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date: 27 June 2019

(p. 617) Index

(p. 617) Index

Note: bold entries refer to illustrations and tables.

abortion 29, 30, 31, 309, 464, 498–9
Abyssinia 128
advertising 426, 428
Advertising Workers of Socialist Countries, Conference on (1957) 426
Afghanistan 120, 171–2, 278
Aflaq, Michel 274
Africa 285–6
and African socialism 293–4
and Afrocommunism 295–6
and anti-colonialism 15, 290, 291–2
and Cold War 290, 295
and Comintern’s activities 286, 287
and communism in 1920s–30s 286–9
and communism in post-colonial period 293–5
and communism in settler societies 287
and communist-African nationalist alliances 295
and communist expansion 15
and guerrilla warfare 292
and impact of Soviet collapse 182, 298–9
and liberation movements 291–2, 295
and Marxism-Leninism 295–6
and military coups 294
and non-alignment 293–4
and one-party states 294
and regional contexts of communism’s impact 288–9
and Second World War 289–90
and Soviet Union 15, 293, 295
and state-led communism 286, 299–300
see also individual countries
African Left Networking Forum 299
African National Congress (ANC) 172, 288, 291, 297, 299
African socialism 293–4
Afrocommunism 295–6
agriculture 23–4
and collectivization 23, 211
and grain output 412, 413, 414–15
and socialization of land 395, 396
and Soviet Union 23–4
and state monopoly of distribution 395–6
and women in 492–4
Ai Weiwei 569
Akhmatova, Anna 560, 565
Akselrod, Pavel 58
al-’Askari, Mahmud 275
Albania 4, 11, 14, 148, 314, 608
and China 315
and collectivization 24
and economic specialization 311
and popular culture 575
and resource dependency 312
and rural life 464–5
al-Banna, Hassan 273
Alexander, Rani T. 306, 308
Alexander II, Tsar 56–7
Algeria 271, 277, 294
and armed struggle 292
and civil war 280–1, 292
and communism during Second World War 289–90
and communism in 1920s–30s 287–8
and economic liberalization 298
and French Communist Party 287, 288, 289
and Islamism 278
and military coup (1992) 298
and multi-party democratic elections (1990) 298
(p. 618) and repression of communism 288, 289, 292
and Sétif massacre (1945) 290
and working class formation 287
Algerian Communist Party (PCA) 288, 289, 291, 292, 293, 294
alienation 482–3
All-Burma Peasant Organization 243
Allenby, General Edmund 120
Allende, Salvador 258, 262–4
All-Soviet Congress of Supporters of Peace 325
Al-Nur Party (Egypt) 281
al-Qaida 278
al-Sa’id, Rifaat 281, 282
Amauta (journal) 254–5
Amendola, Giorgio 445
American Communist Party, see Communist Party USA (CPUSA)
Americanization 433, 434, 435
Amritsar massacre 120
Amsterdam Provo movement 158
anarchism 123, 221
Anarchist Communist Comrade Society (China) 221
Anderson, Sheldon 313
Andreev, Andrei 82, 131
Andreucci, Franco 445
Andrews, Julia F. 553
Andrić, Ivo 215
Angelina, Pasha 550
Anglo-Persian Agreement (1919) 120–1
Angola 15, 295, 296, 298
anti-colonialism/imperialism 14
and Africa 290, 291–2
and Comintern 286
and communist campaigns 135
and communist revolutions 14, 15
and decolonization 164
and end of First World War 114
and Islamic world 271–2, 274–7
and Latin America 258
and post-First World War national movements 119–22
and Russian Revolution (1917) 119
Anti-Comintern Pact (1936) 126
anti-communism 15
and 1989’s effects on 172
in Eastern Europe 144–5, 146–7, 151, 206
in pre-war period 126
Anti-Enemy Backing Up Society 242
anti-fascism 130, 136, 162, 191, 192
Anti-Fascist People’s Freedom League (AFPFL) 242, 243, 246
anti-Semitism:
in Poland 161, 206
and Stalinism 85–6, 375–6
Arab Revolt (1936) 136
Arab Socialist Union 294
Arab Spring 281
Aragon, Louis 433
Arbenz, Jacobo 257, 259
Arévalo, Juan José 257
Argentina 135, 252, 257, 258, 264
Argentina, Socialist Party of 253
Argentine Communist Party (PCA) 253, 257, 258
armed struggle 135–6
and Algeria 292
and Chinese revolution 96–7
and communist revolutions 7–8, 10
and Cuba 258
and South Africa 297–8
and South East Asia 243
Armenia 599
arms race 15, 174
Arrighi, Giovanni 176
art and artists:
and communism 552–3
and ideology 214
and political role of 559
and post-Revolutionary experimentation 559–60
and proletarian realism 559
ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) 183, 315–16
atheism 585
and promotion of 587–8
see also religion
Attwood, Lynne 551
(p. 619) Aung San 242, 243
Austria 118, 141
Austro-Hungarian Empire:
and class and nationalism 205
and collapse of 8, 113–14
and First World War 111
avant-garde art movements 158
Azerbaijan 599
Baatar, Sukhe 345
Babu, A. M. 294
Bahrain 281
Bai Hua 564
Ba Jin 565
Bakdash, Khaled 273
Baltic States 177–8
Bandung Conference (1955) 245
Bao Đai, Emperor 244
Barbusse, Henri 324
Barmé, Geremie 100
Batista, Fulgencio 256, 258, 259, 260
Baudrillard, Jean 545
Bauer, Otto 524–5
Bauman, Zygmunt 210–11
Bavaria 8, 114, 117
Bay of Pigs 13, 261
BBC Overseas Service 379
Beat Poets 158
Bebel, August 56
Beijing Olympic Games (2008) 612–13
Belarus 348
Ben Ali, Zein-al-Din 281
Benda, Julien 324
Benin (Dahomey) 15, 295
Benjamin, Hilde 492
Berend, Ivan 216, 217
Beria, Lavrentii 141
Berkman, Alexander 118
Berlin uprising (1919) 116
Berlin Wall 427, 575
Berman, Jakub 206
Bernal, J. D. 324, 325, 327, 329, 331, 335
Beyrau, Dietrich 204
Biermann, Wolf 216
Bierut, Bolesław 145
Bikini hydrogen bomb tests (1954) 330
birth rates 497
Bitov, Andrei 565
Black Panther Party 159
Bloch, Ernst 215
Blokhin, Oleg 606
Blum, Léon 129, 132, 134
Bohr, Niels 332
Bolivia 258, 262
Bolivian Communist Party 262
Bolsheviks:
and achievement of 7
and Allied military intervention in Russia 113
and anti-colonialism 119
and bureaucracy 21
and challenges facing 9
and changed conception of socialist revolution 8–9
and Decree on Peace (1917) 112–13
and democratic centralism 75
and democratic revolution 60–1
and dictatorship 7
and educative mission of 373
and establishment of Comintern 187–8
and factionalism 20
and features of communist regime 6–7
and February Revolution (1917) 111–12
and historians’ portrayal of 53–4
and hopes for global revolution 112
and Islam 272
and marginalization of political freedom 68–9
and membership 112
and modernization 75
and narodnaia vlast (‘power of the people’) 60, 61, 65, 66–7
and nationalism 525
and national question 119, 523
and nomenklatura system 28
and October Revolution (1917) 1, 6, 112
and Old Bolshevism scenario 59–62
as party of a new type 53, 54
and paucity of intellectuals 62
and peasant-proletarian coalition 61
and political culture of 75
and provisional revolutionary government 60–1
and recruitment of workers 62
(p. 620) and Red Terror (1918) 19, 357
and revolutionary contagion 64
and role of socialist proletariat 60, 61
and Russian Civil War (1918–20) 6
and Russian Revolution (1917) 64–8
and sign separate peace with Germany 113
and Social Democracy 54, 59
and soviet power 66–7
and split within Russian Social Democratic Labour Party 59
as vanguard 373
Bonnell, Victoria 550–1
Borchardt, Julian 110
Bordaberry, José Maria 261
Borge, Tomás 265
Borhi, László 306
Borodin, Mikhail 196, 240
Bosnia 162, 599
Botswana 299
Bouhali, Larbi 292
Boumediene, Houari 277
Bourguiba, Habib 277
Bravo, Douglas 262
Brazilian Communist Party 253
Brecht, Bertolt 324
Bremen 8
Brest-Litovsk, Treaty of (1918) 113
Brezhnev, Leonid 20, 174, 459, 505, 516, 530, 560
and invasion of Czechoslovakia 161
and Little Deal 402
and religious policy 594
Brezhnev Doctrine 161
BRICs 172
Brinton, Crane 355
British Communist Party, see Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB)
British Union of Fascists 135
Browder, Earl 130, 256
Browderism 243
Brussels World Fair (1958) 426, 428
Brzezinski, Zbigniew 317
Buddhism 237, 246, 589, 590
Bukharin, Nikolai 28–9, 69, 81, 113, 163, 191
Bulgaria 113, 205, 314, 417, 590
Bulgarian Communist Party 133
bureaucracy 21–2
bureaucratization 442
Burke, Edmund 355
Burma 12, 236, 241, 242, 243, 246
Burma Independence Army 242
Burmese Communist Party (CPB) 241, 243
Bush, George H W 172, 180
Bykov, Dmitrii 567–8
Caballero, Largo 126, 134–5, 136
Cable Street, Battle of (1936) 135
Cabral, Amilcar 295
Cai Yuanpei 234n3
Calderón, Rafael 197
Cambodia 165, 236
and China 315–16
and civil war 245
and famine 407
and influence of cultural traditions 237
and Khmer nationalism 245
and restoration of monarchy 248
and terror 19, 247, 357–8, 361
and Vietnamese invasion of (1978–9) 14, 237
and Vietnam War 247
campaigns:
and characteristics of 362
and communist regimes 68–9
and Lassalle’s ideas on 55
and peace movement 326–8
and peace pact campaign 327–8, 329
and Stockholm Appeal 326–7
and terror 356, 362–3
Cao Dai 239
Cao Zhuxiang 460
Čap, František 574
Cape Verde 295
capitalism:
and communist revolutions 5
and ownership relations 42–3
Caracazo (Venezuela) 265
Cárdenas, Lázaro 256
Carlyle, Thomas 343
Carpio, Salvador Cayetano 265
Carranza, Venustiano 254
(p. 621) Castro, Fidel 13, 181–2, 258, 263, 492
and Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) 262
and Cuban Revolution 259, 261
and Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia 156
Catalonia 7, 114
Ceauşescu, Elena 203, 348
Ceauşescu, Nicolae 16, 17, 180, 203, 207, 210, 311, 347, 348, 427
censorship 28, 85, 152, 160, 376, 378, 561–2
and popular culture 572, 573–5, 578–9
Central America 255, 264–5
Central Europe:
and loss of concept of 203
and post-First World War crisis 8, 114
and Stalinization 11, 12
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) 13, 257, 262, 279, 595
Chad 299
Chagall, Marc 325
Chamorro, Pedro Joaquín 265
Chang, Jung 100
Chaplin, Charlie 325
Chari, Sharad 216–17
charisma, and personality cults 348, 349
Charter 77 206, 577, 579
Chávez, Hugo 182, 266
Chechnya 599
Cheka 357
Chen Boda 460–1
Chen Duxiu 121, 221, 234n3
Chervenkov, Valko 307
chess 562, 563
Chiang Kai-shek 92, 93, 101, 102, 126, 223, 224, 345, 364
Chibas, Eddy 258
child care 497–8
children:
and family policy 495–6
and rural life 463
Chile 15, 135, 252, 256, 257, 258, 263–4
Chilean Communist Party 253, 258, 263
China:
and early formulations of communism 220–1
and Hundred Days’ Reform 220, 234n2
and socialist ideas in culture of 221
China, People’s Republic of (PRC):
and access to state archives 2
and Anti-Rightist Movement 94, 97, 151, 227, 414, 561
and bianzhi system 28
and building socialism 227–8
and bureaucracy 22, 96
and capitalist transition 230–1
and civil society 232
and collectivization 24, 413–14, 417–18, 457–8
and Confucianism 22
and consumerism 27, 231, 428
and corruption 232
and decentralization 400
and dual society 414
and Eastern Europe 150
and economic growth 230, 392–3, 394–5, 402–4
and economic problems 233
and economic reform 17, 176, 229, 230, 400, 403
and education 29
and elites 28
and establishment of 224
and establishment of one-party dictatorship 225
and family policy 31, 463, 496
and famine 24, 94, 228, 360, 407, 409, 415
and First Five-Year Plan (1953–7) 149, 476
and foreign policy 315–16
and fragility of support for regime 233
and gender inequality 519
and gender relations 491
and grain output 414–15
and Hundred Flowers campaign 13, 94, 150–1, 226–7, 377, 561
and Hungarian uprising 150
and impact of Khrushchev’s Secret Report 148–50
and industrialization 227
and inequality 231, 513–14, 517
and Korean War 93–4, 224
and land reform 23, 225, 230, 457
and living standards 231
and Maoism’s contemporary influence 102–3
(p. 622) and martial law 181
and middle class growth 231
and monitoring public mood 376–7
as multi-ethnic state 31, 532
and nationalism 99, 233
and nationalities policy 524, 532–3
and nation-building narrative 544
and one-child policy 463–4
and peasants 416
and personality cult 20
and political reform 233
and population policy 309, 463–4
and poverty reduction 231
and private sector 403
and protests in 181, 569
and rationing 26
and religious policy 589–90, 595–6
and rural life 461–6
and rural migration 230, 516
and rural-urban inequality 467, 516–17
and ’sent down generation’ 100
and Sino-American rapprochement 95
and Sino-Soviet split 13–14, 94, 164, 315
and Sino-Vietnamese War (1979) 14
and social conflict 232–3
and South East Asia 245
and Soviet alliance 224
and stages of development 10
and state-labour relations 475–6, 483
and state-owned enterprises 230
and success of reform in 17
and terror 357, 361, 364–5, 366
and urbanization 231, 418
and Vietnam 164–5, 237, 316
and women 31
China, republican (1912–49):
and civil war (1946–9) 224
and Japanese invasion of Manchuria 128, 222–3
and May Fourth Movement 121, 196–7, 221, 547, 558, 560
and Sino-Japanese War 224
Chinese Communist Party (CCP) 7
and 1st Congress (1921) 91, 222
and adaptability of 232
and Anti-Rightist Movement 94, 97, 151, 227
and armed uprisings period (late 1920s) 222
and Chinese civil war (1946–9) 224
and class conflict 167, 225, 228
and coalition-building 10–11
and Comintern 91, 222
and counter-revolutionary campaign 225–7
and democratic centralism 92
and development of Maoism 99
and early Russian support of 221–2
and establishes Chinese Soviet Republic (1931) 223
and establishes one-party dictatorship 225
and factionalism 20
and founding of (1921) 91, 221–2
and guerrilla warfare 10
and Guomindang 101–2, 125–6, 222, 223
and land reform 225
and Long March 92, 223, 544
and Mao Zedong Thought 95
and membership 18, 129, 222, 232
and model of revolution 10–11
and modern role of 232
and nationalism 10
and nationalities policy 532–3
and organizational and policy reforms (1940s) 92–3
and Party committee system 102
and peasants 10
and personality cults 346
and post-1989 achievement of 229–30
and protests of 1989 181
and rectification 92, 94, 226–7
and religious policy 589–90
and retention of political power 232
and Seventh Congress (1945) 93
and Sino-Japanese War 224
and South East Asian networks 241
and technocratic leadership of 232
and United Front 91–2, 96
and united front tactics 222–5
Chinese Football Association 613
(p. 623) Chinese revolution:
and armed force 10
and armed struggle 8, 96–7
and peasants 10, 92, 96
and significance of 3
and stages of development 10
and subjective factors in 7
Chinese Soviet Republic 223
Choibalsan, Khorloogiin 19, 307, 313, 314, 345
Chukovsky, Kornei 561
Chytilová, Věra 212, 215
cinema 214–15, 216, 560, 577
Citizen Poet project (2011–12) 567–8
civil rights 435–6
civil rights movement (USA) 158–9
and communist involvement in 135
civil society:
and China 232
and communist states 435
and Eastern Europe 208
and emergence in Eastern Europe 379–80
and international civil society 323
Clark, Katerina 543, 546, 548
class:
and consumerism 430–1
and Eastern European communism 205
and hierarchical classification 480
and inherited class structure 510–11, 513, 514–15
and Marx 522
clientelism 20–1, 482
Codovilla, Victorio 257
Cohn-Bendit, Daniel 160
Cohn-Bendit, Raphael 160
Cold War:
and Africa 290, 295
and Asia 12
and communist peace movement 323
and containment 12, 15
and Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) 13
and end of 173
and Latin America 258
and South East Asia 244–6
Cold War International History Project 2
collectivization 456–7
and Eastern Europe 211, 416–17
and famine 407, 409, 412–13, 415, 417–18, 419
and goals of 411
and liquidation of kulaks 23, 78, 412
and Soviet Union 9, 23, 24, 392, 411–13, 417, 456, 457
Collini, Stefan 558
Colombia 257
Colombian Communist Party 257, 258
colonialism, and repression under 306
colonial societies, and influence of Chinese model of revolution 10
Comecon (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance) 174, 311, 312
Cominform (Communist Information Bureau) 141, 323–4
and peace movement 326
and Tito’s excommunication 11
Comintern (Third Communist International) 2, 109
and 1st Congress (1919) 115, 187, 188
and 1st Congress of the Peoples of the East (1920) 122, 272
and 2nd Congress of (1920) 7, 121–2, 188
and 3rd Congress of (1921) 123, 189
and 4th Congress of (1922) 8
and 5th Congress of (1924) 190
and 6th Congress of (1928) 191, 276
and 7th Congress (1935) 125, 129, 132, 192
and Africa 285, 287
and aims of 188
and anti-colonialism 286
and anti-Comintern plot 193
and anti-fascism 130, 191, 192
and anti-imperialism 135
and Bolshevization 190
and Brazil 255–6
and Chinese Communist Party 91, 222
and class against class policy 129, 191, 288
and concentration of power within 132
and conflict over policy 196
and Congress of Oppressed Nations (1927) 286
and decline of 137
(p. 624) and dissolution of 194
and establishment of 187–8
and Executive Committee (ECCI) 188–9, 190, 191, 194, 195, 196, 198
and founding of (1919) 64, 114–15
and funding of national parties 198
and Great Terror (1937–8) 193
and historiographical issues 195–200
and International Brigades 126, 132
and languages used by 200
and Latin America 253
and national liberation movements 286
and organization of 188, 191–2
and party control of 187, 188, 190–1, 195
and political and military training of activists 198–9
and popular front policy 125, 130, 132, 133, 192–3, 194, 223–4, 256, 288
and post-Lenin intra-party conflict 190
and relations with national parties 195–8
and release of records of 195
and revolutionary contagion 64
in Second World War 193–4
and socialism in one country 190
and South East Asia 238, 240, 241
and Soviet foreign policy 196
and soviets 188
and Spanish Civil War 126, 192
and Stalinization of 191
and subordination of national communist parties 190
and successor structures 194
and support for communist insurgency 189
and suspicion of emigré communists 132
and tactics 188, 189
and third period strategy 191, 255
and translation of texts 200
and Twenty-One Conditions for Acceptance into 123, 188, 237, 253
and united front tactics 189, 196
command economies 25
and Eastern Europe 211
communism:
and achievements of 32
and armed force 7–8
and associated mode of production 41–2
and collapse of 16–17, 32, 152, 171, 174–5, 298, 434–5
and commodification of 436, 553, 581–2
and common features of communist regimes 3–4, 7
and conditions for rise of 38–41
and consumerism 425, 437
and distribution and allocation 44–6
and exchange relations 43–4
and generational identity 162
and growth in scholarship on 2
and historical grand narratives 543–6
and idea of 1
and impact of 2
and individual under communism 47–50
and intentionalist interpretation of 5, 6, 7, 16
and internationalism 305
and limited duration of movement 1–2
and nationalism 10, 14, 305, 522–3, 535–6
and national roads to socialism 205, 206
in 1960s 156–7
and nostalgia for 436–7, 581
and ownership relations 42–3
and peasants 409–10
and structuralist interpretation of 5, 16
and theoretical sense of 37
and variety among communist regimes 4
and war as cause of revolutions 5
communist imperial policies 306, 317–18
and China 315–16
and de-Stalinization 307
and economic exploitation 310
and economic policy 310–12
and internationalism 313, 317
and inter-party control 307–8
and intra-bloc conflicts 312–13
and military domination 308
and nationalism 317
and population policy 309–10
and repression 306–7
and state sovereignty 309, 317
and territorial disputes of periphery states 314–15
and Vietnam 316–17
communist internationalism, and Stalin’s conception of 14
communist parties:
(p. 625) and diversity of 18, 450
and homogenization of European parties 443
and membership 18
and party festivals 447
and party sections 447–9
and post-war transition to mass parties 444
and reasons for joining 445–6
and youth organizations 444–5
Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB) 195, 198, 273, 276, 292, 443
Communist Party of South Africa (CPSA) 199, 288, 290
and alliance with African nationalists 290
and disbandment of 291
Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU)
and 20th Party Congress (1956) 12, 141–2, 276, 291
and 21st Party Congress (1959) 13
and 22nd Congress (1961) 228, 293, 427
and History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks) (Short Course) 53, 544, 545
and membership 18
and 1961 Programme of 27
and popular culture 573
Communist Party USA (CPUSA) 130, 135, 198, 256, 444–5
communist politics:
and bureaucracy 21–2
and clientelism and patronage 20–1, 482
and decision-making 18–19
and dual system of power 18, 395
and factionalism 20
and modern character of 21
as neo-traditional 21
and personality cults 20
and role of ideology 18–19
and secret police 19–20
and terror 19
Communist University for the Toilers of the East (KUTV) 199, 240, 273, 286
Confédération Générale du Travail (CGT) 289, 292
Confucianism 22, 544
Congo, People’s Republic of the 295
Congo-Brazzaville 15
Congress Alliance (South Africa) 291
Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) 297, 299
Congress of the Peoples for Peace (1952) 328–9
Conquest, Robert 355, 359
constructivism 560
consumer goods:
and elite access to 512
and improvement in supply of 427
and neglect of 400–1
and popular demand for 431
and production of 210, 212
and shortage of 211, 424, 501, 576
and wider ownership of 428
consumerism 27
and advertising 426, 428
and Brussels World Fair (1958) 426, 428
and China 231, 428
and class divisions 430–1
and collapse of communism 424–5, 434–5
and communism 425, 437
and consumer groups 436
and development in Soviet Union 427–8
as driving force of world history 425
and Eastern Europe 212–13, 427–8, 435
and expanding conception of rights 435–6
and expression of individuality 433
and housing 428–9
and identity politics 433
and market research 430
and moral education 429–30
and Moscow Fair (1959) 426, 429, 576
and popular demand for goods 431
and problems posed by 430
and relationship of economics and politics 425
and second economy 432, 434
and socialist condemnation of 433–4
and socialist consumer culture 425–6
and Western goods 433
and women 432, 499–500
containment 11, 12, 15
(p. 626) contraception 31, 499
cordones industriales (Chile) 263
corruption 211, 216, 226, 232, 434, 613
Costa Rica 197
Cot, Pierre 335
Coubertin, Pierre de 603
Crafts, Nicholas 393
Crankshaw, Edward 324
Creed, Gerald 461
Croatia:
and Croatian Spring (1971) 162, 571–2
and religious nationalism 599
and rock music 580
Cross, Gary 27
Crouch, David 272
Cuba 135, 181–2, 253, 256, 258
and agrarian reform 458
and American economic embargo 259, 261
and armed struggle 258
and Bay of Pigs 13, 261
and communist party membership 18
and communist revolution 13
and Cuban Revolution 259, 260, 261
and economic crisis 182
and education 29
and guerrilla warfare 259, 260, 262
and impact of Soviet collapse 182
and literacy 24
and resource dependency 312
and ruling ideology 18–19
and Soviet Union 13
and United States 259–60, 261
and women 492, 493
Cuban Communist Party 254, 258, 261, 262
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) 13, 261–2
cultural discourse, and gender relations 490
Cultural Revolution (1966–76) 10, 22, 28, 94, 95, 97, 152, 166–7, 229, 366, 367, 561
and attack on the ‘four olds’ 29, 377, 595–6
and gender relations 491
and Mao Zedong personality cult 347
and nationalities policy 533
and religion 595–6
and scrutiny of femininity 31
and Soviet disapproval of 377–8
and sport 611–12
and worker protests 483
culture 28–9
and artists and writers under communism 552–3
and cultural change in 1960s 158
and cultural revolution 541, 542
and Eastern Europe 213–14
and escape routes from socialist realism 561–2
and historical grand narratives 543–6
and ideology 213–16
and institutions of 542
and nationalities policy 527
and new socialist person 542
and political posters 549–50, 551
and political role of artists 559
and politics 157–8, 213
and post-Revolutionary experimentation 559–60
and proletarian realism 559
and role in communist states 541–2
and socialist realism 214, 546–9, 559
Czech Communist Party (CPCS) 129, 130, 134, 160, 209
Czech Legion 113
Czechoslovakia 11
and anti-Semitism 206
and anti-Soviet sentiment 609
and collapse of communism 16, 17
and economic planning 211
and economic reform 399
and economic specialization 311
and normalization period 571
and political executions 307
and pop music 571, 577
and popular culture 571, 572–3, 575, 577, 579
and post-First World War crisis 114, 118
and Prague Spring 160–1, 207, 209, 571
and religious policy 592
and rock music 579
and second homes 578
and Slánsky trial 358
and Soviet invasion of (1968) 14, 156, 161
and Soviet Union 128
and sport 607
and sporting nationalism 609
(p. 627) and Velvet Revolution 176
and Yugoslavia 575
Czech Republic 176
dam construction 466
Daniel, Yuli M 163
Danilevskii, Anatoli 142
Danish Communist Party 198
Daoism 589, 590
Darwish, Yusuf 275
Davies, R W 412
Davin, Delia 99
Debord, Guy 158
Debray, Regis 262–3
Debussy, Claude 562
decision-making, in communist states 17–18
decolonization:
and communist expansion 14–15
and growth of Soviet influence 14
and impact on global communism 164
and South East Asia 236
de Klerk, F. W. 299
democratic centralism 75, 77, 92, 96, 443
Democratic Movement for National Liberation (DMNL, Egypt) 276
Democratic Party (Poland) 18
Deng Xiaoping 95, 99, 152, 166, 176, 181, 229, 231, 232, 347, 596
Denikin, A. I. 118, 121
de-Stalinization 142–4, 151, 152, 163, 214–15, 307, 346
détente 161
Dien Bien Phu 244, 292
Dikötter, Frank 456
Dimitrov, Georgi 125, 130, 132, 133, 192, 194, 199
Dinamo Moscow football club 604
Dinamo Sport Society 604
Ding Ling 561
Directorio Revolucionario (Cuba) 258
dissidents:
and attractiveness to West 576–7
and de-Stalinization 143
and intelligentsia 566
and post-Stalin ‘Thaw’ 141
and religion 594–5
and Soviet suppression of 152, 163
in Soviet Union 163
and Western media’s coverage of 379
divorce 495, 497
Djilas, Milovan 209, 430, 574
Dobama movement 241
Dobrenko, Evgeny 543, 546
‘Doctors’ Plot’ 85–6, 375
domino theory 260, 264
Dongping Han 456
Doriot, Jacques 195
Drakulić, Slavenka 433, 499, 578–9
Druzhba-84 Games 608
Duara, Prasenjit 306
Dubček, Alexander 160, 207, 571
Du Bois, W. E. B. 325
Dudintsev, Vladimir 143, 378
Dunham, Vera 86, 402
Dutch East Indies 238
East Asia:
and influence of Chinese model of revolution 10
and land reform 23
and national liberation 12
East Berlin uprising (1953) 426
Eastern Europe:
and acceptance of regimes 208–9
and anti-communism 144–5, 146–7, 151, 206
and anti-Semitism 206
and ‘backward’ characterization of 203, 204
and Brezhnev Doctrine 161
and centrality of the party 209
and China 150
and cinema 214–15, 216
and civil society’s emergence 379–80
and collapse of communism 16–17, 152, 175, 380, 434–5
and collectivization 24, 416–17
and communism 203
and consumerism 212–13, 427–8, 435
and corruption 216
and cultural policy 573–4
and culture and ideology 213–16
and de-Stalinization 307
and economic modernization 390
and economic planning 211
(p. 628) and economic reform 26
and economy 210–13
and education 29
and everyday life 208–9
and family policy 31, 212, 429
and food shortages 416
and gender relations 212
and housing 212, 429
and impact of denunciation of Stalin 12–13
and industrialization 210–11, 310–11
and living standards 213
and monitoring public mood 376, 378–9
and national communism 206–7
and national/imperial conflict 204
and nationalist enmities 312–13
and nationalization 211
and nation and class 205–7
and New Course 427
as new Soviet empire 306
and nostalgia for communism 436
as object of great power politics 204
and opinion polling 378–9
and people’s democracy 205
and popular culture 574–5, 576
and post-communist popular culture 580–2
and receptiveness to communism 204
and regime-society relations 208–10
and religious dissidence 594–5
and religious suppression 590–3
and repression 307
and resistance to communist regimes 578–80
and review of Soviet Union’s relationship with 174–5
and Soviet economic exploitation 310
and Soviet military presence 308
and Stalinization 11, 12
and start of ‘de-colonization’ of (1956) 148
and surveillance 210
and terror 19
and totalitarianism 208
and women 31
and working class 211–12
see also individual countries
East Germany (German Democratic Republic, GDR):
and collapse of communism 17, 175
and collectivization 417
and economic development 394
and economic reform 26, 399
and economic specialization 311
and German unification 173
and land reform 23
and Olympic Games 608
and restrictions on Western cultural influences 575
and secret police 20
and sport 607, 608
and Stasi 210
and state-labour relations 473–4
and worker protests (1953) 140–1, 474
Eberlein, Hugo 115
Ebert, Friedrich 116
economic development 387–8
and catching up with the West 388, 390–1, 392, 393
and China 392–3, 394–5, 400, 402–4
and communism’s influence on 393–4
and comparison of countries divided by Iron Curtain 394
and consumer-producer relationship 396–7
and Eastern Europe 390
and economic reforms 397–400
and exaggeration of production 396
and industrial cities 401
and inefficiencies 397
and military motives for 388–90
and neglect of consumer goods 400–1
and permanent mobilization 400
and power 389
and priority of capital projects and infrastructure 401
and production 389
and real national income per head 391–2, 393–4
and Russian backwardness 388
and Second World War 390
and socialization of land 395, 396
and Soviet economic beliefs 389–90
and state monopoly of distribution 395–6
(p. 629) economic policy, and communist imperial policies 310–12
economism 58
economy 23–7
and agriculture 23–4
and Big Deal 402
and collectivization 23
and command economies 25
and consumer goods 210, 211, 212, 400–1
and consumers 26
and Eastern Europe 210–13
and economic planning 25, 211
and economic reform 26–7
and Gorbachev’s reforms 174
and land reform 23
and liberalization 182
and Little Deal 402
and living standards 26–7, 213
and military expenditure 401
and politicization of 387, 395
and relative performance compared to West 25
and second economy 25, 211, 402, 432, 434, 482
and shortage economy 25–6
and state control of 395
Ecuador 266
education:
and China 29
and Cuba 29
and Eastern Europe 29
and ideological training 479
and Islamic world 275
and nativization (korenizatsiia) 528
and parental occupation 511
and Soviet Union 29
and women 494–5
Effenberger, Ferdinand 115
Efremov, Mikhail 567–8
Egypt 14, 271, 273
and anti-colonialism 275
and constitutional crisis (2012) 282
and downfall of Mubarak 281
and education expansion 275
and growth of working class 274
and Left’s critique of Islamism 281
and Nasser’s economic programme 276–7
and nationalist revolt (1919) 120
and revival of the left 281–2
and Soviet Union 276
and student-worker activism 275
Egyptian Communist Party 276
Ehrenburg, Ilya 141, 146, 323, 324, 325, 327, 328, 329–30, 331, 335
Eichhorn, Emil 116
Einstein, Albert 331
Eisenhower, Dwight D. 147
Eisenstein, Sergei 560
Eisner, Kurt 117
electricity 465–6
elites:
and access to consumer goods 512
and access to housing 512–13
and ascertaining elite opinion 374–5
and composition of 508–9
and growth of 509–10
and inherited class structure 510–11, 513, 514–15
and post-revolutionary emergence of 28
and privileges of 26, 28, 401, 425, 431, 505, 506, 507–8, 510, 564
Ellman, Michael 360
El Salvador 255, 264
Emeliantseva, Ekaterina 602
Engels, Friedrich 37, 49, 343, 489, 522
and The Communist Manifesto 37, 41
and conditions for communism 38–41
and individual under communism 47
and nationalism 524
and peasants 410
and proletarian revolution 40–1, 55
and realism 546
and social appropriation of means of production 43
and social labour 44
and structuralist interpretation of revolution 5
and theoretical sense of communism 37
Ennahdha movement (Tunisia) 281
Ennker, Benno 343–4
Enterprise Associations (BSG, East Germany) 607
Escalante, Aníbal 262
Estonia 114, 177, 394
(p. 630) Ethiopia 15, 172, 295, 296, 298, 299
ethnic conflict 207
etiquette books 430
Étoile Nord-Africaine (North African Star, Algeria) 287
Ettahaddi (Defiance) (Algeria) 298
European Broadcasting Union (EBU) 574
European collective security 332–3, 334
European Union 171, 182, 216
Eurovision Song Contest 574, 577, 581
Evtushenko, Evgenii 143, 568
Eyadéma, Gnassingbé 317
Ezhov, Nikolai 81, 127, 131, 132, 133
Fadeev, Alexander 323, 324, 327, 329, 334, 549
Fahd (Yusuf Salman Yusuf) 273
Falungong 232, 596
family policy:
and child care 497–8
and China 31, 463, 496
and Eastern Europe 31, 212, 429
and gender relations 490–1, 495–6
and Soviet Union 30, 432, 490–1, 495–6
famine 23–4, 94, 228, 360, 392
and Cambodia 407
and causes of 417–19
and China 407, 409, 415
and collectivization 407, 409, 412–13, 415, 417–18, 419
and death tolls in socialist countries 408
and distinction from food shortages 407–9
and grain exports 418
and North Korea 407
and Soviet Union 407, 409, 412–13, 515
and urbanization 418
Fanon, Franz 157
Farabundo Martí, Augustín 255
fascism 110, 306, 307, 308–9
fashion 427, 430, 500
Fast, Howard 324
Federation for Cuban Women 492
Federation of Consumers (Poland) 436
Fedorov, Vasilii 143
Feher, Ferenc 425
Fehérváry, Krisztina 212
feminism, second-wave 488
Feng Zikai 560
Ferguson, Adam 48
Ferro, Marc 112
festivals:
and European communist parties 447
and personality cults 349–50
films 214–15
Finland 394
Firmenich, Mario 264
First International 49, 187
First World War:
and Bolshevik Decree on Peace 112–13
and collapse of Central European empires 113–14
and domestic discontent 111
and emergence of communism 110
and encouragement of colonial nationalist movements 119–20
and impact of 8, 109
and mutinies 111
and notion of managing the people 74
and protests against 111
and Russian Revolution 5, 6, 112–13
and Russia signs separate peace with Germany 113
and Social Democratic parties support for 63, 110, 187
and split within international socialism 63
as total war 111
Fitzgerald, John 101
Fitzpatrick, Sheila 80–1, 208, 435, 481
Fonseca, Carlos 261
football 603, 605–6, 609, 613
forced labour, and Soviet Union 9
foreign policy, see communist imperial policies
Forman, Miloš 215
Fourier, Charles 37
France:
and First World War 111
and Indochina War 244
and peace movement 332
and Popular Front 134, 192
and popular front policy 134
and Soviet Union 125, 128
and student protests (1968) 160
and trade unions 135
France, Anatole 324
(p. 631) Frankfurt School 158
Freedom and Justice Party (Egypt) 281
Free German Trade Union Federation (FDGB, East Germany) 480, 607
Free German Youth (FDJ) 607
Freikorps 116, 117
French Communist Party (PCF) 129, 130, 132, 133, 134, 135, 160, 196, 238, 287, 444
and Africa 289
and Algeria 287, 288, 289
and Arab world 273
and newspaper distribution 446–7
and party sections 448
and political festivals 447
and West Africa 292
French Revolution:
and 1989 compared with 173–4
and terror 356–7
Frente Amplio (Uruguay) 264
Frente de Libertação de Moçambique (FRELIMO) 15, 295, 296
Friedrich, Carl 317
Front de Libération Nationale (FLN, Algeria) 278, 292, 294, 298
Front des Forces Socialistes (FFS, Algeria) 294
Front Islamique du Salut (FIS, Algeria) 278, 281, 298
Fu Daqing 240
Fukuyama, Francis 425
Furet, François 13
Futian 223
futurism 559
Gaber, Giorgio 199
Gagarin, Yurii 13
Gaitán, Jorge Eliécer 257
Galiev, Sultan 272
Games of the New Emerging Forces (GANEFO) 608, 611
Gandhi, Mahatma 120
Gdańsk shipyard 178, 483
Gdańsk Social Accords 178
gender relations:
and China 491
and communism’s cultural discourse 490
and communist ideology 489–91
in Eastern Europe 212
and family policy 490–1, 495–6
and gender inequality 518–19
and household work 496–7
and persistence of inequalities 488–9
and Poland 491
and Soviet Union 489–91
and women’s labour market participation 492–4
generational identity, and communism 162
Geneva Accords (1954) 165
Geneva foreign ministers’ conference (1955) 334
Geneva summit (1955) 333–4
Georgia 142, 599
German Communist Party (KPD) 8, 115, 116, 129, 189, 443
German Gymnastics and Sports Associations (DTSB) 607
German Independent Social-Democratic Party (USPD) 110–11, 115, 116, 443
German Social Democratic Party (SPD):
and First World War 63, 110
and influence on Russian socialists 55, 57
and permanent campaigns 55
and success of 55–6
German Sports Committee (DS) 607
Germany:
and Anti-Comintern Pact (1936) 126
and First World War 111
and post-First World War crisis 8, 114, 116–17
and Spanish Civil War 128–9
and unification of 171, 173
Gerő, Ernő 147
Getty, J Arch 360
Ghana 294, 295
Ghannouchi, Rachid 281
Gheorghiu-Dej, Gheorghe 206, 346
Gierek, Edvard 16, 178
Gieseke, Jens 210
gift-giving, and socialist societies 351
Gillespie, Dizzy 575
Ginsberg, Allen 158
Gladkov, Feodor 548
Glemp, Józef 595
globalization 173, 176
(p. 632) Golden Kids (pop group) 571
Goldman, Emma 118
Goldman, Wendy 496
Gomułka, Władysław 12–13, 24, 145, 148, 161, 199, 206, 209, 307, 475, 574
González Videla, Gabriel 257
Gorbachev, Mikhail 16, 17, 152, 298, 520, 566
and American-Soviet rapprochement 180
and Baltic States 177
and de-Stalinization 152
and Eastern Europe 174–5
and nationalities policy 531–2
and new world order 172
and perestroika 174, 606
Gorky, Maxim 546
Gorlizki, Yoram 86, 87
Gorter, Hermann 110
Gott, Karel 577, 581
Gottwald, Klement 345, 416
Gramsci, Antonio 7, 447
Great Leap Forward (1958–61) 10, 13, 24, 25, 94, 97, 149, 152, 228, 360, 400, 418, 458, 476
and education 29
and famine 407
and gender relations 491, 519
and grain output 414–15
and nationalities policy 533
Great Patriotic War (1941–5), and Stalinism 84–5
Great Terror (1937–8) 19, 22, 73, 74, 81–3, 131, 357, 367
and Comintern 193
and fear of fifth column 83–4
and number of victims 359, 360
and show trials (1936) 127
Greece 11
Greek Orthodox Church 590
Guatemala 257, 264
Guatemalan Labour Party (PGT) 257
Guérin, Daniel 162
guerrilla warfare:
and Africa 292
and Cuba 259
and Latin America 13, 260–1, 262
Guevara, Ernesto ‘Che’ 13, 164, 259, 261
and Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) 262
and guerrilla warfare 260, 262
and New Socialist Man 18
and voluntarism 259
Guinea Bissau 295
Guomindang (Chinese Nationalist Party) 7, 91
and Chinese civil war (1946–9) 224
and Chinese Communist Party 101–2, 125–6, 222, 223
and influence in South East Asia 242
and Northern Expedition (1926–7) 92
and Sino-Japanese War 10
and United Front 91–2
Haase, Hugo 111
Habermas, Jürgen 176, 371
Hadj-Ali, Bachir 292
Hadjerés, Sadek 292
Hà Huy Tập 197
Halbstarken 158
Haldane, J. B. S. 324
Halliday, Fred 295
Hani, Chris 299
Hao Ran 543
Haraszti, Miklós 552
Hardt, Michael 266, 451
Harmel, Michael 291
Harris, James 81
Harsch, Donna 432
Harvard Project on Cold War Studies 2
Haŝek, Jaroslav 214
Haufler, Marsha 545
Havel, Václav 208, 210, 380, 430–1, 579, 581
Haya de la Torre, Victor Raúl 254, 255
Hegedüs, András 146
Hegel, G. W. F. 38
Hellbeck, Jochen 80
Heller, Agnes 425
He Long 610, 611
Helsinki Final Act (1975) 15, 594
Helsinki Olympic Games (1952) 604
Hershatter, Gail 463
Herzen, Alexander 1
Heym, Stefan 545
Hindus, Maurice 466
history:
and nation-building grand narratives 544–6
and political use of 543–4
(p. 633) and teleological view of 543
History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks) (Short Course) 53, 544, 545
Hitler, Adolf 8, 76, 192, 313
Hoa Hao 239
Hoàng Van Hoăn 316
Hobsbawm, Eric 32, 110, 171, 442, 449
Hố Chí Minh 20, 120, 157, 164, 165, 197–8, 237, 238, 239, 240, 243, 341, 364
Hoffman, Frank 551
Hoggart, Richard 441
Holloway, John 266
homosexuality, and criminalization of 30
Honduras 265
Honecker, Erich 175, 199
Hong Xiuquan 234n1
Hoover, J. Edgar 445
Hopkins, Terence 176
Horn of Africa 296
Horthy, Miklos 118
Houphouêt, Félix 292–3
Houra, Jasenko 580
housing 428–9, 500–1
and class 512–13
in Eastern Europe 212
and intelligentsia 563–4
and second homes 578
Hoxha, Enver 148, 312, 346, 347, 581
Hrabal, Bohumil 215
Hroch, Miroslav 204
Hua Guofeng 95, 347
Hu Feng 226, 561
Hu Jintao 99
l’Humanité (French communist newspaper) 446–7
human rights 15
human rights movement, in Soviet Union 163
Humphrey, Caroline 458–9
Hundred Days’ Reform (1898) 220, 234n2
Hundred Flowers Movement 13, 94, 150–1, 226–7, 377, 561
Hungarian Communist Party 115, 117, 146
Hungarian Uprising (1956) 13, 146–8, 150, 152, 335
Hungary 8
and anti-communism 206
and collapse of communism 16, 17
and collectivization 458
and economic reform 26, 399, 427
and growth in discontent (1956) 146–7
and New Course 146
and opening to Western cultural influences 574
and opens western borders 175
and political executions 307
and post-First World War crisis 114, 117–18
and post-war communist revolution 11
and religious policy 591–2
and rural life 463
and Soviet military intervention (1956) 147–8
Husák, Gustáv 176, 207, 571
Hu Shi 234n3, 565
Hussein, Saddam 271, 281
Huxley, Julian 324
Hu Yaobang 181
Ibáñez, Carlos 256
Ibárruri, Dolores 199
identity politics, and consumerism 433
ideology:
and culture 213–16
and gender relations 489–91
and influence on communist politics 18–19
and workplace education 479
Ilić, Melanie 550, 551
INCOMKA Project 2
India 3, 14, 120, 122, 172, 199, 241, 243
Indian National Congress 120
Indo-Americanism 254
Indochina 236–7, 312
Indochina War 244
Indochinese Communist Party 197, 237, 240, 244, 245
Indonesia 12, 239–40, 243, 246, 273
Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) 18, 239, 243, 246
Industrial and Commercial Workers’ Union (South Africa) 287
industrialization:
and China 227
and communist imperial policies 310–11
(p. 634) and Eastern Europe 210–11, 310–11
and Soviet Union 9, 78
inequality 27–8
and access to consumer goods 512
and access to housing 512–13
and China 231, 513–14
and elite privileges 26, 28, 401, 425, 431, 505, 506, 507–8, 510, 564
and encouragement of 507, 520
and gender inequality 518–19
and geographic location 518
and income inequality 517
and inherited class structure 510–11, 513, 514–15
and limitations of data on 506
and non-monetary factors 505–6, 506–7, 512
and rural-urban inequality 515–17
and social mobility 508, 509–10, 516
and social structure 508–9, 510, 520
and Soviet/Eastern European studies of 506
and technical specialists 508
and urban workforce 517–19
Ingrao, Pietro 161
intellectuals:
and distinction from intelligentsia 557–8
and World Congress of Intellectuals for Peace (1948) 323–4
intelligentsia 213, 557
and access to consumer goods 512
and access to housing 512–13
and accommodation with system 565
and Anti-Rightist Movement 561
and conflicting expectations of 558–9
in contemporary China 568–9
and Cultural Revolution (1966–76) 561
and daily life of 563–4
and definition of 558
and discrediting of 566
and dissident movement 566
and distinction from intellectuals 557–8
and escape routes from socialist realism 561–2
and ethical standards 565–6
and expansion of 508–9
and future of 569
and Hundred Flowers campaign 561
and monitoring opinions of 374–5
and moral burden on 558, 559
and origins of 558
and persecution of 560–1, 562–3
and political role of artists 559
and popular image of 564–5
in post-communist Russia 567–8
and post-Revolutionary experimentation 559–60
and post-Stalin ‘Thaw’ 141, 143, 146, 378, 560
and privileges of 506, 564
and reduced status of 520, 567
and samizdat 561–2
and self-criticism by 566
and socialist realism 559
and state-dependence of 564
and state professional organizations 564
Inter-Colonial Union 239
International Brigades 126, 132, 135, 192
International Conference of Negro Workers (1930) 289
internationalism, and communist imperial policies 305, 313, 317
International Lenin School (ILS) 199
International Liaison Committee of Intellectuals for Peace (ILC) 324
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 265, 298
International of Seamen and Harbour Workers 289
International Olympic Committee (IOC) 611, 612
International Organization of Journalists 293
International Radio Organization 574
international society, and Soviet view of 389
International Table Tennis Federation 611
International Trade Union Committee of Negro Workers (ITUCNW) 286
Intervision 574–5
Iran 15, 172
and Iranian revolution (1979) 271, 278–80
and Iran-Iraq war 271
and purge of the Left 280
Iraq 14, 268–9, 271, 274, 275, 278
(p. 635) Iraqi Communist Party 268–9, 273, 275, 276, 281
Ireland 119
Isaacs, Harold 196
Isabel, María 264
Iskra (The Spark) 58
Islam 172, 589, 590, 596
and communism’s relationship with 272
Islamic world, communism in 269, 277
and anti-colonialism 271–2, 274–7
and Arab Spring 281
and attitude towards the state 270, 271
and collaboration with nationalist regimes 277, 278
and crisis of post-colonial regimes 277–8
and decline of 269, 280–1
and democratic revolution 276
and education expansion 275
and factors shaping 269, 270
and geopolitics 269, 270, 271, 274, 276, 277, 278
and impact of Stalinism 273
and inter-war years 271–4
and Iranian revolution (1979) 271, 278–80
and Islamism 270–1, 274, 277, 278, 281
and modernization 269, 270
and national liberation 269–70
and popular front policy 276
and revival of the left 281–2
and secular nationalist movements 273, 274
and student activism 275
and worker activism 274–5
and working class 269, 270, 272
see also individual countries
Islamism 274
and communist movement 270–1
and growth of 273, 277, 278
and Iranian revolution (1979) 279–80
Israel 206
Italian Communist Party (PCI) 161, 443, 444, 446
and newspaper distribution 446–7
and party sections 447–8
and political festivals 447
and requirements of party members 442
and welfare initiatives 448
and youth organization 444
Italy 8, 118, 128–9
Ivory Coast 292–3
Jackson, Michael 582
Jafari, Peyman 279, 280
Janos, Andrew C. 306
Japan 126, 128, 222–3
Jarrow March (1936) 135
Jaruzelski, Wojciech 16, 175, 179–80, 435, 595
jazz 562, 573, 575
Jews, and communism 206
Jiang Qing 541, 561
Jiang Zemin 99, 232
Ji Xianlin 565
Jogiches, Leo 110, 117
John Paul II, Pope 16, 178, 591, 594, 595, 597
Johnston, Timothy 325
jokes, and popular opinion 374
Joliot-Curie, Frédéric 324, 331
Joliot-Curie, Irene 324, 325, 335
Jordan 273
Jowitt, Kenneth 101
Justo, Juan B. 253
Justo, Liborio 258
Kaczmarski, Jacek 216
Kádár, Ján 215
Kádár, János 27, 148, 151, 209, 427, 574
Kaganovich, Lazar 76, 131, 132
Kahlo, Frida 256
Kalandra, Záviŝ 214
Kalinin, Mikhail 374
Kamenev, Lev 64, 65, 81, 127
Kampuchea 14, 247
Kang Youwei 220, 221
Karadžić, Radovan 593
Karl, Rebecca 99
Károlyi, Mihály 114
Kaunda, Kenneth 347
Kautsky, Karl 54, 111
and anti-colonialism 63
and Erfurt Program 55, 56, 57
and global revolution 63, 64
and Lenin’s attacks on 63–4
and political freedom of proletariat 56
and Road to Power 63
and Social Democracy 55
(p. 636) and ‘The Driving Forces of the Russian Revolution and its Prospects’ (1906) 61
Kazakhs 529
Kemal, Mustapha (Ataturk) 121, 122, 342
Kennedy, John F. 261
Kenya 289, 299
Kenyatta, Jomo 199, 289
Kérékou, Mathieu 15
Kham Kiene 460
Khān, Kūchik 121
Khlebnikov, Velimir 559
Khlevniuk, Oleg 86, 87
Khmer People’s Revolutionary Party 245
Khmer Rouge 19, 245, 247, 314–15
and terror 357–8
Khodorkovsky, Mikhail 567
Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruhollah 271, 279, 280
Khrushchev, Nikita 4, 9–10, 140, 162, 261, 311, 329, 388, 459
and consumer goods production 427
and decentralization 399
and denunciation of Stalin 12, 141–2, 345–6, 560
and de-Stalinization 143, 144, 151
and foreign policy 141
and Hungarian uprising 147–8
and kitchen debate with Nixon 429, 576
and living standards 26–7
and peaceful coexistence 14, 141
and Poland 145–6
and religious policy 588–9, 594
and rural reform 515–16
and ’secret speech’ (1956) 141–2, 345–6, 475
and Sino-Soviet split 14
and Vietnam 165
Kiel Mutiny (1918) 114
Kiernan, Ben 247
Kieszlowski, Krzysztof 215
Kim Il Sung 12, 28, 140, 311, 545
and cultural policy 541, 542
and juche (self-reliance) 19, 148
and Korean unification 314
and personality cult 20, 340, 347
Kim Jong Il 339, 340, 545
Kim Jong Un 339–40, 545
King, Martin Luther, Jr 158
Kirichenko, A I 13
Kirov, Sergei 127, 131, 374
Klos, Elmar 215
Knight, Nick 98–9
Knorin, V. G. 191, 192
Koestler, Arthur 442, 443, 446, 447, 450
Kohn, Hans 204
Kołakowski, Leszek 436
Kolarz, Walter 292, 293
Kolchak, A V 119, 121
Kollontai, Alexandra 199, 490
konspiratsiia 58, 62
Kontorovich, Vladimir 388
Korea 12, 121
Korean Communist Party 12, 121
Korean War 12
and China 93–4, 224
Kornai, János 25–6, 425
Kornilov, Lavr 6
Kotane, Moses 288, 297
Kotkin, Stephen 79, 380
Kravchenko, Victor 507–8, 510, 514
Kriegel, Annie 447, 450
Kriegel, Frantiŝek-Kriegel 206
Kronstadt uprising (1921) 123, 473
Kropotkin, Pëtr Alexeevich 221
Krupskaya, Nadezhda 541
Kryl, Karel 216
Kubišovà, Marta 571, 572, 579, 581
Kuĉar, Savka Dabĉeviĉ 580
kulaks 23, 78, 412, 457
Kun, Béla 8, 115, 117, 118, 132, 192, 193
Kundera, Milan 203, 573, 577
Kurdistan 278
Kuromiya, Hiroaki 360, 361
Kuroń, Jacek 178–9
Kuusinen, Otto 132
Laffitte, Jean 325
Laibach (rock band) 580
Lai Teck 241–2
Lampland, Martha 463
land reform 23
and China 225, 230, 457
and socialization of land 395, 396
Landsbergis, Vitautas 178
(p. 637) Lane, Christel 350
languages:
and nativization (korenizatsiia) 527
and Soviet promotion of Russian 531
Laos 14, 165, 236, 245, 247, 248
and collectivization 458
and religious policy 596
and tractors 465
and Vietnam War 247
Laozi 221
Lapidus, Gail 498
Lassalle, Ferdinand 55
Latin America 13, 252
and anti-imperialism 258
and backlash against Washington consensus 182
and Cold War 258
and collapse of Soviet Union 265
and Comintern 253
and communist electoral strategy 258
and Cuban Revolution 259, 260
and early communist movements 252–4
and guerrilla warfare 13, 260–1, 262
and indigenous rebellions 254
and Indo-Americanism 254
and new social movements 266
and popular front policy 256
and Russian Revolution’s influence 252–4
and structural adjustment programmes 265
and twenty-first century socialism 266
see also individual countries
Latin American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA) 254
Lato, Grzegorz Boleslaw 609
Lazim, Hani 268
League against Imperialism 286
League of Communists of Croatia (LCC) 572, 580
League of Nations 128
League of Red Soldiers 116
Lebanon 273
Lee Myung-bak 340
Lefebvre, Henri 158
Left Socialist Revolutionaries 112
Lenin, Vladimir:
and April Theses 64, 65–6, 111
and attack on ultra-leftists 189
and attacks on Kautsky 63–4
and Bolshevik tactics 60
and bureaucracy 21
and Comintern 188
and creation of Bolshevik Party 53
and cultural revolution 541, 542
and culture 28
and democratic centralism 77
and dictatorship 7
and expropriation of church property 586
and First World War 63, 110, 187
and global revolution 63
as guardian of revolutionary Social Democracy 63
and The Impending Catastrophe (1917) 66
and intentionalist interpretation of revolution 5
on Kautsky 54, 63
and liberation movements 526
and narodnaia vlast (‘power of the people’) 60, 67
and nationalism 522, 525–6, 536
and national question 119, 523
and October Revolution (1917) 6
and ‘Old Bolshevism’ 59
and ‘On Cooperation’ 541
and origins of Russian Social Democracy 56
and peasantry 410–11
and personality cult 343–4
and political freedom 69
and political violence 363
and Red Terror (1918) 357
and revolutionary contagion 64
and Russian Revolution (1917) 64–8
and sexual equality 490
and Social Democracy 54, 59
and soviet power 66–7
and split within international socialism 63
and Stalin 77
and State and Revolution 67, 69
and steps towards socialism 66, 67
and underground organization 59
and What Is To Be Done? 58, 59
Leninism 3
and adaptation of 18–19
and Africa 295–6
(p. 638) and peasantry 409–10
and relationship with Stalinism 9, 77–8
and Stalinism 74–5
and vagueness of 18
and war 73
Lenin’s Boys 117
Lettrism 158
Liadov, Martin 58
Liang Jun 551
Liang Shuming 20
liberalization 182
liberation movements:
in 1960s 157
and Africa 291–2, 295
and Comintern 286
and communist revolutions 11, 12
and East Asia 12
and Islamic world 269–70
and Lenin 526
Libya 281
Li Dazhao 121
Lidtke, Vernon 56
Liebknecht, Karl 110, 114, 116
Lih, Lars T 75
Li Lisan 475
Li Menghua 612
Lin Biao 20, 167, 544, 561
Li Peng 181
Lissitzky, Lazar Markovich 560
literature:
and escape routes from socialist realism 561–2
and ideology 214, 215
and novels 543, 548–9
and post-Stalin ‘Thaw’ 378
and production novels 548
and writers under communism 552–3
Lithuania 177
and secret police 20
Lithuanian Communist Party 177
Litvinov, Maxim 128, 196
Liu Shaoqi 20, 94, 150, 166, 229, 239
Liu Shifu 221
Liu Xiaobo 569
Living Church 587
living standards 26–7, 213
and China 181, 231
as Cold War battleground 427
and East Germany 474
and Poland 144
and second economy 434
and Soviet Union 25, 473
Li Zhisui 98
Lombard, Ricardo 335
Lomko, Iakov 426
Long March 92, 223, 544
Lon Nol 247, 315, 316
Lora, Guillermo 258
Lukács, György 159–60, 547
Lusophone Africa 15, 295
Lütwitz, W. 116
Luxemburg, Rosa 110, 115–16, 187
Lu Xun 234n3, 560
Maccabiah Games 608
McCarthy, Margaret 449
MacLean, John 110
McLellan, Josie 444
McReynolds, Louise 602
Madagascar 295
Maddison, Angus 392
Madsen, Richard 456
Mafai, Miriam 449
Maghreb 273
Maisky, Ivan 129
Ma Jian 568–9
Malaya 12, 236, 241, 243–4
Malayan Communist Party (MCP) 237, 241–2, 243–4, 247, 248
Malayan People’s Anti-Japanese Army 242
Malcolm X 157
Malenkov, Georgy 85, 140, 141, 329
Mali 295
Malia, Martin 18, 229
Malta Summit (1989) 180
Malthus, Thomas 309
Manchuria, and Japanese occupation of 128, 222–3
Mandela, Nelson 172
Mandelstam, Nadezhda 565
Mandelstam, Osip 565
Mann, Heinrich 325
Manuilsky, Dmitry 132
(p. 639) Maoism:
and appeal to Western youth 167
and characteristics of 101–3
in contemporary China 102–3
and influence of 102
and Mao Zedong’s ideology 95–7
and personality cults 347
and significance of 90–1
and South East Asia 247
and Westernization 101
Mao Zedong 90, 157
and Anti-Rightist Movement 97, 151, 227, 414
and approach to revolution 93
and armed struggle 8, 96–7
and becomes supreme leader of Communist Party 93
and birth and family background 91
and building socialism 227–8
and bureaucracy 22, 96
and class conflict 167, 228
and collectivization 457–8
and counter-revolutionary campaign 226
and cultural policy 541, 547–8, 559
and Cultural Revolution (1966–76) 22, 94, 95, 152, 166–7, 229, 347, 367
and culture 29
and democratic centralism 92, 96
and ‘five antis’ campaign 226
and Great Leap Forward (1958–61) 13, 29, 94, 149, 152, 228, 360, 400, 418, 458
and Hundred Flowers campaign 94, 150–1, 226–7, 377
and ideology of 95–7
and impact of Khrushchev’s Secret Report 149–50
and intentionalist interpretation of revolution 5
and ‘Introducing The Communist’ (1939) 92
and legacy of 97, 99–101
and ‘Little Red Book’ 94–5
and Mao Zedong Thought 95
and mass line 92, 96, 376
and ‘Methods of Leadership’ (1943) 93
and ‘On Contradiction’ (1937) 92, 96
and ‘On New Democracy’ (1940) 93, 99
and ‘On Practice’ (1937) 92
and ‘On the Correct Handling of Contradictions among the People’ (1957) 94
and ‘On the Ten Great Relationships’ (1956) 94
and organizational and policy reforms (1940s) 92–3
and personality cult 20, 90, 93, 94–5, 345, 346–7, 351
in popular culture 98, 100
and population growth 309
and rectification 92, 94, 96, 226–7
and religion 585
as religious figure 100, 596
and ‘Report on the Peasant Movement in Hunan’ (1927) 92
and restriction of dissent 94
and revolutionary dictatorship 224
and rise to power 92
and rural revolution 92, 96
and scholarly approaches to 98–9
and Selected Works 97
and significance of 90–1
and Sinification of Marxism 90, 92, 95
and Sino-Soviet split 14
and Soviet alliance 224
on Stalin’s death 140
and terror 357
and ‘thought reform’ campaign 226
and ‘three antis’ campaign 226
and united front tactics 91–2, 96, 234n5
and Vietnam 165
and writings of 97–8
March Action (1921) 189
Marcos, Subcomandante 266
Marcuse, Herbert 158
Mariátegui, José Carlos 254–5
market research 430
market socialism 399
Markus, György 425
Mármol, Miguel 255
Marquetalia, Republic of 257
marriage 30, 31, 490, 496
and rural life 461–2
Marshak, Samuil 561
Marshall, T. H. 435
Marshall Plan 11, 429
(p. 640) Martí, Jose 18
Martin, Kingsley 324
Martov, Iulii 58, 67, 110
Marty, André 132
Marulanda, Manuel (‘Sureshot’) 257
Marx, Karl 4, 37, 187, 343, 426
and associated mode of production 41–2
and Capital 38
and capitalism’s development 39
and class 522
and commodity fetishism 44
and The Communist Manifesto 37, 41
and communist society 37
and conditions for communism 38–41
and Critique of Political Economy 38
and Critique of the Gotha Programme 48, 49
and dictatorship of the proletariat 41
and distribution and allocation 44–6
and exchange relations 43–4
and German Ideology 47
and individual under communism 47–50
and nationalism 522, 524
and new materialism 46–7
and ownership relations 42–3
and peasants 410
and proletarian revolution 39–41, 55
and religion 585
and revolutionary transformation period 40
and social appropriation of means of production 43
and structuralist interpretation of revolution 5
and theoretical sense of communism 37
Mastny, Vojtech 306
material culture, and personality cults 351
Matisse, Henri 325
Mayakovsky, Vladimir 559
Mayer, Arno 358
May Fourth generation 91
May Fourth Movement 121, 196–7, 221, 547, 558, 560
Mazowiecki, Tadeusz 180
Mazurov, Kirill 314
Mehring, Franz 110
Meisner, Maurice 99
Mekhlis, Lev 125
Mella, Julio Antonio 254
membership of communist parties 18, 112, 129, 222, 232, 443
Mengistu Haile Mariam 172, 296
Mensheviks:
and intellectual credentials of 62
and nationalism 525
and splits within 67
and split within Russian Social Democratic Labour Party 59
Menzel, Jiří 215
Meray, Tibor 146
Mercader, Ramon 256
Mészáros, Márta 215
Meuschel, Sigrid 208
Mevius, Martin 305
Mexican Communist Party 256
Mexican Revolution (1910–17) 253–4
Mexico 129, 135, 256
and syndicalism 252–3
and youth demonstrations (1968) 156
and Zapatistas 266
Meyerhold, Vsevolod 559–60
Middle East, and post-First World War nationalist revolts 120–1
Mielke, Erich 210
Mikhalkov, Sergei 140, 565
Mikoian, Anastas 85, 131, 147
Milanesi, Franco 442
militants (communist):
and anti-fascism 443
and bureaucratization 442
and clandestine activity 443–4
in communist states 442
and dedication of 446, 449
and feeling of belonging 450–1
and motivations of 445–6
and newspaper distribution 446–7
and party community 441
and party festivals 447
and party sections 447–9
and post-war changes in party organization 444
and recreation 448
and requirements of party members 442
and sources for study of 441
(p. 641) and subordination of personal life 449–50
and welfare initiatives 448–9
and youth organizations 444–5
military expenditure 401
military modernization, and economic modernization 388–9, 389–90
Military Revolutionary Committee (Petrograd) 112
Millar, James R 402
Miller, Arthur 325
Million Heroes (China) 22
Milošević, Slobodan 580
Miłosz, Czesław 424, 598
Minc, Hilary 206
Mindszenty, József 591, 592
Mlynář, Zdeněk 160, 161
Mobutu Sese Seko 317, 347
Moghadam, Val 279
Molotov, Viacheslav 77, 82, 85, 131, 132, 151, 191, 328, 329, 334, 398
Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact (1939) 177–8
Monatte, Pierre 110
Mongolia 8, 19, 126, 133, 307, 311, 312, 314
Montagu, Ivor 611
Montoneros 264
Moreno, Nahuel 258, 265
Moroccan Communist Party 293
Morocco 273, 290, 292
Morsi, Mohamed 281, 282
Moscow Fair (1959) 426, 429, 576
Moskvin, Mikhail 132
Mosley, Oswald 135
Mossadegh, Mohamed 279
Motyl, Alexander J 306, 313
Movement of the Revolutionary Left (MIR, Chile) 263
Movimento Popular da Libertação de Angola (MPLA) 295, 296
Movimiento Revolucionario (MNR) (Bolivia) 258
Mozambique 15, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299
Mozi 221
Mubarak, Hosni 281
Museum of Socialist Art (Bulgaria) 553
music 562
and jazz 562, 573, 575
and pop music 571–2, 577–8
and rock music 579–80
Muslim Brotherhood 273, 274, 276, 281, 282
Mussolini, Benito 118
Mynatt, Margaret 449–50
Nagy, Imre 13, 146, 147, 148, 209
Najibullah, Mohammad 171–2
Nanyang Communist Party 237
Nan Yong 613
Nasser, Gamal Abdel 14, 141, 147, 276–7, 294
National Assembly (Vietnam) 18
National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People (NAACP) 135
National Committee of Workers and Students (Egypt) 275
national communism 206–7
National Games (China) 610, 612
nationalism:
and Austro-Marxists 524–5
and Bolshevism 119, 523, 525
and China 10, 99, 233
and communism 10, 14, 305, 522–3, 535–6
and communist imperial policies 305, 317
and conflict within communist bloc 14
and Eastern European communism 205–7
and extra-territorial national autonomy 524–5
and Lenin 119, 522, 523, 525–6
and Marx 522, 524
and personality cults 342
and post-communist states 182
and post-First World War anti-imperialism 119–22
and religion 595, 599
and Russian Marxists 525
and South East Asia 237
and sport 608–9
and Stalin 525
nationalities policy:
and China 524, 532–3
and collapse of Soviet Union 531–2
and common approach to 535
and culture 527
and deportation of ethnic groups 529
and dominance of republics by indigenous nationals 529–30
and education 528
(p. 642) and historiography of 523–4
and minority languages 527, 528
and nationalism in republics 531
and nativization (korenizatsiia) 305, 527–8, 529, 531
and promotion of Russian language 531
and republics as nation-states 530
and Russocentrism 529
and self-determination 119, 120, 525, 526, 532
and Soviet identity 530–1
and Sovietization 528–9
and Soviet Union 31–2, 305–6, 523–4, 526–32
and Yugoslavia 524, 534–5
National Liberation Front (NLF) 246–7
National Party (South Africa) 290
National Security Council (NSC, USA), and NSC-68 (1950) 15
National Workers’ Games (China) 610
nation-state, and changes in nature of 175–6
NATO, and public opinion 332–3
Nazi Germany 128, 192, 308–9
Nechaev, Sergei 53
Neckář, Václav 571, 577
Negri, Tony 266, 451
Nehru, Jawaharlal 141
Nekrasov, Nikolai 567
Nenni, Pietro 325, 327–8, 329, 335
neo-patrimonialism, and post-war Stalinism 86
Nepal 102, 172
Neruda, Pablo 324
Netherlands 114
Netto, Igor 606
Nevsky, Vladimir 65
New Course policies 427
New Culture Movement (China) 221
New Economic Policy (NEP) 9, 78, 123, 189, 411, 457, 603
New Forum 175
Ne Win 246
New Left 159–60
New Socialist Man 18
new socialist person 28–9, 30, 490, 542, 587
and socialist realism 547
new social movements 266
newspapers, and distribution of communist 446–7
new world order, and 1989 172–3
Ngo Dinh Diem 165
Nhân Vǎn-Giai Phấm movement 13
Nicaragua 15, 255, 261, 264–5
Nicaraguan Communist Party 256–7
Nicholas II, Tsar 6
Nigeria 293, 299
Nimeiri, Gaafar 294–5
1919:
and anti-imperialist contestation 119–22
and Comintern 114–15
and communist-democratic confrontation 109–10
and Far East 121
and Germany 114, 116–17
and Hungary 117–18
and Italy 118
and Middle East 120–1
and revolutionary ferment 109
1936:
and anti-colonialism 135, 136
and anti-communism 126
and anti-fascism 130, 136
and communist activism 126
and communist armed resistance 135–6
and communist campaigns 135
and concentration of power in Soviet Union 131–2
and Constitution of Soviet Union 125, 126
and crisis in international communist movement 129–30
and fragmentation within communism 136–7
and Great Terror 127
and insecurity of Soviet and Comintern leaderships 132–3
and local adaptation of national communist parties 133–4
and mutual suspicion within Soviet system 128, 133
and popular front policy 130, 132, 134–5
and show trials 127
and Soviet economic problems 127–8
and Soviet foreign policy 125–6, 128
(p. 643) and Soviet leadership of communist movement 133
and Soviet sense of threat 126–7
and Spanish Civil War 126, 128–9, 131–2, 135
and Stalinism 130–1
1956 12–13
and China 148–51
and de-Stalinization 142–4
and Hungarian uprising 146–8, 150, 152, 335
and internal questioning of Soviet system 143
and Khrushchev’s denunciation of Stalin 141–2
and peace movement 334–5
and Poland 144–6
and significance of 151–3
1960s:
and civil rights movement 158–9
and communism’s appeal and influence 156–7
and cultural and political change 157–8
and desire for liberation 157
and opposition to Vietnam War 159
and utopianism 157
and youth culture 158
1968:
and cultural and political change 157–8
and Cultural Revolution (1966–76) 166–7
and détente 161
and dilemmas facing communist movement 156
and erosion of allegiance to Soviet system 163
and generational divide among communists 162
and influential writers and texts 157
and the New Left 159–60
and non-violent protests 157
and Prague Spring 160–1
and reform communism 161
and significance for communism 167–8
and Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia 156, 161
and student and worker protests in Yugoslavia 161–2
and student unrest in Poland 161
and utopian politics 157
and Vietnam 164–6
1989:
and American-Soviet rapprochement 180
and Baltic States 177–8
and change in Soviet Union-Eastern Bloc relations 174–5
and changes in nature of nation-state 175–6
and collapse of communism 171, 174–5
and compared with French Revolution 173–4
and Cuba 181–2
and East Asia 182–3
and end of bipolar world order 172–3
and factors favouring revolution 180
and global impact of Soviet Union’s collapse 171–2
and globalization 173, 176
and interpretations of significance of 171, 172, 173, 176
and new world order 172–3
and non-violent protests 177, 180
and peaceful nature of revolution 180
and Poland 178–80
and post-communist governments 182
and protests in China 181
and survival of communist regimes 172
Nitti, Giuseppe 328
Nixon, Richard M 95, 258
and kitchen debate with Khrushchev 429, 576
Nkomati Accord (1984) 297
Nkrumah, Kwame 294
NKVD 11, 81, 127, 131, 132
and anti-Comintern plot 193
and consolidation of Eastern European regimes 357
and Great Terror (1937–8) 82
Nohavica, Jaromír 216
Nolan, Peter 17
Nolte, Ernst 110
nomenklatura 28
Non-Aligned Movement 162, 245, 293–4, 315, 317
North Africa 286
North American Free Trade Area (NAFTA) 266
(p. 644) North Korea 12
and China 315
and economic development 394
and economic specialization 311
and famine 407
and foreign policy 317
and juche (self-reliance) 19, 148
and land reform 23
and nation-building narrative 545
and personality cult 20, 339–41, 348
and pro-natalism 309
and religious suppression 597
and resource dependency 312
and ruling ideology 19
and rural life 461–2
and social classification 28
North Vietnamese Workers’ Party (VWP) 165
Noske, Gustav 116, 117
Novelli, Diego 448
novels 543
and production novels 548
and socialist realism 548–9
Novyi mir (journal) 378
nuclear disarmament
and peace movement 330, 331, 334–5
and Soviet Union 333
Nyerere, Julius 294, 347
Nzula, Albert 199
Ochoa Sánchez, Arnaldo T 181
Odets, Clifford 325
Okudzhava, Bulat 563
Olympic Games:
and Beijing (2008) 612–13
and Chinese participation 611, 612–13
and Eastern European states 608, 609
and Helsinki (1952) 604
and Soviet participation in 604–5
one-child policy (China) 463–4
one-party states 18
Open Society Archive 2
opinion polling 378–9
Ordzhonikidze, Sergo 131, 398
Organisation de la Résistance Populaire (ORP, Algeria) 294
Organization of Third World Solidarity (OLAAAS) 262
Orlov, Iurii 143–4, 151
Ortega, Daniel 265
Ortega, Humberto 265
Ossetia 599
Ostrovsky, Nikolai 548–9
Ottaway, David 295, 296
Ottaway, Marina 295, 296
Owen, Robert 37
Padmore, George 199, 286, 294
Pajetta, Gian Carlo 449
Pak Young-ho 461–2
Palach, Jan 577
Palestine Communist Party 136
Pan-African Congress 239
Pan Africanist Congress 291
Pan Hannian 226
Pannekoek, Anton 110
Pantsov, Alexander 196
Paraguay 261
Paris Peace Accords (1973) 247
Partai Republik Indonesia 240
Parti Algérien pour la Démocratie et le Socialisme 298
Parti de l’Avant-Garde Socialiste (PAGS, Algeria) 294, 298
party members, see militants (communist)
Pasternak, Boris 567
Pathet Lao 245
Patriotic Movement for National Rebirth (PRON) (Poland) 179
patronage 20–1
Pauker, Ana 199, 206
Paustovskii, Konstantin 143, 564
Pavlović, Živojin 214
peaceful coexistence 14, 141, 329
peace movement, communist-led 322
and 1956 334–5
and campaign for negotiations 329–30
and Cold War 323
and Cominform 326
and Congress of the Peoples for Peace (1952) 328–9
and declining influence of 336
and diversity of 330–1
and domestic Soviet politics 325
and emergence of 323–5
(p. 645) and European collective security 332–3
and influence of 322–3, 336
and International Liaison Committee of Intellectuals for Peace 324
and mobilization of scientists 331–2
and non-communist peace movements 328
and nuclear disarmament 331, 334–5
and peace pact campaign 327–8, 329
and Permanent Committee of the Partisans of Peace (PCPP) 325, 326, 327
and petition campaigns 326–8
and prohibition of nuclear weapons 330, 331, 333
and Soviet foreign policy 323, 324, 325, 327, 330, 332–3, 336
and Soviet Peace Commission 325
and spirit of Geneva (1955) 334
and split in 335, 336
and Women’s International Democratic Federation 324
and World Assembly for Peace (1955) 330–1
and World Congress of Intellectuals for Peace (1948) 323–4
and World Congress of Partisans of Peace (1949) 325
and World Peace Congress (1950) 327
and World Peace Council (WPC) 327, 328, 329–30, 336
peace pact campaign 327–8, 329
peasants 24
and China 416
and Chinese revolution 10, 92, 96
and coercion of 9
and collectivization 9
and Eastern Europe 416–17
and family reform 496
and land reform 23
and Lenin 410–11
and Marxism 409–10
and New Economic Policy (NEP) 411, 457
and Russian Revolution (1917) 6
and women 493–4
Pennetier, Claude 445
people’s democracy 205
People’s Liberation Army (PLA, China) 22, 166, 167, 181, 227, 231, 232
People’s Liberation Army Club 610
People’s Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) 15
People’s Party (Poland) 18
People’s Political Consultative Conference (People’s Republic of China) 18
People’s Revolutionary Party (Laos) 247
People’s Will (Narodnaia volia) 57
Peppard, Victor 602
perestroika 174, 566, 606
Permanent Committee of the Partisans of Peace (PCPP) 325, 326–7
permanent revolution 258
Perón, Juan Domingo 257, 264
Persia 120–1
personality cults 20, 341, 351–2
and attacks on 348
and characteristics of 341–2
and charisma 348, 349
and Chiang Kai-shek 93
and Choibalsan 345
and communist explanation of 346
and communist ideology 343
and failed cults 345
and festivals and rituals 342, 349–50
and immodest modesty 351
and justification of 343, 346–7
and Khrushchev’s denunciation of Stalin 345–6
and Kim Il Sung 20, 340
and Kim Jong Il 339, 340
and Kim Jong Un 339–40
and leader-follower relationships 349
and Lenin 343–4
and living leaders 344
and local meanings of 350
and Mao Zedong 90, 93, 94–5, 345, 346–7, 351
and material culture 351
and mobilizational strength of 349
and nationalism 342
and North Korea 339–41, 348
and opacity of 350–1
and party leader cults 342
and political uncertainty and violence 342
and posthumous cults 344
and post-war period 345
(p. 646) and religious dimensions of 349
and sacredness 349
and scholarship on 348
and similarities with campaigning strategies 342
and Stalin 76, 78, 344, 349
and ‘state father’ cults 342
and Sukhe Baatar 345
and symbolic politics 349, 351–2
and theoretical approaches to 348–9
and Tito 345
and unifying goal of 342–3
Peru 254–5, 261, 266
Peruvian Communist Party 255
Peruvian Labour Congress (CGTP) 254
Peruvian Socialist Party 254, 255
Peter the Great 543, 586
petition campaigns, and peace movement 326–8
Petöfi Circle 146–7
Petrograd Soviet of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies 111
Petrone, Karen 350
Petrović, Aleksandar 214
Philippines 243, 244, 248
Philippines Communist Party 238, 244, 248
Phomvihane, Kaysone 341
Piatnitskii, I A 191, 192, 193
Picasso, Pablo 324, 325
Pieck, Wilhelm 116
Piłsudski, Józef 123, 342, 345
Pinochet, Augusto 264
Pittaway, Mark 434
Pius XII, Pope 590
Plamper, Jan 341
Plastic People of the Universe (rock band) 579
Plato 37
Platten, Fritz 110
Plekhanov, Georgii 58, 343
Poland 123
and anti-communism 206
and anti-Semitism 161, 206
and anti-Soviet sentiment 144–5, 609
and anti-Zionist campaign (1968) 161
and Catholic Church 591, 594–5, 598–9
and collapse of communism 16, 17, 178–80
and decollectivization 417, 458
and economic crisis 179
and economic reform 399
and gender relations 489, 491
and Gomułka’s return to power (1956) 145
and liberalization (1956) 12–13
and martial law 179
and nationalism 207
and opening to Western cultural influences 574–5
and opinion polling 378–9
and post-First World War revolution 114
and post-war communist revolution 11
and Poznań uprising (1956) 144
and religious dissidence 594–5
and religious policy 590–1
and Roman Catholic Church 591, 594–5
and sporting nationalism 609
and state-labour relations 474–5
and strikes 178, 179, 475, 483
and student unrest (1968) 161
and threat of Soviet military intervention (1956) 145–6
Poledňáková, Marie 215
Polish Communist Party 193
Polish United Workers’ Party (PUWP) 115, 144, 145, 161, 178, 179
Polish Workers’ Party (PPR) 161, 474, 475, 590–1
political freedom:
and marginalization of 68–9
and proletarian revolution 55, 56
and Russian socialist revolutionaries 56, 57, 60, 68
Pollitt, Harry 195
pollution 401, 466
Pol Pot 19, 247
Pontecorvo, Bruno 143–4
pop music 571–2, 577–8
popular culture 216
and appropriation of 577–8
and censorship 573–5
and commodification of communism 581–2
and common cultural identity 576
and communism 572–3
and Czechoslovakia 571, 572–3, 575, 577, 579
(p. 647) and diversity in policy towards 572–3
and Eastern Europe 574–5, 576
and fear of impact of Western 572
and lack of appeal in West 576
and opening to Western cultural influences 574–5, 578
and pop music 571–2, 577–8
and post-communist era 580–2
and pragmatic response to 572
and resistance to communist regimes 578–80
and rock music 579–80
popular front policy 125, 130, 132, 133, 134–5, 192–3, 194, 205, 223–4, 256, 276, 288
popular opinion:
and anti-elite feeling 377
and anti-Semitism 375–6
and census 374
and change in nature of 373
and civil society’s emergence in Eastern Europe 379–80
and collapse of communism 380
and Cultural Revolution (1966–76) 377–8
and denunciations 374, 375
and dissidents 379
and elite opinion 374–5
and Hundred Flowers campaign 377
and information gathering by regimes 372
and letters by citizens 373–4
and market research 430
and measurement of 372–3
and monitoring in China 376–7
and monitoring in Eastern Europe 376, 378–9
and monitoring in Soviet Union 373–5
and monitoring of 372
and opinion polling 378–9
and party-masses relationship 371
and popular discussions 374
and role of Western press and media 379
and rumours 374, 377
in Second World War 375
and secret police reports 372, 373
Popular Unity (Chile) 258, 263
population policy:
and communist imperial policies 309–10
and gender imbalance in China 464
and one-child policy 463–4
and pro-natalism 309, 497
Portugal 295
posters, political 549–50, 551
Potresov, Aleksandr 58
power, and Soviet beliefs about 389
power-sharing, and economic reform 398–9
Poznań, and uprising in (1956) 144
Prague Spring (1968) 160–1, 207, 209, 571
Preobrazhenskii, Evgenii 9
Prestes, Luís Carlos 253, 255
primitive socialist accumulation 9, 25
private life, and state intervention in 29–30
Prljavo kazalište (rock band) 580
propaganda 371
and political posters 549–50, 551
Protestantism 589, 590
protest songs 216
Pryor, Frederic 407
public opinion:
and European collective security 332–3, 334
and propaganda 371
and Stalinism 80
and totalitarian regimes 371
public sphere 371
Pudal, Bernard 442, 445
Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs 331
Pulacayo Theses (1946) 258
Pushkin, Alexander 568
Putin, Vladimir 342, 380
Qasim, ‘Abd-al-Karim 14, 268, 269, 276, 277
Qin Shihuang 543–4
racial discrimination, and communist opposition to 135
Radek, Karl 110, 113
Radio Free Europe 379
Radio Liberty 379
Rákosi, Mátyás 146, 147, 150, 206, 307, 345
Rakovsky, Christian 118, 122
Rakow, Werner 115
Ramadani, Sami 268
Ramet, Sabrina 216
(p. 648) Rani mraz (Early Frost) (rock band) 580
Rassemblement Démocratique Africain (RDA) 292–3
rationing 26
Ravines, Eudocio 255
Reagan, Ronald 16, 264, 265
Recabarren, Luis Emilio 252, 253
Red Army (China) 10
Red Army (Soviet Union) 6, 8
Red Sport International 604
reform communism 161, 162, 397–400, 402
Rega, López 264
religion:
and China 589–90, 595–6
and collapse of communism 598
and communism’s legacy 597–9
and cultural nationalism 595
and Cultural Revolution (1966–76) 595–6
and Czechoslovakia 592
and engagement in public life 598
and failure to suppress 593–6
and growth of grass-roots movements 597
and Hungary 591–2
and Laos 596
and lay movements 597–8
and Living Church 587
and Marx 585
and nationalism 599
and neutralizing power of 585
and North Korea 597
and Poland 590–1, 594–5
and promotion of atheism 587–8
and religious dissidence 594–5
and Romania 592
and Soviet census (1937) 374
and Soviet use of Russian Orthodox Church 588
and Stalinist model for suppressing 587–8
and suppression in Eastern Europe 590–3
and suppression of Russian Orthodox Church 586–7, 588–9
and Uniate church 588
and Vietnam 596
and Yugoslavia 592–3, 595
Renner, Karl 524
resource dependency 312
Réunion Communist Party 293
Reuter, Ernst 115
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) 257
Revolutionary Workers’ Party (PRT, Argentina) 264
Rhee, Syngman 12
Rhineland, and German re-occupation of 128
Riga, Treaty of (1921) 305
Riordan, James 602
rituals, and personality cults 349–50
Riutin, Martemian 81
Rivera, Diego 256
Roberts, Hugh 278
Robespierre, Maximilien 357
Robić, Ivo 577–8
Robotti, Paolo 445
rock music 579–80
Rokossowski, Konstantin 145
Roland-Holst, Henriette 110
Rolland, Roman 324
Roman Catholic Church 178, 589, 590
and China 596
and Czechoslovakia 592
and Hungary 591–2
and Poland 591, 594–5, 598–9
and Romania 592
Romania 205
and China 315
and collapse of communism 17, 180
and economic specialization 311
and leaves Warsaw Pact (1967) 14
and national communism 206
and nationalism 207
and peasants 417
and political executions 307
and post-war communist revolution 11
and religious policy 590, 592
and rural life 460
Rong Guotuan 611
Rosenberg, Emily 435
Rosmer, Alfred 110
Rostow, Walt 260, 264
Roy, M. N. 122
rural life 455–6
and China 459–66
and compensation for farm labour 459–60
and electricity 465–6
(p. 649) and family life 461–4
and family reform 496
and income inequality 459
and marriage 461–2
and raising children 463
and rural migration 467, 473, 516
and rural-urban inequality 467, 515–17
and sex 462
and size of rural population 455
and Soviet Union 458–9
and sterilization campaign (China) 464
and technological change 464–6
and women 459–60, 462–3
and working life in collectives 458–61
Russell, Bertrand 331
Russell-Einstein manifesto (1955) 331
Russia:
and Allied military intervention 113
and First World War 111, 113
Russian Civil War (1918-20) 6, 392, 473, 526
Russian Orthodox Church 85, 567, 585, 586
and communist suppression of 586–7, 588–9
in post-communist Russia 598
and Soviet use of 588
Russian Populism 56
Russian Revolution (1905) 5, 62
Russian Revolution (1917):
and course of 6
and Decree on Peace 112–13
and February Revolution (1917) 6, 111
and First World War 5, 6
and hopes for global revolution 112
and intentionalist interpretation of 6, 7
and Lenin 64–8
and mass movements 6
and October Revolution 1
and October Revolution (1917) 64, 112
and origins and causes of 5–6
and Provisional Government 6, 65, 111–12
and radicalization of the masses 112
and Red Terror (1918) 19, 357
and soviets 111
and structuralist interpretation of 7
Russian Social Democratic and Labour Party (RSDLP) 187
and 2nd Congress of (1903) 59
and challenges facing 57
and German Social Democratic Party’s influence on 55, 57
and Iskra (The Spark) 58
and konspiratsiia underground 58, 62
and leadership of anti-tsarist revolution 58
and Lenin on origins of 56
and peasant-proletarian coalition 61
Russian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic (RSFSR) 112
Russian State Archive of Social-Political History (RGASPI) 195
Rwanda 299
Rykov, Alexei 191
sacredness, and personality cults 349
Safarov, Georgii 122
Saint-Simon, Henri de 37
Sakharov, Andrei 163
Salisbury, Harrison 140
Salvadorean Communist Party 255
samizdat 561–2
Samuel, Raphael 441, 451
Sandinista movement 261
Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) 264–5
Sandino, Augusto César 255
Santley, Robert S. 306, 308
Santucho, Mario Roberto 264
Sarekat Islam 240
Sassoon, Donald 444
Scheidemann, Phillip 114
Schoenberg, Arnold 562
Schram, Stuart 99, 101
scientific research 562
scientists, and peace movement 331–2
Scott, James 410
Secchia, Pietro 445–6
Second International 53, 63, 187
Second World War
and Africa 289–90
and communist expansion 5, 11, 12
and South East Asia 239, 242–3
and Soviet economy 390
and Stalinism 84–5
(p. 650) secret police:
and communist revolutions 8
in communist states 19–20
and monitoring public mood 372, 373
and surveillance 210
and workplace politics 480
Seifert, Jaroslav 214
Selassie, Haile 15, 296
self-determination 119, 120, 525, 526, 532
Sen, Amartya 415
Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path) 266
Sendic, Raúl 261
Senghor, Lamine 239
Serbia, and religious nationalism 599
Serbian Orthodox Church 593
Seregni, Liber 264
Sergii, Metropolitan 587, 588
Šerifović, Marija 581
Serrati, Giacinto 121
Sétif massacre (1945) 290
sex 499
and rural life 462
Shaw, George Bernard 324
Shen Kuiyi 551
Shen Congwen 564, 565
Sheng Shicai 307
Shen Rong 566
Shils, Edward 349
Shimanov, Gennadi 594
Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) 266
Shi Zhecun 565
Shkredov, Vladimir P 163
Shore, Marci 162
Short, Philip 99
Shostakovich, Dmitri 560
show trials 9, 81, 127, 163, 365–6, 560
Shulman, Marshall D. 323
Siamese Communist Party 237
Sierra Leone Railwaymen’s Union 289
Sihanouk, Prince Norodom 245, 315, 316
Silone, Ignazio 445
Silva, Luis Henrique de 265–6
Singapore 241
Sino-Japanese War (1937–45) 10, 224
Sinyavsky, Andrei D. 163
Siqueiros, David Alfaro 256
Situationists 158
Škvorecký, Josef 573, 577, 578
Slánský, Rudolf 206, 358
Slavophiles 594
Slovakia 8
Slovenia 580
Slovo, Joe 297, 298–9
Smith, Adam 47
Sneevliet, Hendricus 197, 239
Snow, Edgar 98, 345
Snyder, Timothy 204
Social Democracy:
and Bolshevism