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date: 24 May 2020

(p. xv) List of Figures

(p. xv) List of Figures

  1. 3.1 Vegetational changes indicating the presence of long disused flower beds in a municipal park which were otherwise invisible in the turf. The same principle can be used to identify areas of disturbance in criminal cases (photograph: Natasha Powers) 44

  2. 3.2 Ground penetrating radar (GPR) in use in the search for missing persons in Northern Ireland (reproduced with permission from Stratascan) 45

  3. 3.3 A forensic archaeologist excavates a clandestine grave site (reproduced with permission from Sussex Police) 48

  4. 5.1 Ghetto houses designated on 16 and 22 June 1944 (Tim Cole and Alberto Giordano) 73

  5. 5.2 Mean centre and standard distance of dispersed ghettoization on 16 and 22 June 1944 (Tim Cole and Alberto Giordano) 73

  6. 5.3 Kernel density analysis of dispersed ghettoization on 16 and 22 June 1944. Areas of highest residence concentration (Tim Cole and Alberto Giordano) 74

  7. 8.1 Double Fisherman’s knot (photograph: Timothy Webmoor) 106

  8. 8.2 ‘Critical failure’ of Double Fisherman’s knot (photograph: Timothy Webmoor) 114

  9. 9.1 The namBa HIPS building, Osaka (photograph: Albena Yaneva) 125

  10. 9.2 Shin Takamatsu with his collaborators and the author in his office in Takeda (photograph: Albena Yaneva) 125

  11. 9.3 Architects at work in the office of Shin Takamatsu (photograph: Albena Yaneva) 129

  12. 9.4 Architects at work in the office of Shin Takamatsu (photograph: Albena Yaneva) 130

  13. 11.1 Sign design (‘The Panoptic’ stratum) (reproduced with permission from Polimekanos) 152

  14. 11.2 Found sign (Milton Road Cemetery) (photograph: Wrights & Sites) 154

  15. 11.3 Sign in situ (‘The Amateur Builder’ stratum, Weston Woods) (reproduced with permission from Jamie Woodley) 159

  16. 11.4 Sign in situ (‘Ands’ stratum, Royal Parade) (photograph: Wrights & Sites) 161

  17. 13.1 New Buffalo in 1967 (reproduced with permission from Lisa Law) 180

  18. 13.2 Map of central New Buffalo, as it would have looked in 1973 (based on a drawing of the site by Tony Sommers in Kopecky 2004: xviii) 181

  19. 13.3 Excavated evidence of ‘playing Indian’ at New Buffalo: (a) = a silver Indian head pendant (approx. 3 cm tall); (b) = a leather moccasin (photograph: Severin Fowles and Kaet Heupel) 182

  20. (p. xvi) 13.4 The pit house at New Buffalo, after excavation. Note the ventilator in shadow at upper right, the central basin hearth, and the two large rocks, apparently used as primitive furniture (photograph: Severin Fowles and Kaet Heupel) 183

  21. 13.5 Select mass-produced commodities from the New Buffalo trash dump: (a) = ‘Holsum’ white sandwich and French bread bags; (b) = beer cans (photograph: Severin Fowles and Kaet Heupel) 183

  22. 13.6 Unlikely artefacts from New Buffalo: (a) = men’s clip-on tie; (b) = bra fragments (photograph: Severin Fowles and Kaet Heupel) 185

  23. 14.1 Inside of an abandoned farmhouse in the countryside of Iceland (photograph: Gavin Lucas) 194

  24. 14.2 Pompeii of the North; half-exposed houses buried under volcanic pumice from a 1973 eruption on the island of Heimaey, Iceland (photograph: Gavin Lucas) 197

  25. 14.3 Abandoned building project in Reykjavík, Iceland in the wake of the 2008 financial collapse (photograph: Gavin Lucas) 199

  26. 15.1 Approaching the abandoned mining town of Pyramiden, July 2006 (photograph: Bjørnar Olsen) 212

  27. 15.2 Still ready for celebration. Soviet stand for banners and flags in the town square of Pyramiden (photograph: Bjørnar Olsen) 213

  28. 15.3 ‘The last thing you ever need…’ Seiko wish-images decorating worker apartment in block 38, Pyramiden (photograph: Bjørnar Olsen) 214

  29. 15.4 ‘Freed from the drudgery of being useful’ (after Benjamin): shoes left outside worker apartment in Pyramiden (photograph: Bjørnar Olsen) 216

  30. 16.1 Lead cross from the ‘tomb’ of King Arthur, Glastonbury Abbey (Paul Graves-Brown, redrawn from Camden 1586) 220

  31. 16.2 Ripley’s Believe It or Not, Fisherman’s Wharf, San Francisco (photograph: Paul Graves-Brown) 225

  32. 16.3 The Sherlock Holmes Museum, Baker Street, London (photograph: Paul Graves-Brown) 226

  33. 17.1 Anti-immigrant graffiti, Lanark Way, Belfast, July 2011 (photograph: Laura McAtackney) 237

  34. 17.2 Front of H Block, which stands in situ on the Maze regeneration site, November 2007 (photograph: Laura McAtackney) 239

  35. 17.3 Graffiti sponsored by Belfast City Council at Cupar Way, Belfast, July 2011 (photograph: Laura McAtackney) 241

  36. 17.4 Houses backing on to the peace line at Bombay Street, Belfast, July 2011 (photograph: Laura McAtackney) 242

  37. 18.1 The Great Eastern’s engines: (a) the paddle engine; (b) the screw engine (reproduced with permission from The Illustrated London News) 249

  38. 18.2 An assemblage of trading cards with images of the Great Eastern (photograph: Michael Brian Schiffer) 252

  39. 18.3 Several postage stamps with images of the Great Eastern (photograph: Michael Brian Schiffer) 253

  40. (p. xvii) 19.1 Strategies of a behavioral archeology (Josh Reno, redrawn from Reid, Schiffer, and Rathje 1975) 263

  41. 20.1 Visitors at Ta Prom, Angkor Archaeological Park World Heritage Site. Note the various elements of scaffolding and piles of stone relating to contemporary heritage conservation work, and the well-worn pathway within the temple site (photograph: Rodney Harrison) 280

  42. 20.2 Visitors climbing the staircase to the top of the central tower, Angkor Wat. Uniformed staff check tickets in the foreground (photograph: Rodney Harrison) 281

  43. 20.3 Floating hotels designed to look like ‘Chinese Junks’ at Ha Long Bay, Vietnam (photograph: Rodney Harrison) 282

  44. 20.4 Tourists being ferried to one of the three floating fishing villages in Ha Long Bay, Vietnam (photograph: Rodney Harrison) 283

  45. 21.1 Site of stone artefact scatter in the South Coast forests, 1981 (photograph: Denis Byrne) 291

  46. 21.2 Wallaga Lake Aboriginal settlement, 1977 (reproduced with permission from National Archives of Australia) 295

  47. 21.3 Non-Indigenous residents in their rock shelter home at Kurnell, Sydney, during the 1930s Depression (reproduced with permission from National Library of Australia) 298

  48. 21.4 Non-Indigenous residents outside their cliff-top rock shelter home at Kurnell, Sydney, during the 1930s Depression (reproduced with permission from National Library of Australia) 298

  49. 22.1 A decorated bedroom in the Soviet mining town of Pyramiden, abandoned in 1998. Although private bedrooms show a degree of personal creativity, there is an overall compliance with rules, which is also reflected in the material record (photograph: Elin Andreassen) 310

  50. 22.2 Abandoned containers from the failed development project of Tana-Beles (Ethiopia). The liberal dream of modernization and ending poverty coincided here with the communist dream of social justice and progress with disastrous results (photograph: Alfredo González-Ruibal) 313

  51. 22.3 A materialized modernist fantasy: a luxurious house of a returned emigrant in Galicia (Spain). Individual success of emigrants is not inconsistent with social failure, as the region continues to be one of the least economically developed in Europe (photograph: Alfredo González-Ruibal) 314

  52. 22.4 Ruins of an unfinished house in Corisco (Equatorial Guinea). The wrongheaded developmentalist policies of the present dictator have killed the dreams of many islanders, who hoped for the improvement of their life conditions after the end of colonialism (photograph: Alfredo González-Ruibal) 316

  53. 23.1 (a) Traces of habitation at Greenham Common, and (b) a circle of stones at the Nevada peace camp (reproduced with permission from John Schofield) 325

  54. (p. xviii) 23.2 Instructions for building a treehouse from Copse: The Cartoon Book of Tree Protesting (reproduced with permission from Kate Evans) 326

  55. 23.3 Greenpeace diggers, with decorative artwork (photograph: Tod Hanson; reproduced with permission from Greenpeace) 329

  56. 23.4 (a) The remains of the first bender, and (b) one of the more obvious archaeological traces of a bender platform at Stanton Lees protest camp (photographs: Anna Badcock and Robert Johnston) 331

  57. 24.1 A sleeping bag in a short-term camp in a secluded copse, Indianapolis (photograph: Courtney Singleton) 341

  58. 24.2 A well-developed sleeping area in a campsite under a bridge, Indianapolis (photograph: Courtney Singleton) 341

  59. 24.3 Comfortable sleeping area in an open, short-term camp near busy highway, Indianapolis (photograph: Larry J. Zimmerman) 342

  60. 26.1 Mass-fatality disasters always attract media attention and speculation. This Providence Journal article about ‘the Station’ Nightclub fire recovery contained elements of both. FAR, however, did not give interviews or speak to the press while the recovery was in progress and left that up to the West Warwick Police (photograph: Richard A. Gould) 369

  61. 26.2 A FAR team recovers materials from ‘the Station’ Nightclub fire scene. The team included both Brown University archaeology students and Providence Police detectives. The paper bag being used here indicates that biological evidence is being collected (photograph: Richard A. Gould) 374

  62. 26.3 FAR sieving teams at ‘the Station’ Nightclub fire scene, attended by both Brown University students and Providence Police detectives. Due to temperatures close to zero degrees F, wet sieving methods were not used (photograph: Richard A. Gould) 375

  63. 26.4 The aftermath of a mass-fatality disaster can be long and painful. Here relatives and friends of ‘the Station’ Nightclub fire victims gather at the site for the first anniversary of the event. Some of the impromptu memorial displays there are visible. These and other memorials are still present, over eight years afterwards, and they are tended regularly and visited often (photograph: Richard A. Gould) 376

  64. 27.1 Multi-scalar network-in-a-box: (a) smuggled carton of ‘tea’ containing packets of cigarettes (photograph: Matt Edgeworth), (b) shipping containers, within one or several of which—it is inferred—trunk-loads of such packets may have been illegally transported (photograph: Jim Bahn 2006, CC by 2.0) 384

  65. 27.2 Archaeological features at different scales: (a) mega quarry at Bingham Canyon, Utah—an open-pit copper mine (photograph: Tim Jarrett 2005, CC by 3.0), (b) rubbish pit encountered and re-excavated during archaeological dig at Jewry Street, Winchester (photograph: Wessex Archaeology 2005, CC by 2.0), (c) holes etched into carbon nanowires with a high energy electron beam. The scale in the picture is about 7 nanometres in length (reproduced with permission from Alexey Bezryadin, Physics, UIUC) 387

  66. 28.1 Alcoa Aluminum Advertisement, Fortune Magazine, ‘Peer Into the Future’, 1930s (public domain image original copyright Alcoa) 396

  67. (p. xix) 28.2 Alcoa Aluminum Advertisement, Saturday Evening Post, ‘Christmas Creations of Light, Lasting, Lustrous Aluminum’, 3 December 1955 (public domain image original copyright Alcoa) 398

  68. 28.3 Alcoa Aluminum Advertisement, Saturday Evening Post, ‘31 Stories of Aluminum Make News’, 1953 (public domain image original copyright Alcoa) 402

  69. 28.4 BOHN Aluminum and Brass Corporation Advertisement, ‘Forecasting by Bohn’, circa 1945 (public domain image original copyright Bohn) 404

  70. 29.1 Vanguard 1 satellite (reproduced with permission from NASA) 412

  71. 29.2 Apollo 12 taken from the LRO 2011 (reproduced with permission from NASA) 413

  72. 29.3 Apollo 12 astronaut Alan Bean with Surveyor 3 on the lunar surface (reproduced with permission from NASA) 414

  73. 29.4 Space food sticks, manufactured in Australia (photograph: Alice C. Gorman) 419

  74. 31.1 The Ministry of Transport’s 1946 plan for reconstructing Britain’s national routes (redrawn, from a photograph by Peter Merriman) 441

  75. 31.2 A glass ash-tray commemorating the construction of the M1 motorway (photograph: Peter Merriman) 444

  76. 31.3 A silver and blue enamel M1 charm to be worn on a charm bracelet (photograph: Peter Merriman) 444

  77. 31.4 A road sign in Aberystwyth, Wales, which has been modified using a metal panel with the Welsh and English names for the town of Aberteifi/Cardigan (photograph: Peter Merriman) 446

  78. 32.1 Holt Cemetery view, with ‘Homeless Grave’ (photograph: Shannon Lee Dawdy) 453

  79. 32.2 Holt Cemetery detail (photograph: Shannon Lee Dawdy) 453

  80. 32.3 Votive artefacts at Guerneville Community Cemetery (photograph: Shannon Lee Dawdy) 457

  81. 32.4 ‘Beyond the Vines’ Columbarium, Bohemian National Cemetery, Chicago (photograph: Shannon Lee Dawdy) 458

  82. 33.1 The Gut in 2005 (photograph: John Schofield) 467

  83. 33.2 Faded lettering marks the former location of the Cambridge Dancing Hall, photographed in 2004 (photograph: John Schofield) 474

  84. 33.3 Bobby in characteristic pose (photographer unknown) 475

  85. 33.4 The Egyptian Queen, World Heritage? (photograph: John Schofield) 476

  86. 34.1 A couple poses for wedding pictures in Washington Square Park, the park fountain visible behind them (photograph: Laurie A. Wilkie) 482

  87. 34.2 A Robert Moses housing development as seen from the Empire State building. From a height, one can immediately identify the modernist influence of Moses on the city landscape (photograph: Laurie A. Wilkie) 484

  88. 34.3 People exploring the High Line shortly after its opening, July 2009 (photograph: Laurie A. Wilkie) 489

  89. 34.4 Which came first? The flowers or the railroad? A reset railroad track at the High Line rewrites the archaeological history of the site (photograph: Laurie A. Wilkie) 490

  90. (p. xx) 35.1 Map of contemporary Iraq with key sites mentioned in the text (map: Leonardo Arias) 495

  91. 36.1 The Soldiers and Sailors Monument western face with the Peace grouping at its base (photograph: Paul R. Mullins) 509

  92. 36.2 The Peace grouping with the emancipated captive figure in the lower right (photograph: Paul R. Mullins) 510

  93. Photoessay: Institutional spaces. Peter Metelerkamp 522

  94. 37.1 Brian Fay, Black Central Pillar (from the series Pillar Drawings, Woodhenge, 1927). Digital hand drawing on paper, 2007–10 (reproduced with permission from Brian Fay) 554

  95. 37.2 Rebecca Davies, An Exploration of Time and Space No. 3 (detail). Etching on paper, 2008 (reproduced with permission from Rebecca Davies) 556

  96. 37.3 Julia Midgley, Trench 22. Pencil and watercolour, 2009 (reproduced with permission from Julia Midgley) 557

  97. 37.4 Varvara Shavrova, Interferences No. 3. String, nails, excavation trench, 2005 (reproduced with permission from Varvara Shavrova) 559

  98. 38.1 Still from After War, 2009 (reproduced with permission from Kristina Norman) 571

  99. 38.2 Cover of Savage Messiah zine accompanying Bristol exhibition (reproduced with permission from Laura Oldfield Ford) 572

  100. 39.1 Ponting’s colour instructions for a blue tone and yellow tint scratched into a section of film corresponding to the image from the BFI NFTVA 2010 digital restoration shown in Fig. 39.4 (reproduced with permission from BFI National Archive) 581

  101. 39.2 Ponting’s provisional editing instructions circa 1931 scratched into a section of film (reproduced with permission from BFI National Archive) 581

  102. 39.3 ‘The Matterhorn’ iceberg from a digital file of the 1990s contact print produced from reel 6 of the Nitrate soft print (1923) that is held at the BFI NFTVA. The imprint of perforations can be seen across the image as a result of the film’s storage (reproduced with permission from BFI National Archive) 584

  103. 39.4 ‘The Matterhorn’ iceberg from the BFI NFTVA 2010 digital colour grade of The Great White Silence (reproduced with permission from BFI National Archive) 586

  104. 39.5 Angelo Lucatello’s diagram and notes on comparison work for the BFI NFTVA’s 2010 preservation and restoration of The Great White Silence (reproduced with permission from Angelo Lucatello) 587

  105. 40.1 Aerial view of Black Rock City, 2011 (photograph: Jim Urquhart, reproduced with permission from Reuters) 596

  106. 40.2 View of public space in Jungle Camp (photograph: Carolyn L. White) 603

  107. 40.3 Plan of Suntrakker Camp, 2008 (reproduced with permission from Bruce Rogow) 604

  108. (p. xxi) 40.4 Burning Man participant creating shrine with offerings at the temple, 2010 (photograph: Carolyn L. White) 605

  109. 41.1 Robson Square Celebration Site (photograph: Angela Piccini) 617

  110. 41.2 Still, Surface, Fiona Bowie (reproduced with permission from Inkblot Media, videographer Mike McKinlay) 619

  111. 41.3 Still, Blue, Project Rainbow (reproduced with permission from Inkblot Media, videographer Mike McKinlay) 619

  112. 41.4 Walk In/Here You Are, Christian Kliegel and Cate Rimmer (photograph: Angela Piccini) 620

  113. 42.1 Visitor attendance in the global experience economy (table: Cornelius Holtorf) 628

  114. 42.2 The ubiquity and variety of material animal representations at Copenhagen Zoo (map: Cornelius Holtorf based on fieldwork conducted in 2007/8) 631

  115. 42.3 Visitors enact what it means to be part of a chimpanzee group when they enter Bart Walter’s sculpture group The Gathering, unveiled in 2002 at the US National Zoo in Washington, DC (photograph: Cornelius Holtorf) 633

  116. 42.4 Berthold Lubetkin’s 1934 Penguin Pool at London Zoo produced penguinness by letting the reified animals fulfil the intention of the concrete architecture surrounding them (photograph: Cornelius Holtorf) 635

  117. 42.5 At Stuttgart’s Wilhelma Zoo, visitors are welcome to acquire a token piece of the animal collection in the shop (photograph: Cornelius Holtorf) 636

  118. 42.6 The quasified wilderness in Burgers’ Bush, Arnhem, celebrates authentic animalness by hiding the animals (photograph: Cornelius Holtorf) 638

  119. Photoessay: On salvage photography. Caitlin DeSilvey, photographs by Steven Bond and Caitlin DeSilvey 642

  120. 43.1 Licence plate of the hearse used by a technology-recycling firm in Oakland, California, as a vehicle for its pick-ups of redundant computers (photograph: Christine Finn) 660

  121. 43.2 Remains of 45th anniversary cake featuring edible archive photograph of the LINC, the Laboratory Instrument Computer, made for a Digibarn celebration at the Computer History Museum, during the Vintage Computer Festival, 2007. The LINC was the first ‘personal’ computer, in that it could be installed in a home (photograph: Christine Finn) 664

  122. 43.3 Wire-d, a site-specific installation by the author, comprising old Silicon Valley technology gathered ad hoc from collectors and tech recyclers, made for the 2007 Vintage Computer Festival, Computer History Museum, Mountain View, California (photograph: Christine Finn) 667

  123. 44.1 Firearm equipped with a mechanical arm. Drawing based on a manuscript dated 1411 (drawing by David de Léon) 674

  124. 44.2 Schematic illustration of the adjustable sight compensating for bullet drop (drawing by David de Léon) 681

  125. 45.1 Stereoscopic motion study image of ‘champion typists’ by Frank B. Gilbreth, c.1915. (Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University) 688

  126. (p. xxii) 45.2 Production line of the Austin A30 (Seven) in the Car Assembly Building at British Motor Corporation’s Longbridge factory 1953 (reproduced with permission from British Motor Industry Heritage Trust) 689

  127. 45.3 Zander’s Heilgymnastik machines. Medikomechanische Apparate von Zander from Meyer’s Großem Konversations-Lexikon, 1905 (author’s private collection) 694

  128. 47.1 Child’s lost boot rescued on a fence post. Strangers habitually care for the things which children lose (photograph: Sarah May) 720

  129. 47.2 A sandal is washed by the tide on a beach. We don’t care for the things adults lose in the same way we do for children’s things (photograph: Sarah May) 721

  130. 47.3 ‘The Digger’s’ favourite toys and partners. In addition to starring in various stories, the Diggers helped A. do puzzles, solve problems, and face life’s challenges (photograph: Sarah May) 723

  131. 48.1 Copyright Notice. Digital image from colour VHS (Harold and Maude) (Jem Noble) 730

  132. 48.2 15 locations around Limelight Video; 6 m × 1 m wall-drawing with single VHS tape strip (Jem Noble) 734

  133. 48.3 Harold and Maude cassette, Limelight copy (photograph: Adam O. Thomas) 737

  134. 48.4 After Richard Long (2). Digital vector image (Jem Noble) 740

  135. 49.1 The ‘Starter’ pages in the boys’ magazine Spirou are fixed in the mind of hundreds of thousand of those who were boys in the 1950s. The dedicated website <> lists all the cars drawn by the artist Jidehem (J-D-M) between 1950 and 1987 (reproduced with permission from Editions Dupuis) 747

  136. 49.2 Where it all started: the September 1965 issue of Sport-Auto in which this test was published (Rosinski 1965) also comprised a visit to the Shelby-Cobra factory in Los Angeles, and road tests comparing the MGB with the Triumph TR4. Another test of the TC was done in Champion in 1969 by the Formula 1 driver Jean-Pierre Beltoise (reproduced with permission from Mondadori France) 749

  137. 49.3 Castle Comb in July 1970. Except for my Dinky Toys, it was the first time I saw a Maserati 250F (two, actually, one red and one blue). Top left are a Frazer-Nash and two BMWs. For an amateur, there is no doubt that the wheel arch and the wheel that appear between the two men are those of a Jaguar XK120 (photograph: Pierre Lemonnier) 751

  138. 49.4 The high precision of some models that are the size of a Dinky Toy (1/43rd) simply leaves the amateur breathless. This model of Alberto Ascari’s 1955 Lancia D 50 immediately evokes the Italian champion’s plunge into the waters of Monaco harbour during the 1955 Grand Prix (model and photograph reproduced with permission from Steve Barnett) 753

  139. Photoessay: The other Acropolises: multi-temporality and the persistence of the past. Yannis Hamilakis and Fotis Ifantidis 758