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date: 24 February 2020

(p. 721) Index of Subjects

(p. 721) Index of Subjects

Numbers in bold refer to illustrations, maps, and tables.

academies and similar institutions, 108–9, 131, 141, 162, 195–6, 267–8, 464, 663, 687
Act of Union (Anglo–Scottish Treaty, 1707), 655
Act of Union (British–Irish Union, 1801), 655
ancien régime, 161, 164, 247, 449, 469, 494–5, 546, 561, 580, 585, 615, 633, 639, 643, 658, 682, 688–9
art
ancient Rome as inspiration, 84
architecture, 81–2, 84, 86, 89, 95–8, 97, 102–3, 106–8, 107, 440, 619
Baroque period (1600–70), 99–105
books and manuscripts, 83
depiction of court culture, 463
depiction of the New World, 105, 197
drawing, 84, 98
engraving, 93, 94, 98, 109–10, 109
household objects, 106
Mannerism, 93, 95–6, 98
painting, 83, 84, 86–93, 87, 91, 95–6, 98–102, 99, 101, 102, 108–10, 113, 365, 463, 675
portraiture, 24, 86, 90–2, 91, 101–2, 105
religious themes, 81–4, 89–90, 92–6, 100
Renaissance period (1350–1600), 23–5, 81, 84–99
Rococo period (1670–1750), 106–10
sculpture, 81, 84–6, 85, 89, 95–6, 98, 102–4, 103, 463
tapestry, 82–3
woodcuts, 84, 93
works:
Arnolfini Portrait (Van Eyck), 90–2, 91
Brancacci Chapel frescos (Florence, Masaccio), 84
David (Donatello), 84–5, 85
David (Michelangelo), 89
Ecstasy of Saint Theresa (Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome, Bernini), 102–3, 103
Ghent Altarpiece (St. Bravo Church, Van Eyck), 90
Greenwich Hospital (later Royal Naval College, London, Wren), 107
Isenheim Altarpiece (Grünewald), 93
Judith and Holofernes (Caravaggio), 100–1, 101
Royal Palace (Amsterdam), 240
Scrovegni Chapel frescos (Padua, Giotto di Bondone), 82, 83
Sistine Chapel paintings (Rome, Michelangelo), 24, 89, 95
Surrender of Breda (Velázquez), 102
The Birth of Venus (Botticelli), 87–8, 87
The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (Dürer), 93–4, 94
The Madonna of the Long Neck (Parmigianino), 95
The Massacre of the Innocents (Bruegel the Elder), 99
The Rake’s Progress (Hogarth), 109–10, 109
The Triumphs of Caesar (Mantegna), 87
Villa Rotonda (Vicenza, Palladio), 97
astronomy, see science
Babington Plot (1586), 121
Black Death, 177–8, 284, 421, 468
Bourbon monarchy, see monarchy
Brahmanism, 268–9, 272
Buddhism, 266, 309, 346
(p. 722) Calvinism, 20, 40–1, 45, 47, 120–3, 148, 370–1, 373, 379, 462, 504, 516, 544, 642, 656, 683
Edict of Nantes (1598), 151
capitalism, 45, 181, 308, 328, 342–3, 519
Catholicism, 32, 41–3, 58, 106, 227, 271, 286, 301, 369–75, 378–9, 386–7, 392, 412, 460, 503–4, 506, 639, 642–4
Augustinianism, 154–5
Chinese Rites controversy, 267–8
conciliarism, 370, 385
global, 273
Great (Western) Schism (1378–1417), 361, 370
Holy League (1571), 256, 371, 373, 489, 568, 629–30
Index of Prohibited Books, 72–3, 163
Inquisitions, 10, 73, 79n42, 126, 217, 257, 489–90, 678
Jansenism, 155, 379, 497
Jesuits, 20, 149, 221, 223, 254–73, 264, 297–8, 328, 506
Knights of St. John, 592
Malabar Rites controversy, 269
martyrs, 122
natural law tradition, 34–6, 46–9
nuncios, 676
papal bulls, 50, 202, 208, 258, 269
papal curia, 20, 443
papal power/authority, 42, 357, 367–8, 370, 385
recusants/recusancy, 121–2
salvation narrative, 35, 42
Tridentine, 369
use of music in devotion, 117–23
chivalry/chivalric orders, 176, 181–2, 360, 362, 365, 368, 380, 464, 468, 482, 486, 573, 617
Order of the Garter, 450
Order of the Golden Fleece, 360, 366, 450
Order of the Holy Spirit, 182, 450
Christendom, 20, 49, 177, 182, 200, 613, 626, 639–40, 642, 645, 673
Christianity, 4–5, 11, 20–2, 118, 147–53, 266
bodily resurrection, 21
Book of Common Prayer, 429
canon law, 479, 492, 540
crusades/crusading, 202–3, 208, 257, 360, 364, 366, 370, 379, 513, 616, 642
divine creation, 14–15
doctrine of predestination, 544
immortality of the soul, 149
liturgical calendar, 460
liturgy, 83, 114, 118–19, 267, 270, 443
missionary activity, 180, 194, 202, 205, 208, 214, 221, 223, 254–73, 264, 336
morality of self-denial, 152
New Christians, 256–9, 274n20, 490
Old Christians, 257, 274n20
Original Sin, 16, 24, 84
reformers, 20
salvation, 21, 35, 42, 47, 151, 155, 380
Church councils
Council of Basel (1431–49), 361
Council of Constance (1414–16), 40, 361
Council of Florence (1439), 179, 386
Council of Trent (1545–63), 100, 120, 369
Church Fathers, 5, 21
classicism/classical studies, 6, 9–12, 14, 21, 24–6, 104, 106
coffee houses, 160–1
Confederation of Bar (1768–72), 548
Confucianism, 266–8, 272, 276n58, 348
Congress of Vienna (1814–15), 638, 657–8, 663, 682, 689
Cossacks, 404, 407–9, 428, 433, 572
Counter-Reformation, 20, 113, 120, 371, 378
diplomacy, 235, 241–3, 443, 449, 461–2, 482, 603, 623, 627–9, 633, 663–90
availability of paper, 672
clerics, 676, 685
codes and ciphers, 673
diplomatic precedence, 663, 674, 686
diplomatic society, 688–9
distribution of news, 672–3
dominance of French language, 684–5
duties of diplomats, 673–7
(p. 723) effect of war, 678–81
embassies as foreign soil and diplomatic immunity, 678–80
embassy chapels, 678–80, 683
etiquette and protocol, 686–7
foreign offices, 687–8
hierarchy and rank, 690
jurisdictional nature, 666
leapfrog diplomacy, 649–50
manuals and guides, 688, 690
marriage negotiations, 665, 667
merchant diplomats, 674–5
papal nuncios, 676
Peace of Westphalia (1648), 681–2
resident embassies, 667–73, 676–8, 680, 682–6
role of women, 664
social status of diplomats, 676–7, 685–6
translators, 628, 687
works:
De la manière de négocier avec les souverains (Callières), 688
De re diplomatica (Mabillon), 663
Discours sur l’art de négocier (Pecquet), 688
Il Segretario (Guarini), 675
Institutions politiques (von Bielfeld), 688
L’ambassadeur et ses fonctions (van Wicquefort), 688
Manuel diplomatique (Guide diplomatique) (von Martens), 690
The Messenger (Il Messaggiero) (Tasso), 675, 677
Domesday Book, 428
Dutch Reformed Church, 544
economics and economic thought
banking, 519–22, 527–8, 579
Physiocrats, 159, 504
political economy, 115, 158–60, 163–4, 292, 339, 342–3, 345
education
church, 112–13
civil service training, 506
educational reform, 506
elite, 123, 134, 456
humanist, 6–7, 9–10, 12–13, 15, 18, 20, 84, 265, 272, 675
literacy, 163, 506
Lutheran, 9, 506
military, 569–70, 583
missionary, 262, 270, 272, 289
pedagogy, 8, 506
primary, 347, 507
princely, 18
racial barriers, 290
secondary, 506
teacher training, 506–7
universal compulsory schooling, 506–7
university, 6–7, 9–10, 161–2, 292, 506
women and girls, 15–16, 270, 287–8, 619
elites
acceptance of monarch/ruler, 359, 376, 380, 386, 400, 552
aristocracy, 19, 37, 39–40, 213–14, 380, 486, 491, 494–7, 538–9, 542, 549, 676, 685
boyars (Russian aristocracy), 385–6, 397–401, 408, 413
Chinese, 182–3, 266–7, 341, 349
courtly marriage market, 442
creole, 222–3
education, 3, 6–7, 9–10, 12–13, 15, 18, 20, 84, 123, 134, 265, 272, 456, 492, 675
entertainment, 111, 113–16, 128–9, 443, 462
fidalgos (Portuguese nobles), 227
hierarchy, 287, 450, 468, 495–6
inherent superiority, 19
local/indigenous, 162, 205–6, 210, 216, 218, 245, 260–1, 269, 289, 349, 392, 624–5
manners, 19, 89–90, 380, 442
military prowess, 89
moral qualities, 19, 89–90
political, 34, 44, 47, 359, 376, 386, 573, 575, 615, 617, 619, 621, 625
slaveholding, 299
szlachta (Polish nobility), 388, 390, 400, 409–14, 547, 573
(p. 724) taxation, 347
virtues, 539, 549
wealth, 19, 89, 301, 404, 495
works:
De civilitate morum puerilium (Erasmus), 19
De nobilitate (Bracciolini), 19
Enlightenment period (late 17th–18th century), 4, 31, 141–65
Aufklärung, 141–3, 145, 504
critique of religion, 147–53
economic thought, 158–60
historical construction, 141–7
human nature and social progress, 153–60
les lumières, 141–5
modernity, 45, 141, 144, 146–7, 419, 421, 528–9
multiple contexts, 145–6
philosophes, 142, 144–6, 197
public sphere, 160–5
stadial theory, 158
works:
Candide (Voltaire), 263
Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire (Gibbon), 152–3, 158
Dictionnaire, historique et critique (Bayle), 149
Discours sur l’origine et les fondements de l’inégalité parmi les hommes (Rousseau), 157
Encyclopédie, ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des metiers (d’Alembert and Diderot), 141–2, 144, 162–3
Esprit des Lois (Montesquieu), 157, 513
Essai politique sur le commerce (Melon), 159
Essai sur les moeurs (Voltaire), 151, 158
Letter on Toleration (Locke), 151
Natural History of Religion (Hume), 152
Scienza Nuova (Vico), 150
TheologicalPolitical Treatise (Spinoza), 150
Theory of Moral Sentiments (Smith), 157
Traité sur la tolerance (Voltaire), 151–2
Wealth of Nations (Smith), 160, 163
What is Enlightenment? (Kant), 164
Euro–Asian connections and comparisons, 334–50
agrarian social order, 348
Chinese expeditions, 337–8
diplomatic relations, 346
intra-Asian political relations, 345–7
intra-Asian trade, 338–40
missionary activity, 336
trading relations with Europe, 336–7, 339–42, 344–5
European expansion and colonization, 49–53, 63–4, 67, 158, 173–97, 200–25, 204, 207, 224, 227, 229–31, 227–51, 281–3, 285–6, 288–94, 296–302, 337
acculturation, 283
agriculture, 204, 220, 222, 259, 290–3, 296–9, 323, 329
colonial societies, 280–303
concubinage, 288
(p. 725) conquistadors, 182, 188, 210, 212, 261, 288, 296, 488, 649
creolization, 283, 293, 300–1
cultural exchange and convergence, 173, 176, 271, 284
depopulation of indigenous populations, 284, 294
economic motivation, 178, 205–6, 310
emigration, 213, 220, 238, 287
encomienda system, 211, 214, 261–2, 296–7
estates and haciendas, 214
ethnic/racial segregation, 288–9
exploitation of natural resources, 64, 178, 183, 189, 196, 206, 219–20, 286–7, 293
forced labour, 284, 296–300, 326, 329
forced migration, 285
gender imbalance, 287, 289
global trade, 307–30
identity and patriotism, 225, 300–3
illegitimate children, 288, 290
indentured labour, 284–5, 296–8
intellectual motivation, 178–9, 181–3
intermarriage, 283, 289
introduction of disease, 173, 209–10, 284, 294
Jesuit reductions, 263–4, 264, 270
law and government, 280
legal codes, 214, 296, 299–300
missionary activity, 180, 194, 202, 205, 208, 214, 221, 223, 254–73, 264
mortality rates, 287
native rebellion, 265, 299, 301, 329
patriarchal society, 287
plantations, 204, 220, 222, 259, 290–1, 296–9, 323, 329
population growth, 286–7, 291, 297
racial taxonomy, 289–90, 300–1, 304n34
religious motivation, 180, 194, 202–5, 208, 254–73, 286–7
slavery, 154, 177, 179, 181, 189, 194, 205, 209, 213, 220, 222, 238, 264, 293, 295–300, 329
sumptuary laws, 293
universities, 292
urbanization and defence, 290–4
works:
A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies (Las Casas), 214
Geografía y Descripción Universal de las Indias (Velasco), 300
Natural and Moral History of the Indies (Acosta), 261
Treatise on Friendship Treatise on Friendship (Ricci), 266, 277n59
exploration, 25–6, 105, 173–97
impact of science, 191–6, 232–3, 310
influence of literature, 181–2
maps and charts, 180, 185, 187, 190–6, 232–3, 266
myth and legend, 193–5
navigation, 58, 61, 64, 67, 69, 72, 176–7, 180–1, 184–5, 187, 190–3, 231–3, 280, 605
patronage and investment, 182–3
pursuit of wealth, 188–9, 310
search for Northwest Passage, 189–90
technology, 180–1
wind systems and currents, 174–5, 180, 184–5, 187–8, 196, 232, 240
works:
Geography (Ptolemy), 178
Geography (Strabo), 179
famine, 407, 421, 427, 431, 496, 629
Fascism/Nazism, 6, 143–4
Freemasonry, 161
governance and government
authoritarianism, 143, 223, 263, 286, 369, 373, 397–8, 404, 414, 504
authority and power, 357–8, 361–3, 367–71, 374–8, 386, 388, 401, 464–8, 478–81
autocracy, 396–401, 504
body politic, 32–6, 38–9, 363, 372, 465, 552
(p. 726) cameralism, 159, 504
circle of justice, 624
citizenship, 36, 258, 396, 398–9, 422, 585
city-states, 337, 357, 425–6, 478, 481–8, 515–16, 519, 546, 593, 507
civic liberty, 18, 31, 43–5, 375
civitas (association of citizens), 32–3, 35–7, 155–6, 538, 540, 552
common good, 34–5, 37–9, 212, 464, 478–9, 503, 539–40
commonwealth/commonweal (respublica), 31–46, 48–51, 53, 393, 409, 548–9
constitutionalism, 37–45, 538–9, 541
democracy, 37, 418, 434, 542, 554n14
despotism, 157, 349, 397, 400, 406, 494–6, 500, 548, 551–3, 615, 640
doge (chief magistrate and leader of Venice), 44, 485, 538–9, 546
fiscal–military states and administration, 303, 479, 582–3, 605, 615, 633, 655
frontier politics, 625–7
great power politics, 638–58
institution of property, 38–9, 42, 44, 156–7, 551
justice and law, 479, 486–7
legitimacy of tyrannicide, 41, 44–5
liberum veto, 410, 413, 547–8, 573
mixed constitution, 37–8, 44
mixed government, 488, 539, 551
natural law theory, 31, 34–6, 45–9, 504
nepotism, 247, 625
participatory systems, 398, 480–1, 550, 655
paternalism, 49, 371, 504
patrimonialism, 397–8, 400, 479, 481, 497, 618–20, 623
political Europe, 354–5
political power (potestas), 35–45
polyarchy, 538–9, 546
prebendal land tenure system (Ottoman), 616, 620–1
public opinion, 164
reason of state, 34, 52, 164
republican architecture, 538–9
republics and republicanism, 3, 7, 17–18, 43–5, 301, 375, 488, 538–53, 554n11
special commissions (juntas), 492
stadhouder (Stadtholder) (office), 538–9, 544–6, 556n40
state debt, 512, 514, 519–29
state formation and state-building, 478–507
statocracy, 549
taxation and tax-raising power, 373, 376, 390, 402, 404, 424–5, 482, 486, 495, 503, 512–29, 575–6, 579, 604–5, 609, 616, 620, 623–6, 631–2
tax-farming, 429, 516–19, 534n88, 537n134, 620, 630–2
theocracy, 286, 370
totalitarianism, 6
tyranny, 33, 37–8, 40–1, 43–5, 540, 552, 640
universalism, 32, 35, 50, 158, 201, 361, 364, 367, 378, 481, 618–19, 629, 640, 651, 655–6, 658
virtue politics, 38–9
grammar and rhetoric, 6–7
Greco-Roman/classical tradition, 4–6
Greek language and texts, 5, 9, 11, 21–2, 30
Gunpowder Plot (1605), 42, 541
hagiography, 21
historiography, 8, 29
humanism
civic, 7, 16–20, 43–4, 538
conceptions and misconceptions, 4–5
counselling of princes, 164
critical analysis, 3
education, 6–7, 12–13, 15, 18, 20, 84, 675
Enlightenment conceptions of, 4
(p. 727) Erasmian, 10, 18, 21
historical contextualization, 3
human anthropology, 14–15
jurisprudence, 40
liberal arts (trivium and quadrivium), 6–7, 14
Oxford Reformers, 9
political thought, 38–9, 41, 45–53
regional differences, 9–10
religion and, 20–1
Renaissance period (1350–1650), 3–26
respublica litterarum (republic of letters), 13, 31
Romantic era conception of, 4–6
scribal publication, 3
secular, 4–5
studia humanitatis, 6–7, 12–15, 21–3
translation, 3, 5, 11, 22
vernacular, 10
women as intellectual and moral actors, 3, 15–16
iconography, 29
individualism, 3, 14, 45
Industrial Revolution, 341, 343, 601, 608
Islam/Muslims/Moors, 22, 147, 153, 176, 182, 203–4, 208–9, 211, 213, 256–9, 363, 612–13, 616–18, 620–4, 626, 628, 639, 642, 655
law (sharia), 622, 628
scholars, 59, 66, 68, 78n28
Jews/Judaism, 213, 256–9, 272, 300, 425, 504–5, 519, 522, 612, 621
Latin language and texts, 4–5, 11, 13, 15, 30–1
law
colonial law and government, 280
international relations, 346, 664, 671, 681–2
Islamic (sharia), 622, 628
judiciary, 32, 442
jurisprudence, 40, 51, 486
jurists, 47, 362, 486–7, 490, 492
law of nations, 41–2, 48–53
laws of succession, 359, 362, 371, 388, 413
legal codes, 214, 296, 299–300, 506
legal humanism, 40
Ottoman legal system, 624
Roman law, 5, 9, 40–2, 44, 47, 403, 479, 486, 492, 540, 626
Salic Law (ancient German law code adopted in early medieval Francia), 362, 371, 494, 540
sovereignty and, 32, 41
sultanic, 622
sumptuary laws, 293
laws
Act of Supremacy (1534), 367
General Law Code (Allgemeines Landrecht) of the Prussian States (1794), 548
Vagrancy Act (1597–98), 124
League of Armed Neutrality (1780), 654
League of Cambrai (1508), 484
liberalism, 45, 143, 146, 225, 497
libraries, 4–5, 10–11, 88, 97, 292
literary salons, 161
Little Ice Age (c.1300–c.1850), 177, 630
logic, 6–7, 13
Lollardy, 118
Lombard League, 17
Lutherans/Lutheranism, 9, 20, 47, 120–1, 123, 125, 379, 401, 465, 504, 517, 642
Augsburg Confession (Confessio Augustana, 1530), 369
Pietism, 380, 506
Schmalkaldic League (1531), 644, 653
marriage, 10, 12–13, 20
alliances and dynastic strategy, 18–19, 345, 347, 358, 409, 449, 454, 567, 617, 619, 642, 665, 667
elite, 442, 454, 685
in colonial society, 206, 283, 285–6, 288–9
works:
De re uxoria (Barbaro), 18–19
(p. 728) Marxism, 144, 146, 343, 418, 512
mathematics, 6–7, 59, 68, 87, 266, 270
Middle Ages (5th–15th century), 4
chivalric literature, 173, 181
clerical culture, 3
crusades, 202–3, 208, 257, 360, 364, 366, 370, 379, 513, 616, 642
fusion of classical and Christian tradition, 4–5
Islamic scholars, 59
political Europe, 354
pseudo-science, 58, 62
scribal culture, 11
Silk Road trade, 178
monarchy
authority and power, 357–8, 361–3, 367–71, 374–8, 386, 388, 401, 464–8
autocratic, 396–401
Bourbon, 128, 142, 222–3, 301, 378, 381, 443, 461, 495, 580, 582, 606, 648, 650, 652, 657, 666, 685, 689
Castilian, 358, 363–4
centralized, 31, 419, 546, 576
composite, 201, 217, 359, 364, 373–4, 386, 457, 478, 488–93, 642, 666
constitutional, 33, 40
constraints on power, 357, 372, 386, 398, 403, 407, 495, 541, 550
contractual, 363, 376
coronations, 363, 370, 448, 460–1
Council of the Indies, 217
Danish, 401–3
divine right theory, 42, 371, 375, 540
dynastic power, 358–62, 367–8, 468
Exclusion Crisis (1678–81), 373, 379
identity and legitimacy, 360, 362
laws of succession, 359, 362, 371, 388, 413
legitimacy of monarchical government, 37–45
military model, 380
miraculous healing, 362–3, 378, 460–2
Muscovite, 389, 396–401, 407–9
Northern and Eastern European, 385–414, 389, 395
Oath of Allegiance, 42
origins of royal power, 42–3
patriarchalism, 43
patriotism, 381
personal rule, 466, 495, 503, 520, 687
Polish, 388, 390
Polish–Lithuanian, 391–401, 395, 409–14
Portuguese, 200–25
primogeniture, 359, 387–8, 398
projection and visibility, 462
regicide, 371, 373–5, 541, 548
rituals and theatre of power, 377–9
royal absenteeism, 201, 364–5, 457
royal mistresses, 425, 448, 467–8
royal supremacy, 367–8
sacral authority, 362–3, 370–1, 377–8
Scandinavian and Baltic, 386–91, 387, 401–7
Swedish, 403–7
two bodies doctrine, 363, 372
tyranny, 33, 44–5, 540
Union of Lublin (1569), 395, 547
Union of the Crowns of Castile and Aragon (1469), 201, 203, 367, 488, 599
Union of the Crowns of Spain and Portugal (1580–1640), 201, 206, 220–1
‘universal’, 50, 158, 201, 364, 367, 378, 651, 655–6
Western and Central European, 357–81
see also royal courts
monasticism
convents, 15, 288
dissolution of the monasteries in England (1536–41), 429
Dominican order, 214, 216, 268
Franciscan order, 47, 195, 216, 262 268, 270
(p. 729) monasteries, 368
scribal culture, 4–5, 11
Ursuline order, 288
music, 111–37
authenticity, 112
ballads, 114–15
bawdy songs, 112
choirs, 112, 114
church bells, 112
court patronage, 113
devotional lyrics (laude), 20
early music movement, 111
elite entertainment, 111, 123–32
elite vs. popular culture, 113–17, 137n5
employment and patronage, 123–8
guilds, 115–16
improvisation, 114
madrigal, 127
masques, 128
minstrels, 112, 124
musical careers, 131–2
musical notation, 111, 133, 139n27
musical theory, 133–4
musical training, 112–13, 115–16, 134, 137n4
national characteristics, 133–4
opera, 127–32
oratorio, 131, 139n24
organs/organ music, 112, 120
performance context, 111–12
polyphony, 118–20, 127
popular entertainment, 111, 113–17
printed music, 135–6, 139n29
religious worship, 111–12, 117–23, 133–4, 139n24
women performers, 116, 130, 132–3
works:
Dafne (Schütz), 129
Gloria tibi Trinitas (Taverner), 119
L’Orfeo (Monteverdi), 127
Madrigals of War and Love (Monteverdi), 127
Magic Flute (Mozart), 135
Marriage of Figaro (Mozart), 130
Rinaldo (Handel), 127
The Beggar’s Opera (Gay), 115
The English Dancing Master (Playford), 115
natural law and natural rights, 31, 35–6, 45–9, 51–3, 156–7, 161, 399, 403, 405, 407, 409, 414, 494, 504, 540, 680
natural philosophy, see science
natural religion, 149
pagan gods, 11, 100
paganism, 149, 268–9, 272
philosophical schools/movements
Aristotelian, 3, 5–6, 22, 31, 35–6, 48, 57, 60–1, 65, 68–75, 212, 214, 551
Cartesian, 142
Enlightenment, 141–65
Epicureanism, 21–2, 46, 154–7
Hermetic, 3, 22
Idealism, 143
Jansenism, 155
Kabbalistic, 22
Kantian, 142
Neoplatonism, 22
occult, 3, 22
Platonist, 3, 141
scholasticism, 5–6, 22, 31, 35–6, 39–43, 46–8, 51, 158, 680
Spinozism, 148
Stoicism, 9, 22, 47, 53, 70, 154–6
Thomist, 212
philosophy
conceptions of human nature and society, 153–60
ethics and morality, 153, 156–7
human sociability, 155–8
language, 155
language games, 29–30, 146
light equated with understanding, 141
monist metaphysics, 148
moral philosophy, 7, 21–3
philosopher-kings, 164
problem of evil, 149
reason and the passions, 154–5
university curricula, 6–7
works:
Ethics (Spinoza), 149
Nicomachean Ethics (Aristotle), 22
Politics (Aristotle), 22, 34, 538, 540, 551, 538, 553n1
(p. 730) Theologia platonica (Marsilio Ficino), 21–2
TheologicalPolitical Treatise (Spinoza), 150
piracy, 181, 185, 239, 282, 295, 591, 594, 603
corsairs, 293, 300, 592, 596
poetry, 7, 22, 117, 127–8, 132, 152, 270
political language, 29–31, 40
political theory, 9–10, 17–18, 29–53
Aristotelian, 22, 31, 33–8, 48, 212, 214, 538, 549, 551
Frankfurt School, 146
Grotian, 36, 47–8, 51–2, 155, 552, 680–1
Hobbesian, 36, 46, 48, 52, 549–52
Lockean, 43, 45–6, 48–9, 51–2, 151, 156
Machiavellian, 34, 38, 44, 52, 549–50
social contract theory, 48–9
works:
De cive (Hobbes), 36, 52, 155
De Iure Belli ac Pacis (Grotius), 36, 47, 51, 552
De republica (Arnisaeus), 33–4
Der Teutschen Fürsten-Staat (von Seckendorff), 503
Discourses (Machiavelli), 18, 44, 52
Elements of Law (Hobbes), 551–2
History of Florence (Machiavelli), 539
Interest van Holland (De La Court brothers), 539, 545
Les Six Livres de la République (Bodin), 32, 371, 553n1
Leviathan (Hobbes), 36, 52, 155, 550
Politics (Aristotle), 22, 34, 538, 540, 551, 538, 553n1
The Commonwealth of Oceana (Harrington), 45, 539, 554n10
The Prince (Machiavelli), 18, 34, 44, 52
Two Treatises of Government (Locke), 42, 45–9
Utopia (More), 9, 38
popular protest and resistance, 214, 265, 301, 329, 418–34, 435n12, 679
anti-corruption activity, 423
Brugse Metten (1302), 421
Ciompi revolt (1378–82), 421–2, 424–6, 431–2
class power imbalance, 431–3
Croquant and Nu-Pieds tax rebellions, 420, 428
enclosure riots, 429
English Peasants’ Revolt (1381), 421–2, 424–5, 432
food riots, 419, 421, 427, 429, 435n12
German Peasants’ War (1524–6), 426, 430, 433
Jacquerie rebellion (1358), 421, 424–5, 433
leadership, 423–5, 427–8, 437n38
Pilgrimage of Grace (1536), 427, 429
popolo of Pavia (1356/1358), 423–4
pre-modern vs. modern distinction, 418–22, 425–6, 430–1, 434
radical intellectuals, 428–9, 437n44, 549
reprisal and repression, 432–4
role of women, 419–22, 429–30, 435n5
Sienese revolt (1355), 422
slave rebellion, 299
strikes, 286, 370, 419–20
tax rebellions, 420, 422–3, 428–30
poverty, 10, 17, 47, 160, 272, 421, 433
charitable organizations, 20, 520, 527
poor houses, 290
poor relief, 19–20, 506
Presbyterianism, 375
print culture, 11–12, 30, 162–3, 292, 672–3
Protestantism, 32, 41–3, 367–75, 379–80, 460, 490, 506, 568, 642
Huguenots, 32, 41, 370, 379, 654, 678
liturgical tradition, 120
natural law tradition, 35–6, 41–2, 45–9, 51–3, 156
see also Christianity; Reformation; and individual denominations
public sphere, 146–7, 153, 160–5, 398, 641
Puritanism, 20, 286–7, 427
racial thinking, 154
Reformation, 8–9, 31, 72, 118–23, 125, 282, 367–8, 372, 460, 513, 542–3, 674, 676
religion
absolute vs. ordained/ordinary power (potestas absoluta vs. ordinata), 41–2
alumbrados (Spanish mystics), 257
ecclesiastical power, 35, 39–40
toleration and religious freedom, 147–8, 150–2, 370–1, 374, 504–5, 544–5, 547
works:
Bibliotheca Selecta (Possevino), 256–7
De procuranda Indorum salute (Acosta), 262
Letter on Toleration (Locke), 151
Spiritual Exercises (Loyola), 254–5, 271
The Christian Soldier (Possevino), 257
The True Meaning of the Lord of Heaven (Ricci), 266
Traité sur la tolerance (Voltaire), 151–2
see also theology
Renaissance period (1350–1650), 3–26, 481–8
Restoration period in England (1660–1688), 126, 128, 133, 375, 527, 545
rhetoric, 6–7, 11, 13, 29, 117, 270
royal courts, 9, 61, 125, 440–69, 441, 450, 452–53, 496
architectural features, 440
ceremony, spectacle, and ritual, 443, 445, 447, 460–3
competition and rivalry, 449
diplomats and diplomacy, 443, 461–2
effect on local economy and society, 458–60
favourites and factions, 466–8, 491–3
hierarchy, 441–2, 450, 463, 468
household staff, 441–2, 441, 449–54, 456–9
literary writings and memoirs, 447–8
manners and behaviour, 442, 462–3
patronage of the arts, 86–90, 92, 101–2, 108–9, 368–9, 444, 463–4
patronage of science, 463
patrons and clients, 444–7, 457, 464–8
political functions, 446–54, 464–8
political officeholders, 442, 449–54
role of women, 455–6, 466–7
size and expenditure, 448–57, 450, 452–53, 472n23, 473n32, 494–5
sovereign power and justice, 440
works:
Characters (La Bruyère), 442
The Book of the Courtier (Castiglione), 89–90, 442, 447, 467
Russian Orthodox Church, 117–18, 385–6
Saint Bartholomew’s massacre (1572), 370
science, 3, 23, 56–77
alchemy, 57–9, 61–3, 77, 463
Aristotelian, 57, 60–1, 65, 68–75
artisanal culture, 61
astrology, 58–9, 66–9, 72, 77, 182, 463
astronomy and cosmology, 6–7, 23, 46, 56–77, 79n34, 79n38, 79n48, 182, 192–3, 266–7, 341
biology, 59
Boyle’s Law, 61
Cartesian, 73–6, 80n51
contribution of women, 63
Copernican, 66–73
cultural context, 58
effect of exploration and new discoveries, 176
Eurocentrism, 59
experimental methods, 60–4
Galilean, 71–6
geocentrism vs. heliocentrism, 23, 64–77
historiography of science, 56–60
Islamic scholars, 59, 66, 68, 78n28
Kepler’s laws of planetary motion, 70–1
medicine, 62–4
natural history, 58–9
natural philosophy, 59
Newtonian, 57, 75–6
Paracelsian, 62–3
Ptolemaic, 65–70, 72
Scientific Revolution, 56–77, 134
Stoic, 70
Tychonic, 69–72
works:
Almagest (Ptolemy), 66
Commentariolus (Copernicus), 67
De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (Copernicus), 23, 65, 68–9, 72, 79n38
Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (Principia) (Newton), 65, 76
New Astronomy (Kepler), 70–1
The Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems (Galileo), 72–3
The Starry Messenger (Galileo), 71
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Kuhn), 57–8
Two New Sciences (Due Nuove Scienze) (Galileo), 59
slavery, 154, 177, 179, 181, 189, 194, 205, 209, 213, 220, 222, 238, 264, 293, 295–300, 329, 594, 606, 657
socialism, 23, 146
Socinianism, 147–8
sovereignty, 10, 21, 29–53, 153, 179, 507n1, 626, 640, 664
control of the military, 573, 575–82
exercise of, 281, 285–6, 516
indivisibility, 32, 409, 494
natural borders, 652
papal recognition, 208
power to declare war, 32
power to legislate, 32
reversion to the people, 301
shared, 528, 541–2, 544
state-building and state formation, 367, 431, 480–1, 483, 487, 495, 499, 503, 528
territorial integrity, 626, 633, 640
universal, 618
works:
Les Six Livres de la République (Bodin), 32, 371, 553n1
theology, 5–7, 16, 21–3, 42, 47–8, 50–1, 65, 148, 153, 155, 254, 256, 272, 372, 377, 398
biblical commentary/interpretation, 66, 71–3, 148–50
trade, 158–60, 183–90, 201, 200–25, 238, 284, 286–7, 291–3, 295–6
cacao, 293, 327
caravels, 308–9, 598
coffee, 243, 307, 322, 327
commodities, 322–8
competition, 247–8, 318–20, 339
copper, 239, 241, 245–6
diplomatic relations, 241–3
East Indies, 227–51, 244, 280–1
fur and skins, 195, 245–6, 271, 284, 294
globalization, 186, 228, 230–1, 281, 307–30
joint-stock companies, 228–35, 286, 319–20, 322, 328
mercantilism, 223, 228, 285, 293, 301–2, 308, 337, 339, 505, 608
monopsony, 241, 247
Navigation Acts, 293
porcelain and pottery, 231, 237, 245, 248, 310, 322, 326, 336–7, 339–42, 344
regulation, 308, 315, 318–25
rhubarb, 323, 327
Silk Roads, 178, 308, 310–12, 312–13, 321, 327
slaves, 154, 177, 179, 181, 194, 205, 209, 220, 222, 281, 293, 295–300, 329, 618, 657
smuggling, 321
tea and yerba maté, 230, 236, 248, 264, 321–3, 326–8, 341
thalassocracy, 235, 240–1
tobacco, 287, 293, 297, 322–6
wind systems, 174–5, 187
works:
An Essay on the Navy and Commerce (Boureau-Deslandes), 328
Counterblaste to Tobacco (James VI and I), 323
Observations on the United Provinces (Temple), 230
Treatise touching the Importation of Tobacco out of Spaine (Bennett), 323
treaties and peace settlements
Aix La Chapelle (1748), 657, 682
Altranstädt (1706), 412
Amasya (1555), 623
(p. 733) Augsburg (1555), 656
Basel (1795), 653
Belgrade (1739), 628
Campo Formio (1797), 547
Cateau Cambrésis (1559), 488
Hanover (1725), 654
Hubertusburg (1763), 657
Karlowitz (1699), 626, 628–9
Lodi (1454), 482, 484
Münster (1648), 499
Nijmegen (1678–79), 454
Oliva (1660), 502
Osnabrück (1648), 499
Passarowitz (1718), 628
Passau (1552), 369
Pyrenees (1659), 454
Stolbovo (1617), 324
Teschen (1779), 652, 682
Thorn (1466), 547
Tordesillas (1494), 50, 202, 204, 265, 281
Utrecht (1713), 222–3, 657, 682
Vienna (1725), 652
Westphalia (1648), 104, 235, 345–7, 449, 499–500, 656, 681–2
Zsitvatorok (1606), 627
Zuhab (1639), 623
universities, see education
war/warfare
border disputes, 625–7
camp followers, 577
cannon, 280, 563–4, 566, 578, 593, 596–7, 600
cavalry forces, 561–3, 565, 568, 571–5, 581, 616, 618, 620–1, 623–4
civil war, 32, 40, 44–5, 49, 51, 121, 124, 158, 267, 301, 370–1, 375, 388, 393, 396, 410, 425, 548–9, 551, 568, 572, 616–17, 656, 678
commoners, 561, 563, 569–70, 581, 630–1
confessional, 32, 51, 369–75, 378–80, 489, 568, 571, 591, 639, 642–4, 656, 658, 678–9
economic effects, 344, 630
fortresses, 247, 250, 280, 485, 563–7, 571–2, 594, 619
galleys, 592–5, 610n5
gaza (holy war), 617, 626
great power rivalry and conflict, 500, 545, 580, 613, 622–3, 629, 638–58
gunpowder weaponry, 89, 98, 561–6, 571, 591–2, 596–7, 609n2
infantry battle formation, 581
international power politics, 571, 602–9, 609n2
Janissaries, 563, 569, 574, 589n68, 616, 621, 630–1
just war theory, 51–3, 213, 641, 680–1
land forces, 561–85
Landsknecht forces, 563, 568–9, 576
levée en masse, 585
magazine system of supply, 577, 648
maritime prize law, 603
mercenaries, 205, 281, 364, 446, 482, 501, 503, 563, 566, 569–70, 574–9, 582, 584
merchant vessels, 593–4, 598–600
merit-based promotion, 585
military academies, 583
military manuals, 569
military revolution, 562, 566–7, 592
naval bases and dockyards, 607–8
naval battle formation, 600–1
naval forces, 310, 580, 591–609, 618, 621, 623, 648, 652
naval institutions and administration, 602–9
naval slave and convict labour, 594, 606
New Model Army (Oliver Cromwell), 570
officer ranks, 569–70, 583, 585, 605
press-gangs, 582, 606
privateering, 219, 591, 599, 603–4, 606, 649
professionalism, 580–1, 583, 603–8
recruitment/conscription, 561, 574–5, 578, 582, 585, 606–7, 630–1
regional differences, 571–2
revolutionary era (1792–1815), 584–5
role of the nobility, 561, 570, 573–4, 576, 583
Royal Navy (Britain), 644
sailing ships, 596–9
siege warfare, 563–5, 572, 581, 595–6
small war (Kleinkrieg), 572, 581
(p. 734) Spanish Armada (1588), 121, 489, 493, 597, 599
standing armies, 561, 580–4, 621, 630, 633
state sovereignty, 32, 51–3, 566, 578–82, 584, 603
Swiss cantonal forces, 563
Venetian Arsenal shipyards, 593–4, 598–9
wars and battles
American War of Independence (1775–83/4), 292, 299, 545, 649, 657
Anglo–Dutch wars (17th–18th centuries), 230, 234, 247–50, 544–5, 600–3
battles
Agnadello (1509), 484, 486, 488, 546
Agincourt (1415), 359
Chesmé (1770), 608
Courtrai (1302), 562
Kircholm (1605), 571
Lepanto (1571), 256–7, 489, 593–4, 623, 648
Marignano (1515), 575
Mohacs (1526), 645
Morbegno (1531), 575
Scheveningen (Ter Heide) (1653), 601
Trafalgar (1805), 608–9
Waterloo (1815), 609
White Mountain (1620), 526
Dutch Revolt (1566–1648), 235, 367, 371, 491, 513, 568, 591, 599, 623
Dutch War (1672–9), 682
English Civil Wars (1642–46; 1648–9; 1649–51), 320, 374–5
French Revolution (1792–99), 142, 144–5, 225, 418–19, 421, 434, 443, 468, 478, 546, 552, 562, 580, 584–5, 639, 643, 647–8, 652–4, 657–8, 685, 689
French Wars of Religion (1562–98), 32, 51, 370, 372, 489, 568, 591, 670
Fronde Rebellion (1648–53), 129, 374, 452, 495, 498, 574
Glorious Revolution (1688), 40, 230, 347, 518, 527, 541
Hundred Years War (1337–1453), 358, 362, 564, 655, 667
Hussite Rebellion (1419–36), 360–1, 426–8
Italian Wars (1494–1559), 482, 488, 567, 638, 670
Livonian War (1558–83), 568
Long Turkish War (1593–1606), 578, 628
Napoleonic Wars (1803–15), 248, 251, 302, 607, 639, 647–8, 650, 652–5, 674
Nine Years War, see War of the League of Augsburg
Northern Wars (1558–1721), 396, 401, 405, 408, 568, 580, 595, 604, 639
Revolutionary Wars (1792–1815), 584–5, 647–8, 650, 652–4
Russo–Ottoman War (1768–74), 632–3
Seven Years War (1756–63), 223, 285, 294, 300, 302, 413, 503, 580–1, 639, 642, 652, 654, 657
Silesian Wars (1740–2 and 1744–5), 580
Smolensk War (1632–34), 574
Thirteen Years War (1654–67), 408, 564, 570
Thirty Years War (1618–48), 125, 347, 375, 378, 402–4, 498, 500, 526, 567–8, 570–2, 578–80, 628, 638, 642, 644, 647, 653–4, 656, 681, 683
War of Spanish Succession (1701–14), 378, 454, 505, 545, 580, 582, 639, 683, 688
War of the Austrian Succession (1740–48), 375, 380, 528, 545, 580, 639
War of the Bavarian Succession (1778–79), 682
War of the League of Augsburg (1688–97), 454, 512, 517, 649, 654
War of the Polish Succession (1733–8), 580, 639
Wars of the Roses (1455–85), 368
wealth, 82, 104, 126, 131, 160, 173, 176, 182, 194, 214, 219, 222, 286, 292, 328, 336–7, 342, 349, 433, 504, 575–6, 613, 621, 683, 685
avarice, 19, 263
banking, 519–22, 527–8
elite, 19, 89, 378, 442, 499
princely, 123
private property, 38–9, 42, 47, 50, 153, 156–8, 258, 284, 287, 299, 494, 497, 551
tax-farming, 429, 516–19, 534n88, 537n134, 620, 630–2
works:
(p. 735) De avaritia (Bracciolini), 19
De subventione pauperum (Vives), 19–20
Essai politique sur le commerce (Melon), 159
Wealth of Nations (Smith), 160, 163, 342
see also trade
women
Bluestockings, 164
camp followers, 577
concubinage, 288
devotional practices, 83
education, 15–16, 287–8, 619
experience in colonial society, 287
humanism and, 3, 8, 10, 15–16
intellectual and moral actors, 3, 15–16, 164
maternal role in nobility, 19
misogyny, 15–16
musical performers, 116, 130, 132–3
prostitutes, 577
radical thinkers, 164
role in court life, 455–6, 466–7
role in diplomacy, 664
role in popular resistance, 419–22, 429–30, 435n5
role in science, 58, 63
salonnières, 161
writers and readers, 16, 163–4
Zoroastrianism, 309
Zwinglian theology, 20