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date: 23 August 2019

(p. 535) Subject Index

(p. 535) Subject Index

3M 308
access restrictions, typology of change 15
accountability to external evaluators 88
Achatz, Grant 186, 187, 191, 193, 195
Acurio, Gastón 188, 189, 190, 192, 195
adaptations, and copyright 458–9
Adrià, Ferran 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 194, 195, 417
advance forward incrementation (propulsion model) 42
advertising
creative clusters 393
innovation 399
knowledge spillovers 391
market for symbolic goods 124
performance 228, 231
projects 253, 255, 272
stardom 172–3, 178, 179, 180–1
toll goods 378
typology of change 11, 13, 17
agglomeration
creative city 99–100
global production networks 487
project-based nature of entertainment 379
agreeableness 38
Ai Weiwei 141
Alicia 189
Alinea 186, 187, 193
Amazon 131, 422, 426, 427–8, 432
American Idol 175, 423
American Viticultural Areas (AVAs) 337
Andersson, Ake 98
Andrés, Jose 189
Android 302
Anikó 191
animation 16
anti-circumvention right 453n.30
antiques/antiquities
dealers 10
market 138–9, 146
Indian antiquities 204
typology of change 12
anxiety 39
Apple
cloud computing 426
iTunes 8, 15, 131, 422, 425, 426
team creativity 53
architecture
change drivers 8
classifications 340
knowledge spillovers 391
local scenes and spaces 260
performance 230
projects and project ecologies 253, 262
as public good 467
symbolic and economic values 4
symbolic capital 123
typology of change 11, 12, 18–19, 21
Armani, Giorgio 60
art
classifications 339
fairs 287, 288
genres 334
local scenes and spaces 260–1
market 138–9, 146
artistic merit 229
China 136–47
Indian modern art 203–5, 212
symbolic goods 123–4, 132
typology of change 12
nature of 223
organized field-level events 292
social networks 76, 81, 87, 91n.4
artistic dividend 227
(p. 536) artistic merit 225–6, 229–31, 232, 233–6, 237, 239
Matthew effect 239
organized field-level events 292
across time 238
artistic opportunities, creative entrepreneurs 188
Arts Council of Great Britain 476
assortative matching, labour market 163–4, 165
auctions
Chinese art market 136–47
Indian modern art 204–5
organized field-level events 290
typology of change 10
audience-generated content see user innovation
authenticity
art market 137, 144–5
haute cuisine chefs’ partners 190
stardom 173
autonomous communities, user innovation 304–5
avant-garde stage of a genre 335
award ceremonies 285, 287, 289–90
Bach, Johann Sebastian 76
BACON 35
Bainbridges auctioneers 136–8, 139, 140, 142, 144–5, 146
ballet
change drivers 8
market for symbolic goods 124
performance 236
typology of change 10, 12
Bandcamp 422
barbers as cultural intermediaries 414
barcamps 286
barriers to entry see entry barriers
bartenders as cultural intermediaries 414–15
Bazaar by José Andrés, The 189
Beckham, David 173
Beckham, Victoria (Posh Spice) 173, 178
beer 335
beggar thy neighbour policies 472
Berge, Pierre 60
Berne Convention 457, 459–60
Better by Design (New Zealand) 396, 397
Bieber, Justin 175, 178
Big Brother 176
big-C creativity 54
Bilbao effect 12–13
bipolar disorder 39
blogs, music industry 412–13
Bollywood 9, 16, 20, 181, 380
Bonhams 145–6
Bontà del Mar 194
book fairs 290
Booker Prize 234, 237, 289
books see novels; publishing
Borders 427
Bottura, Massimo 188, 195
boundary shaping devices, classifications as 339
brainstorming 53, 62–3
brand ambassadors 414–15
brand rents, global production networks 488
branding
haute cuisine chefs 189, 193, 194, 195
projects and project ecologies 259
stardom 172–3, 178, 179, 180–1
urban and national 509
user innovation 307
Bread & Butter fashion fair 288
breakthrough niches 332
Breitkopf & Härtel 376
British Library 467
British Museum 13
brokerage 405–20
core–periphery perspective 86
roles 406–11
new interpretations and empirical studies 415–18
service industries 414–15
Brooks, Mel 239
built environment 260
Burning Man festival 286, 287
business models 3, 4, 6–7, 8, 222
copyright licensing transaction costs 468
Creative Class 110
creative clusters 392
haute cuisine chefs 184–99
activities 191–2
actors 190–1
(p. 537) entrepreneurial capabilities 194
motivation for establishing a venture 187–8
opportunities pursued 188–90
value creation 192–3
workshops and enterprises 194–6
journalism 456
music industry 412
organized field-level events 286
symbolic goods, market for 125
toll goods 378
typology of change 13, 15, 17, 19–21
user innovation 306, 311–14
business opportunities, creative entrepreneurs 188–9
butchers as cultural intermediaries 414
c/o pop 288, 292
capital
career 254, 256, 258
symbolic goods, market for 121–7
capitalism
accumulation logic 475, 476
creative destruction 353
Marxist conception of copyright law 462–3n.10
regulation theory of 98
career capital 254, 256, 258
career trajectories before entering a creative industry 335, 337
cartels 378
categorical imperative 336, 339
Cedroni, Moreno 186, 190, 191, 194
celebrity see stardom
Celler de Can Roca, El 190
chance
labour market 161–3
stardom 177
Chandler, Alfred 98
change
drivers 7–9, 20
global balance of power for creative products 430–3
typology 9–22
CHC theory 40–1
chefs
as cultural intermediaries 414, 415, 417
chess players 40
China
art market 136–47
creative clusters 392
culture as strategic industry 13
film industry 16
China Guardian 140
Christie’s 137, 140, 204
cinema see film
cities
characteristics 12
creative cities 503
creative clusters 392
creativity in the 96–115
3Ts of economic development 102–4
clustering and agglomeration 99–100
Creative Class approach 97, 98, 101–10
economic spikiness and inequality 108–10
human capital 100–1, 102, 103, 104–8, 109
innovation and growth 100
place, central role of 104–6
global hubs and clusters 509
global production networks 487, 489, 491
marketing 509–10
new media and technology companies 17
organized field-level events 286, 287
projects and project ecologies 251, 258
urban renewal 12
Clandestino Susci Bar 191
Clap Your Hands Say Yeah 413
Clarkson, Kelly 175
classical conditioning 36
classical music
bad reviews 36
change drivers 8
expertise acquisition 39, 40
material base of creative products 6
performance 223, 229, 236
semiotic codes 6
social networks 76
team creativity 53, 57
typology of change 10, 12, 21
(p. 538) classifications 327–8, 338–43
California wine 341–2
evolution 339–40
horizontal and vertical differentiation 340–1
shared representations, mobilized meaning systems, and boundary shaping devices 338–9
cloud computing 426, 432
clusters
creative 391–3
creative city 99–100
cultures of development 510
global production networks 487, 488–89, 492, 497–8
organized field-level events 285
cocktail bartenders as cultural intermediaries 414–15
Coen brothers 231
cognitive–social approach to personality coherence 37
cognitive structuring 289–90
collectors 10
collusion, toll goods 378
combinations and recombinations
projects 253
typology of change 14
commercial performance 225–9, 230, 232, 233–7, 239
Matthew effect 239
organized field-level events 293
across time 237–8
commoditization 432
copyright 439–40, 450
public policy 475, 476
vs. singularization 132
of stardom 172–3, 180
communality networks 256
communities
autonomous 304–5
business models 311–14
sponsored 304–5, 309
user innovation 301–14, 321–4
competitive advantage
brokerage 417
industrial policy 471–2
public policy 477
skilled labour 105
technology 8
user innovation 304, 314
competitive dynamics 6
competitive niches 332
complementarity 236–7
componential model of creativity 36
team creativity 52
computer games see videogames
conflict 253
conformity pressure
social networks 76, 78, 80, 81, 82, 84, 85
team creativity 63
connectivity networks 256
conscientiousness 37–8, 39
conspicuous consumption 143
consultants 407, 414
consumer goods 18
consumer surplus 366, 369–71
control, cultures of development 507–8
coordinators 407, 409, 410
co-productions
cultural brokers 409, 410–11, 412, 414–15, 416
global production networks 495–7
copyright 439–64
Berne Convention 460–1
change drivers 8
creative economy 474
creativity and 439–42
cultural production vs. romantic author 457–9
duration 444, 445, 450, 459
economic capital 125
genres 334
marginal revenues/profits 376
public domain protection 442–9
publishing 131
reform prospects 461
toll goods 378
transaction costs 468
user innovation 314
see also piracy
core–periphery continuum
creativity in social networks 76–7, 80–90
niches 331, 333
user innovation 305, 307, 311
(p. 539) cost structures
change drivers 8
material base of creative products 6
Counter Strike 302, 306
country music 230
Cox Review 391, 478
Creative Britain White Paper 401, 477
creative cities 503
Creative Class 97, 98, 101–10
creative economy 473
labour market 393
organized field-level events 286
performance in the creative industries 227, 232, 236
place marketing 511
public policy 478–9
Creative Credits 478
creative destruction 352–8
dynamic product differentiation 361, 365
innovation 398, 399
creative economy 97, 98, 396, 401, 512n.1
global production networks 490
mapping 479
public policy 471–4, 477–80
research programme 479–80
Creative Economy Programme 391
creative entrepreneurs see entrepreneurship
Creative Industries Council 478
Creative Industries Mapping Study 389, 476–7
creative labour market see labour market
creative mind 33–49
creative person 35–42
expertise, knowledge, and intelligence 39–41
personality 36–9
theories 35–6
types of individual creative contributions 41–2
creative process 34–5
creative tourism 511
creative trident 393–5, 396, 473
creativity
in the city 96–115
continuum 54–5, 60
defining 33–4, 52–3, 55, 78
factor (c) 37
nature of 3
as outcome 58–61
in social networks 75–95
core–periphery perspective 80–5
legitimacy 77–8
social structure of creativity 78–80
social structure of 78–80
in teams 50–74
innovation 55–8
as outcome 58–61, 65
as process 61–5
types 42–3, 91n.1
creativity factor (c) 37
critics
haute cuisine 190–1
symbolic capital 124
cultural brokerage see brokerage
cultural capital
art market 142
disintermediation 413, 417
market intermediaries 142
performance in the creative industries 225–6
stardom 172
symbolic goods, market for 121–2, 123, 124, 127–9, 132
cultural change and entrepreneurship 200–18
Indian high-end fashion 205–8, 209–12, 213, 214, 215
Indian modern art 202–5, 209–12, 213, 214–15
cultural competence 121
cultural development 126
cultural economy 472, 491
cultural enhancement 144
cultural entrepreneurship 212
cultural exception to trade rules 508, 510–11
cultural identity 126, 129
art and heritage objects 143
co-produced films 496
cultural industries 504, 507
public policy 472, 475–6
cultural infrastructure, China 141
cultural policy 498
cultural regeneration 237
cultural value 20, 467
(p. 540) culture
changes 4
and development 502–14
culture in development 502, 503, 504–6
cultures of development 502, 506–10
economic development 20
film industry 16
homogenization 441
Indian 9
local 260
merit goods 8–9
museums as showcase for 13
national 3
performance in the creative industries 231, 232
production, and copyright 457–9
semiotic codes 16
sociology 215
as strategic industry 13
cumulative advantages 155, 159–63, 164, 165
customer communities 308–9
customer support 309
cycle theory of symbol production 331
Cyrus, Miley 175
Damm Group 194
definitions
creative industries 5, 10–12, 29–30, 222, 388, 477, 481n.5, 481n.6, 481n.7, 503
creativity 33–4, 52–3, 55, 78
deinstitutionalization of mega media 423–5
demand
art market
China 140–1
Indian modern art 213
as change driver 7, 10, 20
creative economy 473
design as key creative input 397
economic evolution 398
entrepreneurship and cultural change 213
knowledge spillovers 391
labour market 157–9
niches 330–1
organized field-level events 293
projects and project ecologies 253
user innovation 303
democratization
brokerage 417, 418
disintermediation in the music industry 413
Department for National Heritage (UK) 475
depression 39
design
as key creative input 396–7
local scenes and spaces 260
projects 253, 254, 256, 260, 262, 270
public policy 478
typology of change 18, 19
Design Council (UK) 478
design rights 461n.1
Designing Demand 478
developing countries 20
development 502–14
culture in 504–6
cultures of 506–10
diffusion activities, haute cuisine 192
digitalization 421–33
books 424, 427–8, 432
copyright 460, 461
deinstitutionalization of mega media 423–5
digital revolution 273
digital rights management 468
global balance of power 430–3
music 424, 425–6, 432
disintermediation 405–6, 417, 418
books 427–8
digitalization 422–3
global balance of power for creative products 430–3
mega media 423–5
movies 428–30
distillers as cultural intermediaries 414, 415
divergent creativity 77, 80, 81, 82–3, 84, 87
diversification 15
Dubstep 14
Ducasse, Alain 187, 192, 193, 195
Dylan, Bob 335
dynamic efficiency, measuring 356–8
dynamic product differentiation 361–5, 375
dynamics of creative industries 351–86
(p. 541) creative destruction 352–8
economic drivers 371–8
sunk costs and industrialization 358–71
earnings
knowledge externalities 467
labour market 150–1, 153, 154, 156, 163–4
star jobs 157–8
projects and project ecologies 257
stardom 171, 172, 173, 378
economic capital
performance in the creative industries 225, 226–9, 234–5, 236
stardom 181
symbolic goods, market for 121–2, 123–4, 125–32
economic development 96, 503
China 139
cities 12
creative city 100, 106–10
Creative Class model 102–4, 106–10
creative economy 472
creative industries as engines of 4
economic value of creative industries 126
India 213
innovation 398, 400
performance in the creative industries 228–9, 236, 237
public policies 20
economic drivers of entertainment industry’s evolution 371–8
economic entrepreneurship 212
economic spillovers 398
economic sustainability 226, 227, 236
economic value 4, 20
art market 138, 142, 143–4
entrepreneurship and cultural change 212
Indian high-end fashion 206–8
Indian modern art 204–5
haute cuisine chefs 187, 192–3
market intermediaries 142
organized field-level events 286
performance in the creative industries 221
project-based organizations 274
stardom 171, 172, 173, 179
symbolic goods, market for 119, 120–4, 125–32
user innovation 306, 311
wine, Californian 327
see also earnings
economy 387–404
creative industries as a sector 387–90
creative industries over an innovation trajectory 397–400
spillovers from creative industries 390–7
education 150–1, 154, 161
Einstein, Albert 90
Einstellung Effect 40
elBulli/elBullitaller 186, 187, 188, 191, 192
elite talent 40
Ellis, Bret Easton 179
embeddedness, global production networks 487, 489, 492, 497–8
emerging economies 20
repatriation of cultural objects to 143, 144, 145
trophy purchases 143
EMI 425, 426
emotional stability 38–9
employment see labour market
endorsements
haute cuisine chefs 193
stardom 172–3, 178, 179, 180–1
enterprise business model, haute cuisine chefs 195–6
entrepreneurship
British Cultural Studies 476
cultural 212
cultural change 200–18
Indian high-end fashion 205–8, 209–12, 213, 214, 215
Indian modern art 202–5, 209–12, 213, 214–15
dynamics of creative industries
creative destruction 353
marginal revenues/profits 376
product differentiation 362, 474
production possibility frontier 354
toll goods 377–8
economic 212
haute cuisine chefs 184–99
activities 191–2
actors 190–1
entrepreneurial capabilities 194
(p. 542) motivation for establishing a venture 187–8
opportunities pursued 188–90
value creation 192–3
workshops and enterprises 194–6
labour market 154–5
projects and project ecologies 262
typology of change 15
entry barriers 20, 21
creative city 103
global production networks 487, 488
music industry 413
public policy 468, 469
stardom 178
environmental sustainability 226, 227, 231, 236
Eskenazi, Giuseppe 140, 144
Europareise 288
event landscapes 288
evolution of entertainment industries 371–8
evolutionary economics 397–400
experience economy 388, 389
design 396, 397
place marketing 510
experience goods, arts and culture as 467
expertise
acquisition 39–40
team creativity 58
exploitation
creativity continuum 54
project-based organizations 273–5, 276, 277
user innovation 308–9
exploration
creativity continuum 54
project-based organizations 273–5, 276
user innovation 308
exports 470–1
externalities see spillovers
extraversion 38, 39
extrinsic motivations, user innovation 310–11, 313
Facebook 422, 424, 430, 432
facilitating structures of dominance 290
fad niches 332
fair dealing/fair use, and copyright 440, 442, 444, 445, 448, 450
fairs 285
fakes and forgeries 137, 141, 144–5
fan funding 412, 413
Fargo 231
fashion
change drivers 9
co-branding 259
genres 334–5
haute couture 7, 13, 15, 60
local scenes and spaces 260
market for symbolic goods 124
organized field-level events 288
performance 236
projects and project ecologies 259
semiotic codes 6
symbolic and economic values 4
team creativity 60
typology of change 11, 13, 14–15, 18, 21
Ferriss, Timothy 427
festivals
performance 228, 230, 231, 237, 238
Fichte, Johann Gottlieb 458
fiction see novels
field-configuring events (FCEs) 285, 288–9
field-level events see organized field-level events
film
animation 16
bad reviews 36
Bollywood 9, 16, 20, 181, 380
change drivers 7, 8
classifications 339
digitalization 424, 428–30
dynamics 351
industrialization 353
marginal revenues/profits 376–7
product differentiation 361, 364, 365
production possibility frontier 354, 355
project-based nature of entertainment 379–80
revealed comparative advantage 356–7
sunk costs 358–60
(p. 543) sunk costs and price discrimination 367, 368–71
sunk costs and quality races 371–4
total factor productivity 356
genres 335, 336
global production networks 490–8
labour market 162
material base of creative products 6
monopolies 507
organized field-level events 286, 290–1, 292, 429
performance 223, 227–8, 229, 230, 234, 237–8
projects 253, 261–2, 269, 272, 274, 275
public policy 476
returns to scale 468
social networks 84
stardom 179, 180, 181
symbolic capital 124
team creativity 53, 56, 64
typology of change 15–16, 17, 20, 21
financial networks, film and television 495–7
fine arts
performance 223
typology of change 13
Finn, Ben and Jonathan 322
five-factor personality model 37–9
foot-soldier jobs 153
foreign direct investment 509, 510
forgeries and fakes 137, 141, 144–5
forward incrementation (propulsion model) 42
freedom of speech 441, 448–9
freelance workers 254, 255, 257, 258, 260
Freudian thought 83–4, 89
Fromm, Erich 83–4, 89
Galcotti, Sergio 60
galleries 10
gaming see videogames
Garcia, John 36
gatekeepers 407, 408–10, 414, 415–16
music 412, 426
Gates, Bill 102
Gehry, Frank 12–13, 18
gender factors, projects and project ecologies 257
Geneplore model of the creative process 34
genius 167n.7
genres 327–8, 333–8, 342–3
California wine 336–8
evolution 335–6
horizontal and vertical differentiation 336
social context 334–5
Gevinson, Tavi 178
global hubs and clusters 509
global production networks (GPNs) 486–501
film and television 490–8
global value chains 511–12
globalization
art and antiques market 146
as change driver 9, 10, 14, 16, 20
copyright 441
deinstitutionalization of mega media 423, 424
and diversity 441
national identity 131
public policy 476
stardom 172
television markets 490–3, 495, 498
glocalization 428
goals, team creativity 59–60
Goody, Jade 176
Google 15, 426, 427, 432
government policy see public policy
Gowers Review 391
Grandinetti, Russell 427
Grocholski, Luan 137, 138
group creativity see creativity: in teams
guardian jobs 153
Guggenheim museum, Bilbao 12–13
Half Life 306
Hall, Peter 98
halo effect 160
Härtel, Gottfried 376
haute couture 7, 13, 15, 60
(p. 544) haute cuisine
business models 184–99
activities 191–2
actors 190–1
entrepreneurial capabilities 194
motivation for establishing a venture 187–8
opportunities pursued 188–90
value creation 192–3
workshops and enterprises 194–6
change drivers 7
intellectual property rights 222
typology of change 13, 14, 15, 21
healthcare goods and services 474
heritage
culture in development 505
parks 10
performance in the creative industries 237
as public good 467
repatriation of heritage objects 143
typology of change 10–12
high culture 504–5
Hilton, Paris 173, 174–5
hip hop music 8
Hirst, Damien 123, 171
Hocking, Amanda 427–8
honesty 38
horizontal differentiation
classifications 340
genres 336
niches 331–2
products 361–4, 375
Howe, Elias 34
Hudson, Jennifer 175
human capital
creative city 100–1, 102, 103, 104–8, 109
creative economy 473
dynamic spillovers 397–8
economic theory of 150
labour market 150, 152, 154
human resource rents, global production networks 488
human rights law 448, 451
humility 38
hypomania 39
idea generation, team creativity 52, 55, 56, 58, 59, 62–3
idealism, culture in development 504–5, 511, 512
Ideate change type 9–10, 11, 13–15, 20
identity
cultural see cultural identity
national 476
organizational 235
personal 257
professional 235, 236
in project-based organizations 270
Imeem 413
imitation 274, 275
improvisation 253, 254
incremental creativity 54
innovation 274
legitimacy 77
social networks 77, 80, 87
teams 57, 60, 65
India
entrepreneurship and cultural change 200–16
high-end fashion 205–8, 209–12, 213, 214, 215
film 9, 16, 20, 181, 380
globalization 9, 14
indirect revenues business model 313
industrial districts 509
industrial policies 468, 470–1, 476
industrial stage of a genre 335
industrialization of entertainment 351, 352–5, 358–71
and variety 360–1
industry structures
change drivers 7, 8
genres 334, 337
typology of change 19, 20
Inedit 194
inequality
art market 138–9
Creative Class 108–10
labour market 148–9, 151–2, 156, 163, 164–6
cumulative advantage 159–63, 164, 165
star jobs 157–8
projects and project ecologies 257–8
stardom 378
toll goods 378
information asymmetries 469
(p. 545) information goods, arts and culture as 467, 468
information stickiness, and user innovation 303
informational product differentiation 362
innovation
architecture 18–19
camps 286
cities 12
combination as core process of creativity 14
creative city 100, 105
Creative Innovation System 471
economy 391, 397–401
haute cuisine 185–6, 191, 193, 195
industrial policy 471
knowledge spillovers 391
material base of creative products 6
museums 13
National Systems of Innovation framework 470
organized field-level events 286, 294
phases 398–9
project-based organizations 269–70, 272–3, 274, 278
projects and project ecologies 252, 253, 254, 259–60
public policy 477, 478
creative economy 472, 473, 474
Schumpeterian tradition 19
social networks 87
team creativity 51, 54–8, 64
typology of change 13, 14, 15, 16, 18–19, 20
videogames 16
Innovation Nation White Paper 401, 478
institutional context, project-based organizations 277–8
institutional theory 340
institutional work, organized field-level events as 291–3
instrumental rationality 221–2
instrumentalism, culture in development 505–6, 511, 512
integrated entertainment companies 15
intellectual commons 441–2
intellectual property rights (IPR)
cultures of development 508
economic capital 125
performance in the creative industries 222
public policy 468
see also copyright
intelligence 40–1
intermediaries see mediation
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Number (ICANN) 461
intrinsic motivations, user innovation 310–11, 313
introversion 38
investment theory of creativity 35–6
Invisible Hand theorem 466
Iper 194
iTunes 8, 15, 131, 422, 425, 426
Jackson, Peter 232
jazz 4
Jersey Shore 176
job stratification 150, 151–3
Jobs, Steve 102, 172
joint authorship, and copyright 446
Jordan, Michael 172–3, 179, 180
journalism 456
Journey 422
Khan, Shahrukh 181
King, Stephen 432
Kitschbaum, Larry 427
knowledge 40
spillovers 391, 467, 479
Kokonas 187, 193
Kolind, Lars 271
Koons, Jeff 171
Kubrick, Stanley 84
Kulash, Damian 425
labour market 148–70
assortative matching 163–4
clusters 509
cumulative advantage 159–63, 164, 165
differences in talent, relative comparison and dynamic amplification 153–6
education and earnings 150–1
job stratification and the reward of talent 151–3
projects and project ecologies 252–5, 258, 259, 261, 262
public goods, arts and culture as 467
(p. 546) public policy 472
spillovers 393–5
star jobs 156–9
Lady Gaga 426
Lafleur, Ross 320
Lally, James 144
Lam, Pearl 144
laws and regulations
copyright 439–64
cultures of development 508–9
genres 334, 337
global production networks 497–8
human rights 448, 451
wine industry 341
Le Chapelier, Isaac René Guy 458
Le Corbusier 18
lead users
innovation 302–7, 308, 310
music software industry 324
leadership, team creativity 64
legislation see laws and regulations
legitimacy
brokerage 408, 417
creativity and social networks 76, 77–8, 79, 81, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90
economic and symbolic value 119, 122, 129
Indian high-end fashion 207
organized field-level events 292
liaisons 407
licences
Berne settlement 460
open source software 306, 312
television show formats 457, 494–5
linear production 273–4
liquid production 273–4
literature see novels; publishing
live entertainment
dynamics 354, 356, 364–5
local scenes and spaces 258–61
Lord of the Rings film trilogy 232
Louvre 13
low culture 504–5
McClintock, Barbara 76
Madonnina del Pescatore 186, 190, 191
magazines 257
managerial performance 226
manic depression 39
Mar, La 192
marginal revenues/profits 376–7, 381
Marillion 412
marketing
music industry 412–13
niche 330–1, 333
place 509–10
markets
for creative labour see labour market
failures 466–70, 474, 475
genres 335, 337
project-based organizations 276–7
Marshall, Penny 427
Marxist conception of copyright law 462–3n.10
mass culture 504–5
material base of creative products 5, 6–7
change drivers 7, 8
typology of change 9–22
material value 201, 214
Matthew Effect 159–60, 239
media
deinstitutionalization 423–5, 433
dynamics 356–7
haute cuisine 191
Indian high-end fashion 207, 215
Indian modern art 215
innovation 398–9
lobby groups 508
organized field-level events 287
plurality 468
project-based organizations 273–4, 279
stardom 177–8, 179
user innovation 273
mediation 405–20
entrepreneurship and cultural change 201
Indian high-end fashion 207, 215
Indian modern art 204, 215
film industry 429–30
genres 336
music industry 411–13
symbolic capital 124–5
Mendelssohn, Felix 76
mental illness 38–9
(p. 547) mental models, shared 64
merchandising 378
merit goods 9, 467–8, 475
Michelin Guide 190–1
minibar by josé andrés 189
mobilized meaning systems, classifications as 338–9
modernism 211–12
modernization theory 504
monopolies
cultures of development 507–8, 509, 510, 511
public policy 468–9
Morandi, Giorgio 81
Moss, Kate 173, 180
motivations
brokers 407, 410, 416
user innovation 310–11, 312, 313
movies see film
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus 39, 40
multilocalization 424
multiple job holding 151, 152, 153
museums
China 141
culture in development 505
material base of creative products 6
performance 228, 232
typology of change 10, 11, 12–13, 21
music
brokerage 408–9, 410–11
disintermediation 411–13
change drivers 7, 8
classifications 338, 339
co-branding 259
copyright 441, 458
country 230
digitalization 421, 422, 424, 425–6, 432
dynamics 351
industrialization 353
marginal revenues/profits 376
product differentiation 361
production possibility frontier 354, 355
project-based nature of entertainment 380
sunk costs 358, 361
sunk costs and price discrimination 368
sunk costs and quality races 375, 377
toll goods 377, 378
economic and social value 131
genres 334, 335, 336
hip hop 8
jazz 4
local scenes and spaces 260–1
material base of creative products 6
monopolies 508
niches 331
organized field-level events 286, 288, 289, 290, 291, 292
performance 227–8, 230, 231, 234, 235, 238
project-based organizations 272, 274–5, 276–7, 279
projects and project ecologies 253, 254–5, 259
software 320–6
stardom 180
typology of change 12, 14, 15–16, 17, 21
world 511
national identity 476
national security violations, and copyright 447
Netflix 8, 15–16, 17
Netscape Navigator 460
network embeddedness, global production networks 489, 492
network spillovers 391
networks
architecture 19
change drivers 7, 8, 9
creative economy 473
creativity in 75–95
core–periphery perspective 80–90
legitimacy 76, 77–8, 79, 81, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90
social structure of creativity 78–80
embeddedness 489, 492
failure 469–70
financial 495–7
labour market 163, 165
latent 272, 294
market for symbolic goods 121, 132
organized field-level events 286, 289, 290, 293–4
(p. 548) performance in the creative industries 228, 231
project-based organizations 272–3
projects and project ecologies 254, 255–9, 262
returns to scale 469
social capital 121
spillovers 391
user innovation 304, 305, 308, 310
neuropsychological model of creativity 41
neuroticism 39
New Urban Economics (NUE) 99
newspapers 330, 334
Newton, Sir Isaac 79
Next 187, 191, 193
Next Gen review 478
nexus work 409
niches 327–8, 330–3, 342–3
California wine 333
evolution 331
horizontal differentiation 331–2
organizational ecology and marketing approaches 330–1
typology 332
normalization, innovation trajectory 399
nouvelle cuisine 82, 339
novels
bad reviews 36
Booker Prize 234, 237, 289
copyright 457, 458, 459
expertise acquisition 40
genres 334
organized field-level events 289–90
performance 234, 237
see also publishing
obscene material, and copyright 447
Officina 191
OK Go 425, 432
open core business model 313
open source software (OSS)
Sibelius plug-ins 325
user innovation 305, 306, 307, 311–13
openness to experience 37, 39
opera
change drivers 8
dynamics 361, 362
market for symbolic goods 124
performance 230, 231
public policy 475
typology of change 10, 12
opportunity costs, quality races 373, 375
optimal marginality 83
optimal network structuration strategy 77, 83–6, 87, 88
organizational ecology 330–1
organizational structures
genres 334–5, 337
material base of creative products 6
social networks 87–8
organized field-level events 284–300
as creative products 287–8
film 286, 290–1, 292, 429
as institutional work 291–3
as mechanisms of configuring and maintaining creative fields 288–91
researching 293–4
Osteria Francescana 188
Oticon 270–1
Outlaw Innovation 321
ownership, cultures of development 507–8
Paramount Case 507
Parker, Robert 342
Parker, Sean 422, 425
parody, and copyright 445
patents 461n.1
material base of creative products 6
open source software 312
path dependency hypothesis 364
patriotism 143
pay see earnings
P-E-N theory 36
performance arts
artistic merit 230
commercial performance 227–8
typology of change 10, 11
performance in the creative industries 219–47
defining and measuring 220–5
across time 233–9
personality 36–9
stardom 173
team creativity 56
philosophy 81, 82
photography 124
Picasso, Pablo 54, 90
Piibe, Mark 426
Pineda, Arnel 422
piracy 276
fiction 334
organized field-level events 292
public policy 468
publishing 131
typology of change 17
Pixar 53, 56, 64
place marketing 509–10
Plantier, Laurent 195
plug-ins, music software industry 320, 322, 323–5
poetry 78, 236
policy
global production networks 498, 499
lobby groups 508
public see public policy
Poly International 140
post-industrial production 104–5
Potzsch, Oliver 428
power
cultures of development 507–8
global production networks 487, 489, 494, 498
Prada 123
preinventive structures 34
Preserve change type 9–13, 21
price discrimination
marginal revenues/profits 376
sunk costs 365–71
privacy 17
problem solving 52, 56, 61, 62, 64
Producers, The 239
product differentiation 361–5, 375
product specialists business model 313
product spillovers 391
production possibility frontier 353–5
sunk costs and industrialization 361
productivity 226, 228
professional communities 308
professions theory 331
project-based organizations (PBOs), managing 268–83
dynamic contexts 276–9
relationships 271–3
roles 269–71
routines 273–5
projects and project ecologies 251–67
commonalities and differences 261–2
dynamics of creative industries 378–80, 381
local networks 255–8
local scenes and spaces 258–61
logic 252–5
Propellerhead Software 306
propulsion model 41–3
protected niches 332
psychoanalysis 83–4, 89
psychological safety 56, 62
public domain 441
importance 446–7
protection 442–9
Public Enemy 458
public goods, arts and culture as 466–7, 468, 475, 504
public interest, and copyright 440
public policy 465–85
as change driver 8–9, 10, 16, 19, 20, 21
China
creative industries 141
repatriation of cultural heritage 145
copyright 448
Creative Class 107
creative economy 471–4, 479–80
creative industries in the wider economy 390–1
evaluation 480
global production networks 496–7
India 212–13
industrial policies 470–1, 476
market failures 466–70, 474, 475
performance in the creative industries 229, 231, 236, 237
projects and project ecologies 262
public subsidies 8–9, 21
(p. 550) publishing
book fairs 290
digitalization 424, 427–8, 432
dynamics 353, 356–7, 366
economic and social value 127–31
haute cuisine chefs 190, 192, 193
material base of creative products 6
performance 235
projects and project ecologies 254, 255
Scottish 129–31
stardom 179
typology of change 15–16, 17, 21
see also novels
QMI Solutions 397
quality races 362, 371–5, 377
radical creativity 54, 60
radio
classifications 340
product differentiation 364
Raphael 76
reason in human affairs 221–2
ReBirth 306
recombinations and combinations
projects 253
typology of change 14
reconstruction/redirection (propulsion model) 42
Recreate change type 9–10, 11, 18–19, 20
redefinition (propulsion model) 42
redirection (propulsion model) 42
Redzeppi, Rene 190
regional development 392
regulations see laws and regulations
reinitiation (propulsion model) 42
relational structuring 289
Remote Associates Test 35
rents, global production networks 488
repatriation of cultural objects to emerging economies 143, 144, 145
replication
haute cuisine 192
propulsion model 42
representational gaps 62
representatives 407, 409
reputation
changes 76
haute cuisine chefs 189, 190, 193, 194
labour market 148, 149, 153, 156, 158, 159–60, 161, 163, 165–6
open source software 312
organized field-level events 290
performance 230
projects and project ecologies 254, 256, 258, 259, 272
publishing 127, 128
stardom 173, 176
user innovation 311, 312
res communes 442–4, 446, 447, 449, 450
res divini juris 445, 446, 447, 451
res nullius 449
res publicae 442–4, 446, 447, 450
res universitatis 445–6, 447, 451
resource-partitioning theory 331, 333
resource structuring 290
returns to scale 468, 469
revealed comparative advantage (RCA) 356–8
risk
project-based organizations 274, 275, 276
projects and project ecologies 254–5, 257, 261, 262
risk-taking 36
rivalry 253
Roca, Joan 190
Rockwell, Norman 54
Rolling Stones 335
romantic author hypothesis 458–9
Saffron art.com 204, 205, 214–15
Saint Laurent, Yves 60
scale, returns to 468, 469
scene stage of a genre 335
schizophrenia 39
Schoonmaker, Frank 341
science
bad reviews 36
combination as core process of creativity 14
cumulative advantage 159–61
personality of creative scientists 38
social networks 76, 79, 81, 86
Scottish publishing 129–31
(p. 551) search functions, cultural brokers 408, 409, 410–11, 416
Sector Skills Councils 478
security violations, and copyright 447
selection functions, cultural brokers 408, 409, 410–11, 416
semiotic codes of creative products 5–7
change drivers 7, 8
typology of change 9–22
serendipity 167n.8
Service Class 109–10
service quality of consumption experience 226, 230
shared mental models 64
shared representations, classifications as 338
Sheen, Charlie 179
Sibelius 322–6
Silverman, Tom 426
Simpson, O.J. 180
singularization vs. commoditization 132
size of the creative industries 5
skunk works 59–60
small-c creativity 54
Smith, Adam, ‘Invisible Hand’ theorem 466
snowboards 302
social anxiety 39
social capital
art market 142, 144
Chinese creative industries 141
disintermediation 413, 417
haute cuisine chefs 187–8
performance in the creative industries 225–6
stardom 181
symbolic goods, market for 121–2, 124, 132
social construction theories 340
social context, genre linked to 334–5
social inclusion 126
social media 422, 423
film industry 430
global balance of power for creative products 432
haute cuisine 190
monopolies 469
music industry 276–7
stardom 173, 178, 181
social networks 405
publishing 428
social opportunities, creative entrepreneurs 188, 189
social stratification 89
social value 467
sociality networks 256
societal embeddedness, global production networks 489, 497–8
societal impact of performance 225–6, 231–2, 233, 236–7, 238, 239
sociology of culture 215
software
creative clusters 393
as creative industry 477
knowledge spillovers 391
monopolies 469
music 320–6
project-based organizations 270
user innovation 302, 305, 306, 307, 311–13
Soldja Boy 413
Soler, Juli 187
Sony 427
Sotheby’s 136, 140, 204, 292
Soundcloud 413
spaghetti organizations 270–1
Spears, Britney 175, 178, 179
speech, freedom of 441, 448–9
spillovers 390–8
innovation 397–8
public goods 467
public policy 477
creative economy 474
industrial policies 471
research 479
sponsored communities, user innovation 304–5, 309
Spotify 15, 17
SSICA 194
standardization 382n.5
haute cuisine 192
team creativity 65
star jobs 152–3, 156–9
stardom 171–83
commodification 172–3
consumption 177–8
democratic turn 173–4
future 181
new forms 174–6
processes 177–9
production 178–9
toll goods 378
valuation of film studios/media conglomerates 429
state making, and culture 505
status
haute cuisine chefs’ partners 190
Indian high-end fashion 208
labour market 165
organized field-level events 291, 292
social networks 89–90
trophy art 143
strategic context, project-based organizations 278–9
substitutability 236–7
sunk costs
dynamics of creative industries 353, 358–71, 381
marginal revenues/profits 376
and price discrimination 365–71
quality races 371–5, 377
and variety 358–60
entertainment companies 16
industrialization 104
tourism investment 506
typology of change 16, 17
videogames 17
sustainability
economic 226, 227, 236
environmental 226, 227, 231, 236
symbolic capital
market for symbolic goods 122, 123–5, 127–32
performance in the creative industries 225–6
stardom 172
symbolic goods, market for 119–35
Bourdieu and the symbolic realm 120–2
publishing field 127–31
translating capitals 122–7
symbolic power 131
symbolic value 4, 214
brokerage 416
global production networks 488
haute cuisine chefs 186, 193
market for symbolic goods 119, 120, 122–5, 127–32
organized field-level events 286
user innovation 310
synthesis (propulsion model) 42–3
system failure 469–70
talent
creative city 102, 103, 105, 106
Creative Class model 102, 103, 105
labour market 148–9, 151–6, 164–6
assortative matching 163–4, 165
cumulative advantage 160
star jobs 156–9
projects and project ecologies 254
public policy 477
stardom 172, 173, 175, 179
tastemaking functions, cultural brokers 409, 410–11, 414, 415, 416
teams
creativity see creativity: in teams
diversity 60–2
technological rents, global production networks 488
technology
as change driver 7–8, 10, 12, 13, 15, 17, 19, 20, 21
copyright 443
creative city 102, 103, 105
Creative Class model 102, 103, 105
creative economy 473
deinstitutionalization of mega media 423–4
dynamics 361
economic growth 100, 102, 103, 105
genres 334, 337
innovation 400
knowledge spillovers 391
levies 468
niches 330
stardom 172, 173, 180
team creativity 63–4
user innovation 303, 305, 307, 309, 310
Teicher, Oren 427
(p. 553) Tejedor, Carles 191
television
dynamics 365
formats 456–7, 494–5, 498
global balance of power 432
global production networks 490–8
organized field-level events 290
project-based organizations 272, 274, 275, 277
projects and project ecologies 255, 261
public policy (UK) 475
reality programmes 174, 175, 176, 181
returns to scale 468
talent shows 423
temporary clusters 285
tenacity, labour market 155, 167n.2
territorial embeddedness, global production networks 489, 492
tertius gaudens 406–7, 409–10, 416
tertius iungens 407, 409–10, 416
tertius transferens 408, 409–10, 411, 414, 415, 416
textiles
India 206–7
typology of change 11, 18
theatre
dynamics
industrialization 354, 355
product differentiation 361, 365
sunk costs and price discrimination 366–7
total factor productivity 356
performance 231, 232, 235, 237
project-based organizations 269
public policy 474
typology of change 13
threshold theory 41
Timberlake, Justin 175
tolerance 102, 103–4, 105, 108
toll goods 377–8, 381
total factor productivity (TFP) 356, 358–9
tourism
creative 511
culture in development 506
cultures of development 509
economic value of creative industries 126
heritage 237
museums 12
performance in the creative industries 231, 237
public goods, arts and culture as 467
tournaments
labour market 148, 149, 153, 154, 155, 163, 164
organized field-level events 285, 290, 291
trade, cultures of development 508–9, 511
trade fairs 286–7, 290
Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement 453n.39, 457, 462n.5, 462n.7
trademarks 312, 461n.1
traditional stage of a genre 336
tragedy of the commons 443, 445
transactive memory 64
Transform change type 9–10, 11 15–17, 20
TRIPS Agreement 453n.39, 457, 462n.5, 462n.7
trophy art 143
Trump, Donald 172, 179
trust
art market 141, 145
atmosphere of 99
organized field-level events 289
projects and project ecologies 256, 258
UK Restaurant Magazine 191
Ulysses (Australia) 396–7
unconferences 286
UNESCO Convention on the Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions 471
universities
creative city 100, 105, 107, 108
creative/innovative communities 453n.37
innovation 100
until we see new land UG 286
urban environment see cities
user innovation 301–19
business models 311–14
firm strategies to create value 307–11
lead user, communities, and value creation 302–7
music software industry 320–6
project-based organizations 273
value 3–4
brokerage 408, 415, 416
chains 511–12
(p. 554) creation, haute cuisine chefs 192–3
cultural 20, 467
culture in development 504, 511–12
entrepreneurship and cultural change 200–1, 209, 211, 212, 213–15
Indian high-end fashion 206–8
Indian modern art 203, 204–5, 215
of film studios/media conglomerates 429
global production networks 487, 488, 494, 498
labour market 154–5, 165–6
material 201, 214
organized field-level events 285, 290
performance in the creative industries 222, 223, 225
place marketing 510
public policy 467
social 467
user innovation 302–11
Sibelius 324, 325
Valve Software 306
variety
industrialization of entertainment 360–1
sunk costs 358–60
vertical differentiation
classifications 340–1
genres 336, 338
vertical product differentiation 362–4
Via Veneto 191
videogames
dynamics 351
industrialization 353
product differentiation 364
production possibility frontier 354, 355
sunk costs 358
sunk costs and quality races 375
project-based organizations 274, 275, 277, 279
projects and project ecologies 253
returns to scale 468
team creativity 60
typology of change 11, 16–17
user innovation 302, 306
viral marketing 412–13
virtual customer environments (VCE) 310
virtual working 55
Voice 423
wages see earnings
Warhol, Andy 173
Web 2.0: 310
Williamson, Oliver 98
wine
Californian 328–30, 333, 336–8, 339, 341–2, 343
classifications 339, 341–2
genres 336–8
niches 333, 343
organized field-level events 291, 292
typology of change 13, 14
winner-takes-all markets
project-based organizations 276
public policy 469
stardom 178–9
Women in Love 495–6
Woods, Tiger 173, 180
workshop business model 195–6
World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) Internet Treaties 460
world music 511
World Trade Organization (WTO) TRIPS Agreement 453n.39, 457, 462n.5, 462n.7
Wright, Frank Lloyd 18, 19
Xerox 308
Young, Edward 458
YouTube 175
deinstitutionalization of mega media 424
global balance of power for creative products 432
music 412, 413, 422
Zawalich, Bob 324