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date: 25 August 2019

(p. 963) Index

(p. 963) Index

Introductory Note

References such as ‘178–9’ indicate (not necessarily continuous) discussion of a topic across a range of pages. Wherever possible in the case of topics with many references, these have either been divided into sub-topics or only the most significant discussions of the topic are listed. Because the entire work is about ‘developmental linguistics’, the use of these terms (and certain others which occur constantly throughout the book) as entry points has been restricted. Information will be found under the corresponding detailed topics.

2-wh questions, 335–7
Abney, S., 339, 438, 469, 650–1
absolute gradable adjectives, 485, 487
absolute phonotactics, 28–31
abstract knowledge, 32, 163, 169, 172, 187, 204–5, 405–6
abstract representations, 133, 163, 186–7, 203–4, 429, 681
abstract structures, 40, 86, 163, 414, 429, 472, 474
abstraction, 23, 29, 158, 169, 171, 174, 177–8, 304
early, 163–5, 177
accent, 82, 84
acute, 82–3
grave, 82–3
word, 82
accuracy, 119, 122, 129, 187, 733, 738, 740, 814
production, 791
accusative, 219, 261–2, 416–20, 426–8, 430, 442, 444, 538
double, 219–21
accusative pronouns, 419, 538
accusative subjects, 286, 430–1, 433
ACD (antecedent-contained deletion), 474, 489, 516–18
ACDH (A-chain Deficit Hypothesis), 188–91, 194, 196, 198–9, 203, 248, 257, 265
to Universal Phase Requirement (UPR), 189–91
A-chain Condition, 535–7
A-chain Deficit Hypothesis, see ACDH
A-chains, 202–4, 248–50, 252–3, 258–60, 262–5, 276, 535–6, 539
formation, 276, 539, 543
maturation, 248–9, 255–6, 262–3, 276
non-trivial, 249, 276
acoustic cues, 136, 149, 684
acoustic properties, 679–80
acoustic saliency, 31, 38, 42
acquisition, 1–3, 256–7, 310–11, 386, 390–1, 664–8, 672–6, 697–9; see also Introductory Note
A-movement, 231, 257, 260, 278
binding and coreference, 520–46
comparatives and degree constructions, 463–97
complements, 279–309
cross-linguistic, 386, 546, 810
disjunction, 554–6
genitive case, 450–1
Italian, 122, 534
long-distance questions, 326, 332
modality, 370–4
models, 109, 696, 712, 717, 723
mood, 375–84
morphology, 87–153
passive, 185, 248–9
paths, 279, 295, 308
perfective, 604, 606, 609
perfective-imperfective, 604–9
phonetic category, 676, 679
phonological, 8, 11, 41, 153, 790–1, 793, 807
phonotactic, 30, 32, 34–5
possessives, 435–59
P&P, 697–9, 706, 708
prepositions and particles, 206–29
questions, 310–40
recursive possessives, 443, 459
second language, 797
semantics, 461–629
sound systems, 5–86
stranding, 213–14
stress, 69–78
syntax, 134, 155–459
telicity, 600–604
velars, 10
acquisitional evidence, 110, 221, 223, 228
actional passives, 181, 183, 186–90, 198–200, 203–4, 242, 244, 252
actional verbs, 181–4, 187–91, 198, 200–201, 205, 241–7, 254
active clauses, 273, 276
active sentences, 180–1, 183–4, 190, 195, 200–201, 203, 241–2, 252
active voice, 179, 182, 243–4, 246, 253
active/passive alternations, 172, 183
activity verbs, 226, 238, 596
act-out tasks, 168–9, 205, 240, 244, 246, 292–3, 545
additive constraint interactions, 735–6
additive genetic variance, 774–5
ADHD (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder), 785, 788
adjectival passives, 188–92, 200–201, 236, 250, 252–3
adjectival resultatives, 105, 107, 109–10
adjectives, 102, 104, 281, 283, 464–6, 478, 482–6, 659
attributive, 93–5, 97–8, 103, 108, 290
comparative, 479–80, 763
gradable, see gradable adjectives
novel, 478–9
and passive participles, 191–2
adjunct clauses, 283, 295, 299, 325–6
adjunct extraction, 319
adjunct position, 247, 316, 318–19, 327, 335, 337
adjunct questions, 319, 400
adjunct status, 180, 196, 199
adjuncts, 179, 204, 319, 323, 808–9, 814
adnominal possessives, 435–41, 443, 446, 448, 454
adolescents, 754–5, 757, 763–4
adpositions, 206–10, 212
adult asymmetry, 57–8, 62
adult data, 23, 103, 335, 348, 443
adult grammars, 43–7, 50–1, 54–5, 57, 63–4, 66, 407, 744–5
adult knowledge, 563–4
adult lexicon, 600–601, 629
adult speech, 195, 249, 262, 359, 386, 578, 597, 623
adult systems, 46, 57–8, 66, 77, 86, 103, 374, 385
adult transcribers, 58, 61, 85
adult-directed speech, 134, 140–1
adultlike performance, 81, 246, 527, 529, 533, 539, 543, 551
adultlike responses, 528, 540, 542, 561
adults, 186–8, 201–3, 493–5, 509–15, 517–19, 614–20, 624, 670–1
English-speaking, 12, 507, 515, 561–2, 761
adverbial modification, 173, 487
adverbs, 352, 487, 572, 585, 702
sentence, 352–3
adversarial teachers, 656–7
affectedness, 185
affirmative questions, 314–15, 322–4, 758
affixes, 111–12, 115–17, 124–5, 130, 305, 332, 424
morphological, 116, 126
verbal, 207
affricates, 8, 10, 33–4, 811, 814–15
age groups, 130, 172, 175, 241–2, 270, 275, 277, 493–4
age ranges, 2, 107, 167–9, 171, 173–4, 176, 214, 363
agent by-phrases, 199, 237, 241
agent nouns, 98, 104
agent subjects, 238, 242, 244–5
agent theta-role, 199
agentive-transitive verbs, 230–1
agreeing verbs, 348, 433–4
agreement, 197–8, 286, 347–8, 357–8, 374–5, 413–17, 421–31, 433–4
in adult language, 415–17
and case, 414–34
in child language, 422–5
errors, 347, 423
explaining patterns, 425–34
morphology, 423–4, 433
relations, 193–4, 197
specifications, 430–1
subject, 381, 422, 425, 427, 430–3
verb, 170, 362, 416, 427
AIC (Akaike’s Information Criterion), 774
AIH (Argument Intervention Hypothesis), 202–3
Albright, A., 41, 118, 121–2, 126–7, 131, 741, 745
algorithms, 636, 641, 678, 685, 703–4, 727, 731–3, 738–40
genetic, 703–4, 710, 717
Alishahi, A., 178
allomorphs, 116–17, 120–1, 129–30
multiple, 124, 128–9
plural, 121, 131
allophones, 153, 676, 681–2, 798–9
allophonic cues, 135, 151
allophonic rules, 24, 798–9
alternations, 111–14, 116, 118–19, 123–4, 128–9, 131, 796, 799–801
active/passive, 172, 183
dative, 164, 170, 176
mood, 367–85
morpho-phonological, 113, 126, 128–9, 132, 794, 796, 799, 806
observed, 112, 121–2, 126
phonological, 114, 117, 726
phonotactically-motivated, 112–13
voice, 112, 119, 179–205
vowel-zero, 119, 127
alternatives
lexical, 622–4, 626
scalar, 621–3, 627
Altvater-Mackensen, N., 20–1
alveolar stops, 66, 124, 794, 797
ambient language, 12–13, 29–30, 32–3, 35, 37, 42, 69, 79
ambiguity, 574, 576, 584–5, 701–3, 705, 708, 710, 712–13
resolution, 512–13
structural, 729, 737–9, 741–2, 747
ambiguous sentences, 325, 511, 513, 713
A-movement, 196, 198, 202, 208, 230–78, 281
acquisition, 231, 257, 260, 278
in adult grammar, 231–6
covert, 262
non-passive, theoretical approaches, 256–7
raising-to-subject, 264–71
unaccusatives, 257–64
analogical knowledge, 126–7
analogy, morpho-phonological acquisition via, 126–7
anaphors, 272, 521, 523, 688, 706
animacy, 168, 171–3, 245, 269–70, 273, 577
animate subjects, 168–9, 268–9
answers, fragment, 312–13
antagonistic faithfulness constraints, 802–6
antecedent-contained deletion, see ACD
antecedents, 234, 316, 489, 516–18, 524, 528, 541–5, 688–91
anticanonical verbs, 244
antonyms, 480–1
aphasia, 8, 527–8
applicative arguments, 171
approximate convergence, 641–3, 650
Archer, S.L., 31
Argument Intervention Hypothesis (AIH), 202–3
(p. 966) argument questions, 319
argument structure, 157–78, 230, 248, 275, 304, 411, 415, 590
analysis, 176–8
developmental findings, 165–76
mapping/linking, 162–3
terms and preliminaries, 157–60
thematic relations, 160–1
theories, 163–5
arguments
applicative, 171
experiencer, 270–1
external, 193, 198–200, 204, 247, 256, 264, 266, 504–6
implicit, 237
semantic, 230, 571
theme, 161–2, 196, 244, 256, 260
articulation, 21, 33, 116, 775–6, 779, 782, 784–5, 796–7
artifacts, experimental, 385, 524–5, 528, 531, 537, 542
artificial language learning experiments, 178, 634, 662
artificial languages, 35, 75, 139–41, 149, 662, 670, 684
aspect
coercion, 598–9, 605, 609–10
cross-linguistic variation, 587–94
imperfective, 590–3, 596, 598–9, 601, 604–10
learnability, 594–6
lexical, 356, 587–90
markers, 570, 594–7, 599, 605
morphemes, 596, 598
morphology, 587, 599
perfective, 590–1, 596, 598–9, 605–8
spontaneous speech (SS), 596–600
aspect-on-the-verb bias, 604, 609
aspectual classes, 588, 590, 592, 596, 599
aspectual primitives, 594–5, 609–10
aspectual tenses, 593, 606
assimilation, 63, 112–13, 116, 130, 303
consonant-to-consonant, 55, 57
asymmetry, 181–2, 204–5, 321–2, 399, 409–10, 480, 505–6, 608–9
adult, 57–8, 62
subject–object, 397, 399, 405–7, 409–12, 766
atelic predicates, 589, 591, 597–600, 603, 605
atelic verbs, 596, 599–600
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 785, 788
attributive adjectives, 93–5, 97–8, 103, 108, 290
atypical populations, 2–3, 749–816
auditory deficits, 753–4, 784
autosegmental phonology, 68, 82–3, 85–6
autosegmental representation, 81–6
aux-doubling structures, 322–3, 340
auxiliaries, 189, 191–2, 314–18, 341–2, 345–6, 593, 691–2, 762–4
selection, 197, 259–60, 264
auxiliary verbs, 311, 314–18, 322, 341, 416, 691–2, 763
main clause, 691–2
Avrutin, S., 356, 524–5, 527, 530–1, 538, 541–4
babbling, 9, 18
Babyonyshev, M., 193, 249, 256, 259–63, 266, 421
Bachrach, A., 626–7
Bantu languages, 250–1, 253, 255, 381
bare infinitives, 423
bare nouns, 570–1, 578–80
bare plural generics, 579, 583
bare plurals, 569–71, 573, 575, 578–80, 585–6
bare stems, 90, 94, 342–4, 355, 360–3, 424
bare verbs, 316, 377, 431, 433, 599
bare-stem compounds, 89–90, 94–5, 98, 103–4, 108
bare-stem endocentric compounding, 92, 98, 104–10
Barner, D., 484, 493, 500, 502, 508, 622–7
Bartlett, C.W., 784, 786
Barton, D., 14, 20, 22, 44, 811
base word order, 441, 449, 452, 454, 456
Basque, 94, 105, 225, 331
Bates, E., 81, 130, 343, 358, 396, 652–3, 779
Bauer, L., 90–1, 93–4
Bayesian inference, 664, 678–9, 690, 694–5
(p. 967) Bayesian learners, 25–6, 653, 666–7, 676–7, 690–4
Bayesian modeling, 26, 653, 664–7, 672–9
examples, 679–95
BCD (Biased Constraint Demotion), 743, 746
BE omission, 192–3
Beard, R., 93–7
Beard’s Generalization, 94–5, 97, 103
behavior genetics, 773, 780–3
belief verbs, 174
beliefs, 118, 174, 279, 300, 567
false, 282, 295–8
Bellugi, U., 310, 314, 319, 322, 349, 441, 754–5
be-passives, 181, 184–5, 204, 246
Berger, C.V., 534, 537
Berman, R., 171, 188, 242, 250–1, 253, 397, 451–2, 596
Bernhardt, B., 41, 46, 119, 124, 790, 792–5, 808, 810
Bertoncini, J., 38–40, 133
Berwick, R.C., 23, 249, 406, 640, 659, 668, 700, 710–11
Bhatt, R., 470, 472–3, 503
Biased Constraint Demotion (BCD), 743, 746
biases, 70–1, 77, 293–4, 514–15, 601, 669–70, 717, 743–4
aspect-on-the-verb, 604, 609
inductive, 664–5, 667, 669, 671, 673–5, 677, 679, 681
innate, 308, 601, 671
ranking, 124, 743–4, 746
bigram model, 683–4
Bijeljac-Babic, R., 39–40
bilingual children, 393, 397–9, 405
binding
and coreference, 523–5
domains, 539, 544–5, 787
theory, 521–3
Chomsky, 521, 523
Binomial Test, 218–22
biological maturation, 1, 242, 265, 278, 357
Bishop, C., 464, 478, 618, 753–4, 767–70, 775, 782, 789
bisyllabic words, 65, 137, 140–1, 143, 145–7, 149
bivariate heritability, 775–7
Bloom, P., 291, 294, 315, 401, 411, 441–2, 506–7, 526
Boersma, P., 19, 23, 50, 74, 730–5, 738, 743, 745
Boolean semantics, 554–5
bootstrapping, 138, 177, 676, 780
semantic, 165, 178
syntactic, 164, 167, 177, 231, 600–601
Borer, H., 188, 242, 246, 249–50, 252–3, 260, 440, 590
Bosch, L., 30, 38, 70, 147
not both interpretation, 561–3
bound morphemes, 342, 455
boundaries, 13, 15, 134, 139, 683
clause, 80, 136–7, 273, 552, 561
final, 591, 599, 605–6
initial, 591
phrase, see phrase boundaries
syntactic, 136, 138
Bowerman, M., 169–70, 172–3, 208, 212, 441–2, 455, 595–6
brain, 2, 16–17, 42, 640, 699, 778
Braine, M.D.S., 19, 165, 169, 181, 240, 549, 614–15, 618
branching, 92, 811–12, 815
onsets, 45, 48–9, 59–61, 66
Brandone, A., 166, 569
Brent, M., 36, 134, 139, 149, 669
Buckley, E., 27, 33, 40, 44, 46, 52, 54
Budwig, N., 181, 184, 246, 418
Bulgarian, 218, 316
Burzio, L., 117, 183, 257–8
Bybee, J., 31, 116, 125–7, 131, 164, 368, 601
by-phrases, 179–80, 182–4, 189, 196, 198–200, 202, 245–7, 252–3
agent, 199, 237, 241
CAH (Canonical Alignment Hypothesis), 256, 277
and passives, 199–202
candidate genes, 784–8
canonical semantics, 231, 277
canonical verbs, 244–5
Cantonese, 79, 132, 194, 282, 298–9, 397, 765
capacities, 305, 499–501, 519, 712, 740, 743, 747
processing, see processing capacity
cardinality, 492, 499–500, 502, 506, 658
caregivers, 170, 173, 252–4, 274, 597, 699
case
in adult language, 415–17
and agreement, 414–34
in child language, 417–22
dative, see dative
errors, 348, 418, 421–2, 428–9, 432, 434
pronoun, 418
subject, 421, 427
explaining patterns, 425–34
categories
functional, 34, 283, 285–7, 306, 391, 413, 444, 448
grammatical, 670, 673
lexical, 13, 25, 144, 158
morphological, 115, 126, 592, 606
phonetic, 20, 25, 676, 679–82
syntactic, 90, 150, 206–7, 211, 326, 358–9, 390, 688–91
categorization, 164, 674, 676, 680–1
lexical, 284
phonetic, 13, 680
causal relationships, 85, 304, 792
causative constructions, 183, 199
causative overgeneralizations, 172, 175
c-command, 233, 292, 313, 517–18, 521, 529, 541–2, 758
CD (Constraint Demotion), 729–31, 733, 738, 743
CEE (Clitic Exemption Effect), 530–2
CG (Construction Grammar), 59–60, 162
clusters, 59–60
derived, 59–61
outputs, 60, 62
strings, 59–61
Chafetz, J., 180–1, 186, 243–4, 253–4
chains, 188, 233, 543; see also A-Chain
Markov, 678, 685, 710
Chater, N., 653–5, 659–62, 665, 673, 676
Chien, Y.-C., 353, 520, 523–5, 530–2, 540–1, 544–6, 571
Chierchia, G., 529, 548, 570–2, 578, 613, 615, 621, 623
child grammars, 43–7, 50–1, 57–8, 66–7, 190, 193–4, 331–4, 407–9
containing less than adult grammars, 50–4
containing more than adult grammars, 54–7
as possible grammars, 45–50
toolkit, 50–7
unexpected complexity, 64–7
child language acquisition, see acquisition
child phonology, 7
child productions, 11, 19–20, 83, 419, 423
child speech, 115, 249, 255, 274, 312, 370–1, 383, 386
child-directed speech, 98, 153, 168, 175, 242, 251, 506–7, 692–4
Chinese, 85, 221, 388, 391–2, 396–9, 544–5, 571, 576–7
children, 192, 545–6
Chomsky, C., 291
Chomsky Hierarchy, 636–9, 646–9, 658, 660–1
Chomsky’s Binding Theory, 523
Christofidou, A., 449–51
chromosomes, 754, 783–4, 786, 788
Cimpian, A., 568–9, 579–82
Clahsen, H., 101, 122, 357, 423, 482–3, 757, 761, 763
Clark, R., 701–8
Clark’s GA model, 704–5, 709, 713, 716
classes
languages, 142, 645, 647–8, 652, 657–8, 662
recursive, 644, 648, 651, 660–1
superfinite, 646–8, 651, 653, 655, 657–8
Classic OT, 726–7, 730–3, 735–6
classical triggering model, 714, 718, 723
classification, 24, 208, 584, 588, 590
coarse, 642–3
clausal comparatives, 472–3, 491
clause boundaries, 80, 136–7, 273, 552, 561
clause structure, 357, 415, 427
clauses, 192–3, 280–1, 285–90, 295, 305, 330, 466–7, 522
active, 273, 276
(p. 969) comparative, 467, 473
complement, see complement clauses
embedded, see embedded clauses
finite, 292, 294, 306, 331, 345, 400–401, 403, 599
infinitival, 219, 281, 290–1, 293, 330, 335
nonfinite, 292, 301, 345, 355, 599, 762
relative, 214, 315, 337, 514, 552–3, 757, 759, 764–6
structure, 341–66
subordinate, 306, 325, 394, 405, 409–10, 466–73, 488, 490
tensed, 280, 282–3, 285, 294, 301, 307, 394, 518
Clements, G.N., 29, 47, 59, 63, 115, 637, 798, 808
clinical markers, 766
clinical treatment, 805, 813–14
Clitic Exemption Effect, see CEE
clitic pronouns, 530–1, 533–4, 537, 539
clitics, 115, 260, 360, 530–4, 539–40, 546, 765
object, 259–60, 537, 539
reflexive, 259–60, 263–4
syntactic, 530, 532–4
closed syllables, 72, 76, 115, 130
cluster reduction, 46–7, 113, 793, 797
clustering, 23–4
clusters, 32, 35, 46–9, 59–61, 63, 807–8, 810–12, 814–15
consonant, see consonant clusters
left-edge, 46, 59
liquid, 60, 809, 811
nasal, 808–10
sonorant, 808–9, 812
true, 808–9, 814
coarticulation, 135, 147, 149, 151
coda consonants, 34, 806, 810–11
codas, 28, 34, 40, 52, 58, 72, 743, 810–11
coercion, 598–9, 605–6, 608
aspect, 598–9, 605, 609–10
cognition, 477, 479, 673, 752–4, 771–2, 776, 778, 789
cognitive deficits, 751, 755
cognitive impairments, 755–6, 763, 769
cognitive processes, 144, 665, 770, 772–3
cognitive resources, 1, 405, 413, 426, 508, 617, 685–6
CoLAG domain, 711, 718–20, 722
Colledge, E., 777, 779, 782
color, 159, 478, 486, 488, 493, 507, 517–18, 554
combinatorial speech, 394–5, 398, 405, 407, 410
commission, errors of, 287, 343, 423, 702, 718
comparative adjectives, 479–80, 763
comparative clauses, 467, 473
comparative constructions, 465–7, 477–8, 480, 485, 487
comparative expressions, 463–6, 477, 479, 497
comparative markers, 464, 466, 470, 474, 477
comparative morphemes, 466, 469–72, 476, 482, 490, 763
comparative morphology, 464, 477, 486, 497
comparative syntax, 217, 221
comparatives, 463–79, 481, 483, 485–91, 493, 495–7
acquisition, 478, 497
clausal, 472–3, 491
cross-linguistic variability, 470–2
deconstruction, 466
ellipsis and covert movement, 472–4, 488–91
equatives, 465, 475, 496–7
and language learners, 476–7
more v -er, 482–3
more v less, 480–2
MP (measure phrases), 130, 235–7, 466, 470, 490–6
phrasal, 473, 491
semantic analyses, 467–70
standards of comparison, 483–5
complement clauses, 294–5, 297, 304, 476, 490
finite, 291, 294
complement recursion, 284, 305, 308
complement types, 279, 288, 308
complementary distributions, 25, 34, 585, 797–8, 804
complementation, 279, 281, 294–5, 298, 305, 308–9
(p. 970) complementizers, 207, 210, 219, 292, 295, 306, 331, 693
obligatory, 759–60
prepositional, 210, 219–20, 223, 228
complements, 208–9, 237, 266, 411, 469, 533, 690, 702
acquisition, 279–309
embedded, 337
false, 297, 301
and fast mapping, 303–5
finite, 293–4, 296, 300, 518
finite tensed clauses, 294–302
infinitives and control, 273, 287, 290–4, 300–301, 303–4, 306
nonfinite, 291, 293–4, 518
raising structures, 294
recursion, 284, 305–8
small clauses, 285–90
verbal, 236–7, 273
wh-complements, 302–3
completion, 478, 551, 591, 593, 603, 605, 733
entailment, 591, 603, 606–7, 609
complex predicates, 105, 107, 109, 289
complex questions, 326, 326–9, 337
types, 326–9
yes/no, 691–3
complexity, 64–5, 305–6, 322, 332, 574, 582–3, 586, 638–9
computational, 639, 646, 656, 660
phonological, 411, 815
semantic, 605–6, 608–9
unexpected, 64–6
compositional semantics, 102, 210
compositional telicity, 590, 601–4, 609
compound phrases, 90
compound word formation, see compounding
compounding, 71, 89–110, 116, 170, 224–9
creativity, 91–2, 94, 105
cross-linguistic variation, 91–6
review, 89–96
synthetic -ER, 96–104
terminology, 89–91
compounds, 89, 91, 94–101, 103–4, 106, 108–10, 129, 308
bare-stem, 89–90, 94–5, 98, 103–4, 108
definition, 89–90
endocentric, see endocentric compounds
lexicalized, 93–4
nominal, 93, 95
root, 90–1
synthetic, 95–9, 103
comprehension, 181–2, 184, 188, 200–201, 203–5, 312, 405–6, 608–10
experiments, 326, 333, 335–6, 408, 458–9, 578, 585
methodology, 313, 334, 337
tasks, 107, 131, 240, 242, 251–2, 278, 292, 355
comprehension-based methods, 165–6, 171
computable data presentations, 642, 651, 653, 655, 657, 661
computable positive stochastic data, 644, 646, 648, 652
computation, 18, 312–13, 560, 615, 617, 633, 636, 674
computational approaches to parameter setting, 2, 696–724
models, 701–22
computational complexity, 639, 646, 656, 660
computational learning, 633–4, 645–62
computational modeling, 41, 698, 700–701, 705–6, 716–20, 722–3, 725–6, 747
computational resources, 709, 711, 726
computer science, 23, 633, 649, 664
conceptual domains, 568–9, 576
conceptual representations, 157, 166, 173, 576
conditional probability, 668, 687
conjunction, 142, 548, 550, 552, 554, 561–3
conjunctive interpretation, 306, 550–2, 554–6, 558–60
connectionism, 640, 666, 679
Conroy, A., 313, 321, 513–15, 522, 524, 528–9
conservatism, 176, 308, 709
grammatical, 215–16, 280, 343
conservativity, 165, 169, 502, 504
consonant clusters, 30, 40, 130, 791, 807
word-final, 30, 37
consonant harmony, 44, 54, 57, 66–7, 793
consonant mutation, 132
consonants, 8–9, 21–2, 32, 39–40, 54, 670, 797, 810–11
coronal, 33, 804
dorsal, 803–4
initial, 34, 777, 804
lingual, 796–7
velar, 21, 796, 798, 803
voiceless, 34, 113
word-final, see final consonants
conspiracies, 791, 807–8, 811–15
Constraint Demotion, see CD
constraint hierarchies, 57, 802, 804, 807–8, 815–16
constraint interactions, additive, 735–6
constraint ranking, 3, 43, 45, 54, 73, 727, 737
constraint reranking, 43, 46–50, 73–4
constraint violations, 727, 734–5, 737, 742
constraint-based approaches, 73, 116, 725, 801–15
constraint-based frameworks, 744, 793, 802, 806, 815
constraint-based grammars, 123, 131, 747
constraint-based learning, 124, 725–6, 739, 747
constraint-based phonology, 123–5
constraints, 43–7, 49–50, 60–1, 63–6, 666–7, 726–30, 732–7, 742–4
lexical, 446, 449, 742
markedness, 45–8, 51, 56, 74, 743, 746, 802–6, 809–14
phonotactic, 28, 36, 147
physiological, 58, 62
positional, 48, 50
positional faithfulness, 49–50
pragmatic, 521, 524
prosodic, 125, 455
semantic, 202, 242, 245, 446, 449
soft, 664–5
weighted, 50, 734, 736
construal
coreference, 524, 527, 531, 537, 540
first-order, 307
second-order, 307–8
Construction Grammar, see CG
constructions, 216–21, 239–43, 253–7, 262–4, 266–8, 271–6, 465–6, 475–6
causative, 183, 199
comparative, 465–7, 477–8, 480, 485, 487
existential, 494, 585
particle, 106, 108, 211–12, 223–9
passive, 187, 239–42, 247, 251–6, 276
possessive, 436, 440–1, 447–53, 456–7
raising, 234, 264–5, 268
raising-to-object, 231, 257, 273
raising-to-subject, 256–7, 264–5, 271
rare, 458–9
separable-particle, 105, 107–8, 216, 223–4, 227–8
construct-state expressions, 90, 94
content words, 135, 149–50, 172
contentful wh-phrases, 327–8, 330–2, 335
context-free grammars, 644, 651–2, 660–1
probabilistic, 651–2, 676
context-free languages, 650, 661
contexts, 17–19, 442–3, 485–7, 508–9, 513–15, 536–7, 616–20, 794–6
contrastive, 513, 534, 542
discourse, 173, 383, 463, 513–16, 529, 580
experimental, 331, 371–3, 377
modal, 377, 380
morphological, 114, 116, 121
non-finite, 401, 408
obligatory, 379, 394, 403, 422–4, 451, 457
syntactic, 158, 168, 174, 304, 508–9, 537, 570
contextual scales, 623–4
continuity, 203, 248, 343, 578, 614, 790
continuous speech, 133–53
interactions and combinations between segmentation cues, 150–2
segmentation cues at word level, 138–50
segmentation of prosodic units, 136–8
contradiction, 591, 613, 761, 814
contrastive contexts, 513, 534, 542
contrastive stress, 534
control, 106, 111, 270, 281–2, 290–4, 308–9, 579–80, 787
motor, 44, 50
non-obligatory, 292–3
obligatory, 293
structures, 269, 281, 291
verbs, 268–70
words, 144, 146, 149
control groups, 186, 443, 483, 756
adult, 554
age, 363–5
(p. 972) controllers, 281, 289, 292
convergence, 43, 50, 72, 74, 164, 640–4, 647, 652–3
approximate, 641–3, 650
converging evidence, 118, 168, 221
conversational implicatures, 475, 602, 613
co-occurrence, 33, 140–1, 433, 487, 672
Coopmans, P., 524, 530, 534–6, 538–9, 541–2, 544
coordination, gestural, 62
copula, 192, 281, 345, 349–50, 361, 373, 422
coreference, 313, 517–18, 520–5, 527–33, 535–7, 539, 541, 543
and binding, 523–5
construal, 524, 527, 531, 537, 540
pragmatic, 522, 524, 534
Coronal Backing, 793, 797, 799
coronal consonants, 33, 804
coronal stops, 63, 116, 119, 125, 794
coronals, 21, 54–6, 60, 63, 794–9, 804–5
corpora, 122, 168–9, 215, 218–22, 352, 381, 383, 433
longitudinal, 105–7, 215–16, 218, 220, 222, 224, 227
correct grammar, 512, 653, 668, 733
correct values, 697–8, 702, 708, 714, 722–3
correlations, 106, 108, 122–3, 224, 400–401, 422, 430, 775
genetic, 771, 775–80, 782
partial, 106, 108
co-twins, 773–4, 781
count nouns, 130, 571
counterexamples, 8, 93–4, 217, 433, 567, 598
covariance, 774–5
covert contrasts, 44, 59, 61–2, 797
covert movement, 262, 472–4, 476, 488–9
creativity, 91–2, 94, 105
cross-linguistic acquisition, 386, 546, 810
cross-linguistic data/evidence, 177, 249, 251, 256, 340, 385, 765, 768
cross-linguistic generalizations, 98, 162, 341, 423, 768
cross-linguistic variation
adnominal possession, 436–41, 454
adpositions and particles, 207
aspect, 587–94
clitics and strong pronouns, 530–4
compounding, 91–6
developmental disorders, 765–8
discjunction, 551–6
lexical and grammatical aspect, 592–4
prepositions and particles, 206, 209–12, 216, 223–4, 226–8
cues, 134–6, 138–9, 141, 146–7, 150–3, 507–8, 581, 668–9
allophonic, 135, 151
distributional, 128, 151, 497
linguistic, 134, 579, 595
phonotactic, 35–6, 135, 152
pragmatic, 570, 578, 585
prosodic, 81, 135–6
segmentation, 136, 138, 145, 150–1
statistical, 668, 670, 672
transitional probability, 669, 671
culmination, 110, 588, 591, 599, 601, 605–6
cumulative effects, 540, 735–6, 745
Cunningham, J., 541–2, 544
Curtin, S., 31, 70, 74, 140, 143, 151
CV outputs, 50, 52–3
cyclic movement, successive, 310, 326–7, 330, 333, 335–6, 339–40
Daelemans, W., 75–6, 707, 716–17
Dahl, Ö., 588, 592
Danish, 209, 211, 217, 392
data presentations, 640, 642–4, 647–8, 650–2, 654–5, 657–9, 661–2
computable, 642, 651, 653, 655, 657, 661
dative, 172–3, 208, 219, 290, 304, 422, 440, 447–9
alternation, 164, 170, 176
double-object, 164, 172, 174, 176
prepositional, 164, 171–2, 176
Davidson, L., 74, 361–2, 424
de Swart, H., 590, 593, 598, 605
deaf children, 299, 577, 586, 765
declarative sentences, 350, 698
declaratives, 252, 286, 314, 349–50, 395, 401, 652, 698
default operators, 573, 582–3
default values, 73, 392, 557–8, 713, 720–1, 723
defaultist accounts, 623–4
deficits, 22, 751–4, 767
auditory, 753–4, 784
cognitive, 751, 755
language, 753, 786, 788
defining properties, 285, 553, 648, 811
definite determiners, 571, 579, 603
definite plural generics, 571, 580
definite plurals, 561, 571, 575, 578–81
degree constructions, 463, 465–7, 469, 471, 473–7, 479, 481, 495–7
Delay of Principle B Effect, see DPBE
deletion, 44–5, 49, 51, 516–17, 800, 806, 812, 814
antecedent-contained, see ACD
final consonant, 799–800, 807
Demirdache, H., 303, 331, 590
demotion, 47–9, 57, 803, 805–7, 814
Demuth, K., 51, 53–4, 79–80, 83, 126, 170–1, 194, 250–3
denotation, 110, 161, 470–1, 487, 493, 504, 582, 589
deontic modality, 367–8, 370–5, 378–80, 384–5
dependencies, 281, 299, 539, 683, 763
non-adjacent, 670, 672
referential, 520–2, 527, 539, 543
derivational morphemes, 99, 101, 104, 360, 369
derivational suffixes, 94–5, 97, 104
derivations, 232, 234–6, 264–5, 332, 612, 614, 794–5, 799–800
economical, 214, 332
derived CG clusters, 59–61
derived word order, 441, 454, 456
determiner phrases, see DPs
determiners, 221, 445, 449, 503–5, 508, 570–2, 574–6, 579
definite, 571, 579, 603
nonconservative, 503–4
personal, 470
determinism, 705, 722
deterministic learning, 665, 722–3
deterministic triggering model, 698, 705
developmental data, 73, 76–7, 85, 612, 614, 628, 717–18, 722
developmental disorders, 751–70, 788
conditions under which language impairments occur, 752–8
cross-linguistic variation, 765–8
how language goes wrong, 758–68
questions, 751–2
work still to be done, 768–70
developmental linguistics, 1, 68, 747, 751
developmental psycholinguistics, 3, 23, 341–2, 355, 401, 408, 633–63, 695
developmental stages, 52–3, 167, 379, 423, 443, 453, 455, 457–8
developmental trajectories, 118, 142, 152, 792
deviant errors, 759–60
devices, 308, 374, 498, 653
morphological, 367, 370, 374, 378
devoicing, final, 118, 123, 129–30, 741, 793, 796–7
Di Sciullo, A. M., 532–4, 539–40
dialectic model, MacWhinney’s, 120–2
Diesing, M., 573, 584
Diessel, H., 291, 294–5
Dillon, B., 24–5, 676, 681–2
diminutives, 114–17, 450
Dionne, G., 779–81
direct negative evidence, 557
direct objects, 202, 211, 403, 533–4, 590, 592, 600–601, 603–4
directional prepositional phrases, 488, 496, 590, 592, 600
directionality, 390, 481
right-to-left, 54–5, 72–3
Dirichlet process, 680–1, 683
disabilities, 776, 780–2
language, 780–4, 788
disambiguation, triggers, 719–23
discourse context, 173, 383, 463, 513–16, 529, 580
discrimination, 14–15, 20, 37–8, 79, 499
abilities, 12–13, 37, 499, 796
disjoint reference, 334, 527
disjunction, 560–2, 564, 614–15
acquisition, 554–6
acquisition of scope, 556–8
Boolean disjunction in preschool English, 549–51
(p. 974) cross-linguistic variation and universality, 551–6
exclusive interpretation, 547–8, 550
interpretation, 506, 548, 550
negated, 550, 555–6, 558
operator, 550, 554, 561, 614–15
and semantic capacity, 558–61
semantics and pragmatics, 547–9
semantics of, 555, 564
disjunctive statements, 549, 551
disordered phonologies, 792, 807–8, 811, 813
disorders, 752, 754–6, 758–65, 767–9, 780, 783, 786, 790–3
developmental, 751–70, 788
language, 761–2, 776, 782–3
neurodevelopmental, 753
dissent, plausible, 528, 542
distributional analysis, 28, 146, 441, 454–6, 597
distributional cues, 128, 151, 497
distributional evidence, 59, 61, 680
distributional information, 36, 134–5, 138–9, 142, 145–7, 151, 178, 487
distributional properties, 150, 690
ditransitives, 158–9, 164, 238
diversity, 496, 693, 704, 706
cross-linguistic, 595, 610
domain-general learning mechanisms/strategies, 177, 358–9, 665–6, 668, 690
domain-general processes, 164, 668
domains, 283–4, 569, 573–4, 707, 709–11, 713, 715–17, 719–20
binding, 539, 544–5, 787
CoLAG, 711, 718–20, 722
conceptual, 568–9, 576
linguistic, 2–3, 429, 586, 638, 726, 747
smooth, 707–8, 719
domain-specificity, 666, 671, 788–9
Donaldson, M., 464, 478, 480
dorsal consonants, 803–4
double-accusative construction, 219–21, 223
double-object datives, 164, 172, 174, 176
Down Syndrome, see DS
DPBE (Delay of Principle B Effect), 520, 523–6, 528–34, 536–7, 539–40
as experimental artefact, 528–9
as incomplete acquisition, 525–6
as result of processing limitations, 526–8
DPBE, extra strong, 536–7, 540
DPs (determiner phrases), 216–17, 224–5, 227–8, 231–5, 272, 288–9, 438–41, 521
construction, 217–19, 221, 223, 227
Dresher, B.E., 19, 21, 73, 697, 705, 707–8, 721, 726
DS (Down Syndrome), 752–5, 758, 761–4, 768
dyslexia, 752–4, 769, 784–5, 787–8
EARH (External Argument Requirement Hypothesis), 263–4, 266
early grammars, 45–6, 50, 54, 66–7, 132, 313, 317, 407
Ebeling, K.S., 483–4
ECM sentences, 536–9
economical derivation, 214, 332
ECP (Empty Category Principle), 319, 325, 331
EDCD (Error-Driven Constraint Demotion), 729–33
Eisenbeiss, S., 250, 347, 357, 435, 439–40, 444–7, 449
Eisenberg, S., 291–3, 396, 402–3, 413
Eisner, J., 638, 725, 739
Elbert, M., 793, 799–800, 807
Elbourne, P., 524–6,