1, 474–5
and relational realism 438–9
and relevance of 461
and status of ontological claims 467–9
Open Method of Coordination 28, 901
optimal sequence matching 1134
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 231, 996
original position argument, and Rawls’ theory of justice 113–14
criticism of 119
(p. 1278) Oslo Peace Accords 259
Ottawa 515
Oxford Handbooks of Political Science, and citation analysis of 17–19
disciplinary leaders 35–40
integrators of discipline 18, 41
structure of discipline 18, 40, 42
Oxford Political Theory book series 17, 68
Oyez website 1019
Pakistan 260, 261
and patronage 664
Pakistan Supreme Court 259
Papua New Guinea 619
Paris, and city planning 508
Paris Club 226
parliamentary systems:
and division of powers 177–8
and electoral rules 182
and government formation 185
and orderliness of 392
and partisanship:
behavioral foundations of 397–400
consequences of changes in 404–6
explanations for changes in 403–4
institutional influences on 393–7
party cohesion 394–5
and policy performance 186–7
and political parties 392, 393–5, 397
and political representation 199
and public policy 185
participant observation, and study of institutions 154
participation, see political participation
partisanship 202–6, 553
and bargaining theory 832
and biased processing of information 351–2, 354–6
and capitalist democracies 830–3
and commitment 831–2
and core constituents 831
and cross-national variations 832–3
and decline of 329, 377, 385
and difficulty in measuring 351–2
and ideology 351
and increase in 351
in legislatures:
behavioral foundations of 397–400
consequences of changes in 404–6
explanations for changes in 400–4
institutional influences on 393–7
party systems 198–201, 552
and accountability 200, 201
and candidates 631
and changes in 387
and cleavages 624–5, 626
and clientelism 621, 623
and competitive dimensions 625–6
party reduction of 626–7
and competitive elections 198
and competitive strategies 619–20
and competitiveness of 627–9
intensity of 627–8
and concept of 617–19
assumptions about collective agents 619
assumptions about individual actors 618–19
electoral market 618–19
role of parties 619
systemic analysis 617
and democratic accountability 620–1
direct policy exchange 621
indirect policy exchange 620–1
and developing countries 638–9
and effective number of parties 211, 624
and formation in western Europe 634–5
and fractionalization 624
and historical dynamics of 634
and lack of scholarly attention to 616
and new parties 633–4, 637
and party competition:
agent-based modeling of 631–2
complex spatial theory 630–2
median voter theorem 629–30
simple spatial theory 629–30
and political partisan divides 625–6
and political representation 198–201
and positional competition 621–3
and post-industrial democracies 636–7
and probabilistic voting 831
and responsible-partisan model 620
and social divides 624–5
and valence competition 621–3
and varieties of 619–20
and volatility of 624
and voter-politician exchange 620 see also political parties
path dependency 21, 525
and increasing returns 947
and policy dynamics 946–8
and policy-making 903
and public policy 991–2
and tax-benefit structure 834
Patriot Act (USA) 924
patriotism, and shared values 94
patronage, see clientelism
pattern matching 1146
Pay As You Earn 232
‘Pearl Harbor’, and meaning of 508
Pedersen Index 366–8
pension policy 986–7, 993
Perestroika movement 9, 10, 15, 62
(p. 1279) Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (USA) 934
personalized campaigns, and clientelism 663–4
Perspectives on Politics (journal) 9
persuasion, and public policy 887–9
Peru 260
and clientelism 660–1
Peter Principle 956
pharmaceutical industry, and regulation 230–1
phenomenological individualism 438
Philippines 260
Phillips Curve 437
philosophy:
and causality 1054–5
and contextual analysis 453
and political theory 65–6
Philosophy, Politics and Society book series 68, 69
Philosophy and Economics (journal) 68
Philosophy and Public Affairs (journal) 68, 81
place:
and capital cities:
characteristics of 501–2
creation of 514–16
functions of 506–7
natural settings 513–14
political elites 504–5
as settings of action 508–9
spatiality of power 502
and consequences of action 510–13
electoral politics 512–13
geopolitics 511–12
warfare 511
world systems analysis 512
and contextual analysis 454
and formation of actors 502–5
center/periphery relations 503–4
coastal/inland difference 503
electoral geography 503–4
political elites 504–5
urban/rural difference 502–3
and genius loci 500
and the global 500
and meaning of 505–8
kinds of place-orientation 505
places of discursive reference 508
places to be in 506
places to defend or liberate 507
places to visit 507–8
in modern world 499, 516–17
and multiple definition of 501
as outcome of action 513–16
creation of capital cities 514–16
natural settings 513–14
and politics 498–9
as settings of action 508–10
civic space 509
political rallies 510
political space 509–10
voting behavior 510
and social action 501–2, 516
and social being:
contiguity 500
distinctiveness 500
fixity of 499
and the universal 500
planning, and illusion of 900
pluralistic intolerance 416
Poisson games 821–2
police economy 221–3
policy change 906–8
and advocacy coalitions 906–8
and extremist activists 211–12
and social movements 907–8 see also policy dynamics
policy dynamics 935–6
and event cascades 957
and future development of, policy development phases 959–60
and future research:
policy as its own cause 958–9
regulatory policy 959
social policy 958–9
and negative feedback processes 939
balance of power 939–40
elections and parties 941
monopolistic equilibria 943
oscillating processes 939–43
punctuated equilibria 943–4
reform cycles 942–3
regulatory agencies 940–1
spending 941
and policy change 934
and positive feedback processes 944
agent-based models 950–1
chaos theory 952–3
compensating feedback 950
complex systems 949–52
interjurisdictional learning 949
momentum 944–5
path dependency 946–8
qualities-based sequencing 953–4
selective retention 945–6
self-organizing systems 953
simulation 951–2
system-wide learning 948–9
trial-and-error learning 948–9
and selective retention 955–6
and systems analysis 936–7
definition of a system 936
emergent properties 938–9
(p. 1280) endogenous core 937
feedback loops 937–8
policy performance, and impact of constitutional arrangements 186–7
policy studies/analysis:
and accessible language 888–9
and action-orientation of 888
and advocacy 889
and argumentative turn 889
as art 982
and bargaining 890–1
and challenges of 888, 909–10
and comparative approach to 994–6
and constraints on policy-making 904–6
background conditions 905
garbage can model 904
ideational 904
organized interests 905
solutions looking for problems 904–5
and crises 893
and critical policy studies 889
deliberative turn 891–2
and deliberation 891–3
historical context 893
levels of government 892–3
and democratic policy-making 890
deliberative democracy 891
markets 890–1
and eclectic approach to 997
and government as steering 896–9
authoritarian overtones 897–8
contracting out 897
incentives 896–7
New Public Management 898
regulatory growth 899
social developments 897
theory of the firm 898–9
and high modernism 885–6, 897, 909–10
and historical context 991–4
and information/resource limitations 901–2
and instrumental rationality 901–2
and learning 902
and multiple policy fora 893
and networked governance 894–6
and normative basis 888
and path dependency 903, 991–2
and persuasion 887, 892, 902, 909
and planning:
decentralized 900–1
illusion of central control 899–900
indicative planning 900–1
looser regulations 901
Open Method of Coordination 901
and policy as its own cause 903, 958–9
and policy change 906–8
advocacy coalitions 906–8
social movements 907–8
and policy issues:
nature of 908
new facts 909
reframing of 908–9
and policy portfolio 988–91
heterogeneity of 988
institutional context 991
United Kingdom 988–90
United States 990–1
and political context:
maintaining authority and legitimacy 983–4
retaining/winning office 984–6
self-image of actors 987
and relevance 887–8
and self-interest 997
and ‘speaking truth to power’ 889
and technocratic approach to 890
policy-makers, and impact of public opinion 334–6
polis 498
Polish General Social Survey 415
Political Analysis (journal) 16, 1037
political behavior:
and changes in 322, 336–7
and citizen orientation towards government 327
and democratization 326–7, 336, 337
and electoral behavior 328–30
candidate voting 329
decline in class voting 328–9
emerging democracies 330–1
issue voting 329, 330
weakening of party attachment 329
and expansion of empirical knowledge 336
and game theory 811–12
cooperative game theory 811–12
non-cooperative game theory 813
and large populations 820–3
and mass belief systems 323–5, 338
and modernization 325–7, 337
and other-regarding preferences 867
and political change 336
and political choices 324
and political culture 325–6
and political participation 331–3
changes in 332–3
declining turnout 332, 379
emerging democracies 334
increase in 333
modes of political action 331–2
(p. 1281) participation gap 333
patterns of 332–3
and postmaterial value change 327
and public opinion, impact of 334–6
and public opinion surveys 322
and public’s political abilities and knowledge 323–4
and research developments 337–8
and self-interest 866–7
and social preferences 867–8 see also cooperation; political psychology
political business cycles 557
political change:
and litigation 294
and political behavior 336
political conflict 551–2
political culture 21, 325
and democratization 325, 326, 549
and modernization 326
and political behavior 325–6
and problematic nature of concept 325
and public policy 922
and restraints on freedom 412–13
political economy:
and endogenous institutions 786, 788
and evolutionary models of behavior 786–7, 799–802
altruism 800
co-evolution of genes and memes 801–2
pro-social emotions 802
survival in equilibrium 800
vengeful behavior 800–2
and globalization 753
and legislative organization 788–9, 793–4
agenda control 792
committees as commitment devices 790–1
gatekeeper model 788
information explanations of 793
legislator preferences 789–90
median voter model 788
parties and collective action problems 792–3
and legislatures 786
and meaning of 785–6
and methodology 786
and new areas of research 787–8, 803
beyond advanced industrial nations 805–6
and revelation and aggregation of information 786, 794–9
and size of nations 803–4
and voting behavior 794
aggregation of information 798–9
evaluation of information 794–7
impact of advertising spend 795–7
information requirements 794
timing of elections 794–5
uninformed voters 794–9
Political Geography (journal) 499
political methodology:
and advances in 1007
and behavioralism 1005–7
and causal thinking/inference 1021–3
case studies 1034
counterfactual approach 1023, 1025, 1055, 1056, 1057–8, 1069–75
endogeneity 1024
experiments 1032–3
explanations of growth in 1021–2
manipulation approach 1023, 1025, 1055, 1056, 1076–8
mechanism and capacities approach 1024, 1025, 1055, 1056, 1079–83
multiple causes 1025–6
nature of causality 1023–6
neo-Humean regularity approach 1023, 1055, 1056, 1063–9
Neyman-Rubin-Holland model 1032–3, 1086–9
omitted variables 1024
process tracing 1034–5
qualitative tools 1033–5
and causal/interpretive divide 1035–7
and classical syntactic-statistical approach 1009–11
factor analysis 1010
logical empiricism 1009–10
reliability analysis 1010
validity analysis 1010
and conceptualization and measurement 1007–9
credibility of concepts 1009
ethnicity 1008–9
game theory 1009
social constructivism 1008
and data collection and measurement 1016–17
event-related potential methods 1020
events data 1019–20
fMRI techniques 1020
game theory 1020
growth in data availability 1016
judical voting data 1019
legislative voting data 1018–19
media date 1019
new methods 1020
surveys 1017–18
textual data 1020
and end of qualitative vs quantitative debates 1040
and formal modeling approach 1014–16
cleavages 1014–16
social choice theory 1014
(p. 1282) and future developments 1040
causal inference 1042
conceptualization 1041
data collection 1041–2
measurement 1041
and methodological movements 1037–8
and multimethod research 1040
and organizations for studying 1037–8
and political science 1038, 1039
and political theory 81
and progress in field 1039
and qualitative/quantitative divide 1040
and relationship with other disciplines 1038
and semantic-pragmatic approach 1011–14
concept analysis 1011
conceptual hierarchies 1012
context 1011, 1012
diversity of conceptual meanings 1012
influences on 1011–12
interplay of quantitative and qualitative methods 1013–14
meaning 1011
normative evaluations 1012–13
and statistical methods for establishing causality 1026–32
discrete choice modeling 1030–1
ecological regression 1031
estimation methods 1031–2
hierarchical modeling 1031
regression analysis 1021, 1022–3, 1024–5, 1026–8
spatial analysis 1031
political participation 554
and deliberation 967, 971–2
and litigation 294, 300
and political behavior 331–3
changes in 332–3
declining turnout 332, 379
emerging democracies 334
increase in 333
modes of political action 331–2
participation gap 333
patterns of 332–3
political parties:
and clientelism 666
and decline in membership 377
and democracy 196, 212, 365
and extremist activists 208–9, 211–12, 831
and formation of 552–3
as institutions 197–8
created by political actors 197–8
as endogenous institutions 197–8
extra-constitutional nature of 197, 365
party-as-organization 197, 211–12
party-in-government 197
party-in-the-electorate 197
and legislative role 366
in the legislature 206–10, 393–7
agenda control 792
collective action problems 792–3
conditional party government 208
government duration 210
government formation 209
parliamentary systems 210
party voting 206–9, 394–5, 790
voters’ preferences 208–9
and life-cycle model of 386
and macroeconomic policy 557
and new parties 374–6
centrist 375–6
left-libertarian 374, 375
New Radical Right 374–5
regionalist 375
structure of 386
and organizational role 366
outside the legislature, candidate-centred 205
and party changes 386–7
and party identification 202–6, 351–2
decline of 329, 377, 385
increase in 351
and political business cycles 557
and role of 211
and vote share, decline in:
party dealignment 384
political party/voter relationship 366
and dealignment of 370–1, 384, 385, 636
and decline in parties vote share:
analysis of 382–5
coalitions 383
declining relevance of party model 380
declining turnout 383
electoral volatility 382–3
entry of new parties 382, 383, 386
methodology for analysis of 380–2
organizational change 383
parliamentary turnover 383
socioeconomic and demographic factors 379–80
and electoral volatility 368
and future of 385
and instability of 366–8
and organizational changes to 376–9
centralization of parties 378, 385
changed nature of campaigns 378
changes in capabilities 377–8, 385
(p. 1283) decline in partisanship 377
decline of mass party model 369–70, 377
impact on turnout 379
organizational rigidity 376–7
reduced reliance on activists 378
reduction of educative role of parties 378
and realignment of 370, 383–4, 385, 636, 637
and structuring voter choice 365–6
and voters’ policy preferences 369
changes in 371–6
decline of left-right cleavage 371–3
ideological convergence of parties 372–3
issue congruence 371
new parties 374–6
parties responsiveness to 371
postmaterial value change 373–4 see also clientelism
political philosophy:
and beginning of modern 89
and political science 6
and political theory 66, 104
political psychology 345–6
and biased processing of information 351–6
Bayesian learning 353–6
behavioral decision theory 353
handling of new information 353–6
motivated reasoning 352–3
party identification 351–2, 354–6
selectivity 352, 353
and concerns of 345
and emotion and political choice 346–51
affect 346–7
affective intelligence 348–9
manipulation 349, 350
measurement difficulties 349–51
mood 347
political emotion 347
and information 360
limitations of 356, 361
and methodology 357–60
bona fide pipeline (BFP) 358
criticism of 357
evolutionary psychology 359
expansion of 357–8
experiments 357–8
implicit association test (IAT) 358
psycho-physiological approaches 359
self-reports 357
and rationality 360
Political Psycholog y (journal) 359
political regimes, and dual structure of 177
political science:
and citation analysis of Oxford Handbooks of Political Science 17–19
disciplinary leaders 35–40
integrators of discipline 18, 41
structure of discipline 18, 40, 42
and core body of knowledge 14–15
books 32–5
content of 15–17
and debates within 9–10
binary form of 10
as a discipline 7–9, 32
and diversity of 32
and fundamental task of 5
and green political theory 75–6
and history 103, 536–7
and journals 16
and liberal democracy 6
and mission of 4, 5, 6
and multi-perspectival approaches 11–12
and nature of politics 4–5
and ‘next big thing’ 19–20
academic-political pressures for 29
candidates for 24–39
careerism 30
disciplinary competition 29–30
evolutionary models 25–7
features of ‘big things’ 22–4
framing models 24–5
impact of 31
nature of ‘big things’ 20–2
network models 28–9
opposition to 29
significance of 30–1
and normative concerns 6
and political philosophy 6
and political theory 64, 79–82
as profession 8–9
and professional associations 8, 9
and relationship with power 5
and revolutions within 12–13
behavioral revolution 13
foundation of discipline 13
limited impact 13–14
rational choice revolution 13
and specialization 14
and training in 14
and unity of 32
and values 6–7
Political Studies (journal) 68
political theory:
and absence of dominant approach 63
and academic trends in 82–3
and communitarianism 73–4
and comparative politics 80–1
and contemporary themes and developments 69–70
and core canon 63
and critical theory 75
and definition of 104
(p. 1284) and deliberative democracy 75
and disciplinary rules 104
and diversity of 71–2, 82
and feminism 74
and gender 79
and globalization 78–9
and histories of 102–3, 105–7
context 106
and history 64–5, 102–4
different approaches of 104–10
and Hobbes 89
and humanistic study of politics 62
and Hume 90
and ideology 65
and imprecision of term 102
and institutional environment 68–9
journals 68
professional associations 68–9
and interdisciplinary nature of 62
and international relations theory 80
and justice 66
and liberal egalitarianism 72–3
and liberalism 70–2
attitude to other traditions 77–8
critics of 71–2
and Marxism 70–1
and methodology 81
and moral universalism 78
and multiculturalism 78
and normative component 63
and philosophy 65–6
and pluralism of 62, 64
and political engagement 67
and political philosophy 66, 104
and political science 64, 79–82
and political thought 102–3
and post-structuralism 76–7
and public policy 81–2
and race 79
and rational choice theory 82
and ‘real world’ politics 66–7
and relation with other disciplines 62–3
and religion 79
and republicanism 75
and subject matter of 63
and utopianism 67
Political Theory (journal) 68
political thought:
and histories of 105–7
and political theory 102–3
politics:
and cultural community perspective 160
and definition of 4
and institutionalist perspective 160
and nature of 4–5
and place 498–9
and political theory 66–7
and power 5–6
and rational actor perspective 160
and social action 501
and strategic maneuvering 5
Politics (journal) 68
Politics, Culture, and Society (journal) 68
Politics & Society (journal) 16
Polity (journal) 68
Polity IV data project 1157
poll tax 985
polyarchy 5
popular culture, and legal consciousness 297, 300
population, and contextual analysis 454–5
population biology 26
pork barrel politics 649
and effectiveness of 666–7
positive political theory:
and central task of 813
and collective preference theory 814–16, 818–19
increased alternatives/issue dimensions 817–18
large populations 818
and economic methods 813
and game theory 814, 816–17
and information and large populations 820–3
positivism, and international relations theory 779
postcolonialism, and modernity 129
post-industrialization, and party systems 636–7
post-Marxism, and institutions 150–1
postmaterial value change 327, 373–4, 386
postmodern skepticism 436
postmodernism:
and identity construction 702
and nature 135, 136
and political ontology 465–6
and political science 154
and realism 694–5
post-structuralism:
and grand narratives 76
and liberalism 76
and nature 135
and political theory 76–7
poverty, and clientelism 650, 661–3
caused by 663
client’s valuation of handout 662
income distribution 662–3
risk aversion 662
power:
and constraints on 5, 6
and political science’s relationship with