- The Oxford Handbook of the History of Communism
- List of Contributors
- Introduction: Towards a Global History of Communism
- Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels on Communism
- Lenin and Bolshevism
- Stalin and Stalinism
- Mao and Maoism
- The Comintern
- Communism in Eastern Europe
- Communism in China, 1900–2010
- Communism in South East Asia
- Communism in Latin America
- Communism in the Islamic World
- Communism in Africa
- Political and Economic Relations between Communist States
- Averting Armageddon: The Communist Peace Movement, 1948–1956
- The Cult of Personality and Symbolic Politics
- Communist Revolution and Political Terror
- Popular Opinion Under Communist Regimes
- Communism and Economic Modernization
- Collectivization and Famine
- The Politics of Plenty: Consumerism in Communist Societies
- The Life of a Communist Militant
- Rural Life
- Workers under Communism: Romance and Reality
- Communism and Women
- Privilege and Inequality in Communist Society
- Nation-Making and National Conflict under Communism
- Cultural Revolution
- Communism and the Artistic Intelligentsia
- Popular Culture
- Religion under Communism
- Sport Under Communism
Abstract and Keywords
The article examines the rise of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) from its foundation in the May Fourth Movement, through the first and second united fronts with the Guomindang to victory following the Sino-Japanese War in 1945. It examines land reform and the campaigns against counter-revolutionaries and the attempt of Mao Zedong to leap into communism through the Great Leap Forward. It shows how Mao concluded from the ‘revisionism’ in the Soviet Union that advance from ‘undeveloped’ to ‘developed’ socialism depends on continuous class struggle against those who would take the capitalist road. The postscript traces China’s rise to the world’s second largest economic power, via policies of export-led and investment- led growth initiated by Deng Xiaoping. It shows that this has bought unprecedented prosperity but also unprecedented inequality. It concludes that rising social conflict does not at present threaten the stability of the CCP.
Keywords: Chinese Communist Party, May Fourth Movement, Guomindang, united front, Sino-Japanese War, land reform, campaigns against counter-revolutionaries, Great Leap Forward, Mao Zedong, Maoism and class struggle, Deng Xiaoping, China world’s second economic powe
Yang Kuisong is Professor of History at the East China Normal University in Shanghai. He has published extensively on the history of the Chinese Communist Party, China’s foreign policy, Sino–Soviet relations, and the history of Chinese socialism.
Stephen A. Smith is Senior Research Fellow at All Souls College, Oxford. He has published extensively on the history of modern China and Russia, including Revolution and the People in Russia and China: A Comparative History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008).
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