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date: 24 February 2020

(p. 697) Index of Names and Places

(p. 697) Index of Names and Places

Numbers in bold refer to illustrations, maps, and tables.

Abbas I, Shah (King) of Iran (Persia) (1571–1629), 324, 623
Aberdeen, 145
Académie française, 663
Académie politique, 687
Academy of Dijon, 162
Academy of Painting and Sculpture (Paris), 108–9
Acapulco, 219
Acosta, José de (1540–1600), 261–2
Adam and Eve, 16, 24, 43, 84
Addison, Joseph (1672–1719), 161
Adorno, Theodor (1903–1969), 143, 146
Agricola, Rudolf (c.1443–1485), 9
Alarcón, Hernando de (fl. early/mid 16th century), 190
Alba, Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of (1507–1582), 491, 543
Alberti, Leon Battista (1404–1472), 24–5, 86
Albrecht of Mecklenburg, King of Sweden (c.1338–1412), 387
Albuquerque, Afonso de (1453–1515), 206
al-Din al-Tusi, Nasir (d. 1274), 68
Aleni, Giulio (1582–1649), 267
Alexander VI (Roderic Llançol i de Borja), Pope (1431–1503), 208
Alexander the Great, King of Macedon (356–323 bc), 377
Alexandria, 185
Alfonso II d’Este, Duke of Ferrara (1533–1597), 132
Alfonso XI, King of Castile (1311–1350), 358, 363
Alhambra palace (Granada), 98
Allen, Robert C., 344
Allen, William (1532–1594), 34–5
Almain, Jacques (c.1480–1515), 39, 43
Almeida, Francisco de (1450–1510), 206
Alsace, 365
al-Shatir, Ibn (1304–1375), 68
Althusius, Johannes (c.1563–1638), 554n14
Amaru, Túpac, ruler of Peru (1545–1572), 260
Ambon, 236
Amsterdam, 123, 131, 230–1, 233–4, 236, 240, 248, 250, 535n107, 544
Anchieta, José de (1534–1597), 259–60
Andalusia, 208
Angola, 194, 221, 283, 285, 303
Anna of Saxony, Countess (1532–1585), 63
Anne of Austria, regent of France (1601–1666), 374, 455, 467, 495
Anne, Queen of Great Britain (1665–1714), 453, 473n32, 642, 645
Antarctica, 187
Antilles, 208–10, 214, 290, 296
Antipodes, 179
Antony, Mark (83–30 bc), 11
Antwerp, 101, 231–2, 234, 364, 432, 523, 527, 543
Appalachian mountains, 194
Aquinas, Thomas, Saint (1225–1274), 35, 39, 46, 72, 143
Arabia, 151
Arctic, 196–7
(p. 698) Arezzo, 17, 87
Argentina, 263, 293, 328
Aristides, Aelius (117–181 ce), 17
Aristotle (384–322 bc), 5, 10, 12, 22, 33, 37, 65, 73, 134, 155, 538–40, 549, 551
Arizona, 195
Arkhangel’sk, 319–20
Arminius, Jacobus (1560–1609), 544
Arnisaeus, Henning (1570–1636), 33–5
Artusi, Giovanni Maria (c.1540–1613), 127
Ascham, Roger (1515–1568), 9
Astrakhan, 320, 400
Athens, 17
Augsburg, 230, 362, 364–5, 424, 488, 522, 525, 656
Augustine, Saint (354–430), 21, 51, 72, 134
Augustus II, Elector of Saxony and King of Poland (1670–1733), 412
Augustus III, Elector of Saxony and King of Poland (1696–1763), 412–13, 547
Aurelius, Marcus (121–180 ad), 50
Australia, 187, 193, 196, 233, 240, 285, 311
Austria, 106, 144, 364, 366, 374, 427, 480, 505, 517, 547, 570, 572, 590n82, 604, 628, 645, 652, 654, 657, 688
Avercamp, Hendrick (c.1585–1634), 104
Avignon, 482, 667
Azores, 177, 179, 181, 204, 283, 329
Aztec empire, see Index of Subjects: empire
Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel (1714–1788), 126, 131, 134
Bach, Johann Sebastian (1685–1750), 120, 126, 135
Bacon, Francis (1561–1626), 25, 64, 141
Baden, 504, 653
Baffin, William (c.1584–1621), 190
Bahamas, 302
Baja (‘Lower’) California, 263
Balboa, Vasco Núñez de (1475–1519), 188, 190, 209
Banda Islands (Indonesia), 238, 242
Banister, John (1630–1679), 131
Bank of Amsterdam, 529
Bank of England (London), 528–9, 579
Banqueting House (London), 128
Bantam (West Java), 231, 235, 237, 242
Barbados, 282, 296, 298
Barbaro, Ermolao (1453/4–1492), 12–13
Barbaro, Francesco (1390–1454), 18–19
Barbeyrac, Jean (1674–1744), 156
Barbiche, Bernard, 495
Barbon, Nicholas (c.1640–c.1698), 159
Barbot, Jean (1655–1712), 194
Barcelona, 618
Baron, Hans, 6–9, 553
Barrera-Osorio, Antonio, 63
Barret, Robert (fl. 1600), 561
Barrios, Feliciano, 489
Barruel, Augustin, Abbé (1741–1820), 142
Basle, 542
Basque country, 162, 180, 257
Batavia (present-day Jakarta; capital of early modern Dutch East Indies), 237–8, 240, 242–9, 280, 311, 315
Batavian Republic, 251, 546
Bavaria, 106, 501, 515, 517, 525–6, 641, 653, 666, 681
Bayezid I, Ottoman sultan (1360–1403), 616
Bayle, Pierre (1647–1706), 149–51, 156
Beaumarchais, Pierre (1732–1799), 130
Becker, Balthasar (1634–1698), 149
Beethoven, Ludwig van (1779–1827), 135–6
Beijing (Peking), 265–7, 269, 315
Beik, William, 430–2, 496
Belgium, 82, 367, 505
Belgrade, 626, 628–9, 645, 682
Bellarmine, Robert (1542–1621), 42
Bellini, Gentile (c.1429–1507), 88
Bellini, Giovanni (c.1430–1516), 88, 96
Bellini, Jacopo (c.1400–1470), 88
Benedict XIII (Pietro Francesco Orsini), Pope (1649–1730), 269
Benedict XIV (Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini), Pope (1675–1758), 163, 269
Bengal, 245–7
Bennett, Edward (1577–c.1651), 323
Bercé, Yves-Marie, 420, 427–8, 431
(p. 699) Bering, Vitus (1681–1741), 194
Berlin, 162
Berlin, Isaiah, 143
Berlin Wall, 146
Bernini, Gian Lorenzo (1598–1680), 102–4, 103
Besold, Christoph (1577–1638), 552
Biber, Heinrich (1644–1704), 134
Biblioteca Corviniana (Hungary), 10
Bielfeld, Friedrich von (1717–1770), 688
Binchois, Gilles (1400–1460), 119
Black, Jeremy, 567
Blaeu, Johan (1596–1673), 232
Blake, Robert (1598–1657), 222
Blundeville, Thomas (1522–1606), 192
Boccaccio, Giovanni (1313–1375), 11
Bodin, Jean (1530–1596), 9–10, 32–3, 35, 46, 371, 479, 494, 553n1
Bohemia, 10, 118, 183, 359–62, 365, 370, 374, 388, 396, 428, 457, 488, 500, 505, 517, 525–6, 547, 552, 641, 645, 651
Bohstedt, John, 419
Boldt, Hans, 501
Bolesław the Wrymouth, Prince of Poland (1086–1138), 388
Bolivia, 188, 322, 521
Bologna, 100, 129, 369, 423, 524, 629
Bombay, 286
Boone, Marc, 420, 426
Bordeaux, 374, 430
Borja, Francisco de (1441–1511), 258
Bosch, Hieronymus (c.1450–1516), 92, 113
Boston, 299
Botany Bay, 285
Botero, Giovanni (c.1544–1617), 34, 458
Both, Pieter (1568–1615), 236
Botticelli, Sandro (1445–1510), 87–8, 87
Boucher, François (1703–1770), 108
Bougainville, Louis-Antoine, Comte de (1729–1811), 197
Boulanger, Nicholas-Antoine (1722–1759), 152
Boulle, André-Charles (1642–1732), 106
Boureau-Deslandes, André-François (1689–1757), 328
Bourne, William (c.1535–1582), 191
Boxhorn, Zuerius (1612–1653), 539, 549
Boyle, Robert (1627–1691), 61
Braam, Jacob Pieter van (1737–1803), 250
Bracciolini, Poggio (1380–1459), 19
Braganza dynasty, 302
Brahe, Tycho (1546–1601), 61, 69–71, 74, 463
Bramante, Donato (1444–1514), 89
Brancacci Chapel (Florence), 84
Brandenburg, 230, 359, 404, 410, 502, 641, 646
Brandenburg–Prussia, 480, 501, 503–4, 548, 575, 579, 638, 646, 655, 681
see also Brandenburg
Braudel, Fernand, 230, 334
Brébeuf, Jean de (1593–1649), 270–1
Brendan, Saint (c.484–c.577), 181
Brest, 594, 607
Brissot, Jacques Pierre (1754–1793), 643
Bristol Society of Merchant Adventurers, 319
British Board of Longitude, 193
Brittany, 517, 564, 602
Brouwer, Hendrick (1581–1643), 233, 241
Brueghel, Pieter, the Elder (c.1525–1569), 98–9, 99, 113
Bruges, 90, 92, 423, 523
Brunelleschi, Filippo (1377–1446), 24, 84, 86
Bruni, Leonardo (c.1370–1444), 7, 17, 22, 43–4, 538, 553n1
Bruno, Giordano (1548–1600), 22
Brussels, 90, 92, 365, 443, 460, 543
Bruyère, Jean de la (1645–1696), 442
Buchanan, George (1506–1582), 549
Budé, Guillaume (1467–1540), 9
Buenos Aires, 288
Buffon (Georges-Louis Leclerc) (1707–1788), 153
Burckhardt, Jacob (1818–1897), 14
Burgos, 365
Burgundy, 465, 468, 517, 526, 651, 668
Buridan, John (c.1300–c.1358), 79n48
Burke, Edmund (1729–1797), 643
Burke, Peter, 430
Burma, 334
Bussolari, Iacopo (1312–1380), 423–4
Buxtehude, Dieterich (c.1637–1707), 120, 131
(p. 700) Bylot, Robert (17th century), 189–90
Byrd, William (1540–1623), 114, 121–2
Byzantine (East Roman) empire, see Index of Subjects: empire
Byzantium, 386, 397, 468, 546, 617, 619
Cabot, John (c.1450–c.1500), 180, 183, 319
Cabral, Pedro Álvares (c.1467–c.1520), 180, 205–6, 208
Caccini, Giulio Romolo (1551–1618), 127
Cadell, Thomas (1742–1802), 162
Cadiz, 213, 217, 223
Caesar, Julius (100–44 bc), 11
Calas, Jean (1698–1762), 151–2, 163
Calicut, 205
California, 189, 193, 223
Callières, François de (1645–1717), 683, 688, 690
Calvert, Cecil, 2nd Baron Baltimore (1605–1675), 285–6
Calvin, John (1509–1564), 122, 370
Cambridge (Massachusetts), 292
Camões, Louis Vaz de (1524–1580), 25
Campanella, Tommaso (1568–1639), 23, 25, 50
Campion, Edmund (1540–1581), 121
Canada, 192, 271, 282, 286–7, 302–3, 657
Canaletto (Giovanni Antonio Canal) (1697–1768), 109
Canary Islands, 179, 181, 183, 204, 283
Canny, Nicholas, 552
Canton (China), 248–9, 268, 341
Cape Breton, 187
Cape of Good Hope, 178, 180, 186, 195, 200, 205, 230–1, 233–4, 245, 251, 314
Cape St. Catherine, 180
Cape Town, 233, 250, 281
Cape Verde Islands, 179, 195, 204, 281, 283
Cappel, Louis (1585–1658), 149
Caravaggio (Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio) (1571–1610), 100–1, 101, 105
Caribbean region, 59, 178, 184, 187–8, 190, 195, 204, 206, 209, 212–13, 222, 281–4, 287, 289, 292–3, 295–9, 303, 322, 329, 599
Carmichael, Gershom (1672–1729), 156
Carpaccio, Vittore (c.1465–1525), 88
Carracci, Annibale (1560–1609), 100
Cartagena, 217, 299
Cartier, Jacques (1491–1557), 189–90
Cary, John (1649–1719/22), 159
Casimir III, King of Poland (1310–1370), 388
Casimir IV, King of Poland (1427–1492), 390, 393
Cassini, Jean-Dominique (1625–1712), 195–6
Cassirer, Ernst, 143
Castiglione, Baldassare (1478–1529), 89–90, 442, 447, 458, 467
Castle of the Seven Towers (Constantinople), 680
Catalonia, 222, 359, 365, 374, 427, 488, 491, 524, 593, 602, 643
Catherine I, Empress of Russia (1684–1727), 413
Catherine II, Empress of Russia (Catherine the Great) (1729–1796), 164, 408, 413–14, 604, 648, 652
Catherine of Aragon, Queen of England (1485–1536), 367
Catherine de Medici, Queen of France (1519–1589), 370, 372, 467
Cavendish, John (c.1346–1381), 422
Cavendish, Margaret, Duchess of Newcastle upon Tyne (1623–1673), 25
Cayenne, 195
Cecilia, Saint (2nd century ad), 133
Celtis, Conrad (1459–1508), 9
Central America, 185, 187, 209, 212, 215–16, 282, 294
Cereta, Laura (1469–1499), 16
Cervantes, Miguel de (1547–1616), 182
César, Francisco (16th century), 188
Cesti, Antonio (1623–1669), 129
Ceuta, 203
Ceylon, 177, 206, 235–6, 241, 245, 247, 249–51
Chabod, Federico, 482
Chambonnières, Jacques Champion de (c.1601/2–1672), 130
Champlain, Samuel de (1574–1635), 189–90, 192
Chancellor, Richard (d. 1556), 319
(p. 701) Chardin, Jean, merchant (1643–1713), 314–15, 327, 329
Chardin, Jean-Baptiste, painter (1699–1779), 108
Charlemagne, King of the Franks and Emperor (c.742–814), 523
Charles I, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1600–1649), 40, 42, 44, 125, 128, 135, 158, 374–5, 429, 452, 462, 541, 548, 551
Charles II, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1630–1685), 43, 45, 126, 133, 331n27, 379, 452, 527, 549, 651
Charles II, King of Spain (1661–1700), 222, 454, 462, 518, 683
Charles III, King of Spain (1716–1788), 223
Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor (1316–1378), 359, 362
Charles IV, King of France (1294–1328), 362
Charles V/I, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Spain and ruler of the Burgundian Netherlands (1500–1558), 18, 50, 82, 96–7, 124, 200, 210, 214, 256, 364–9, 366, 378, 457, 484, 488, 490–1,493, 512, 515, 517–18, 520–1, 523, 531n37, 543, 568–9, 629, 639, 644, 646–7, 651–4, 670–1
Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor (1685–1740), 359, 378, 500, 505, 652
Charles VI, King of France (1368–1422), 359, 425, 432, 500
Charles VII, King of France (1403–1461), 517
Charles IX, King of France (1550–1574), 370, 372
Charles IX, King of Sweden (1550–1611), 391, 404
Charles X Gustav, King of Sweden (1622–1660), 402, 404–5, 411
Charles XI, King of Sweden (1655–1697), 158, 404–5, 467
Charles XII, King of Sweden (1682–1718), 380, 405–8, 412, 467, 643, 647, 654, 688
Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy (1433–1477), 358, 364, 516
Charleston, 291, 299
Charpentier, Marc-Antoine (1643–1704), 121, 125
Chateaubriand, François-René de (1768–1848), 493
Chatham Islands, 185
Chaudhuri, K. N., 245
Chesapeake, 285, 287, 289, 291, 297–8, 323
Chile, 188, 211, 292–4
Chippendale, Thomas (1718–1779), 106
Chittolini, Giorgio, 483, 487
Christian II, King of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden (1481–1559), 391
Christian III, King of Denmark (1503–1599), 401
Christian IV, King of Denmark (1577–1648), 124–5, 401–2, 608
Christian V, King of Denmark and Norway (1646–1699), 402, 406
Christina, Queen of Sweden (1626–1689), 105, 404
Christopher of Bavaria, King of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway (1416–1448), 391
Christopher of Oldenburg, Count (c.1504–1566), 401
Cicero, Marcus Tullius (106–43 bc), 5, 10–12, 47, 386, 539–40, 549–50
Clausewitz, Karl von (1780–1831), 585
Clement VII (Robert of Geneva), Antipope (1342–1394), 433
Clement VIII (Ippolito Aldobrandini), Pope (1536–1605), 256
Clement XII (Lorenzo Corsini), Pope (1652–1740), 269
Clément, Jacques (1567–1589), 371
Cochin, 206, 241, 245, 265
Coen, Jan Pieterszoon (1587–1629), 234, 236–9
Coimbra, 215, 292
Colbert, Jean-Baptiste, Louis XIV’s economic, financial and naval minister (1619–1683), 159, 497, 499, 579, 595, 603, 606–7
Colbert, Jean-Baptiste, Marquis de Torcy (1665–1746), Louis XIV’s final foreign minister, 673, 687
Colet, John (1467–1519), 9
Colleoni, Bartolomeo (1395–1475), 86
Collins, Anthony (1676–1729), 149
Collins, James B., 498
Cologne, 82, 641
(p. 702) Columbus, Christopher (1451–1506), 25, 179–85, 187–92, 206, 208, 213–14, 281, 284, 310, 323, 649
Compagnie de la Nouvelle-France, 286
Condorcet, Nicolas de (1743–1794), 165
Confucius (551–479 bc), 268
Congo, 194
Constantine XI, Emperor of Byzantium (1405–1453), 396
Constantine the Great, Roman Emperor (c.272–377 ad), 368
Constantinople (Istanbul), 118, 386, 396, 564, 567, 596, 607, 613, 615, 618–21, 623, 625, 627–30, 632–3, 638, 645, 651, 680
Cook, James (1728–1779), 193
Copenhagen, 402, 607–8
Copernicus, Nicholas (1473–1543), 23, 57, 64, 66–70, 72, 75, 78n28, 79n38
Coronado, Francisco Vázquez de (1510–1554), 189
Cortés, Hernán (1485–1547), 188, 190, 209–12, 296, 364
Corvinus, Matthias, King of Hungary (1443–1490), 10
Couperin, François (1668–1733), 121, 133–4
Couperin, Margueritte-Antoinette (1705–1778), 133
Covilhão, Pedro (c.1460–c.1526), 180
Cowell, John (1554–1611), 41–2
Cracow (Krakow), 66, 98, 390, 392–4
Cranach, Lucas (c.1472–1553), 98
Crete, 546, 595, 630
Crimea, 617, 625, 645, 652, 670, 679
Cristina of Lorraine, Grand Duchess of Tuscany (1565–1637), 23
Croatia, 8, 10, 359, 517, 645, 648, 651
Cromwell, Oliver (1599–1658), 285, 379, 541, 548–9, 554n10, 570, 648
Cromwell, Thomas (c.1485–1540), 367
Cuba, 188, 209, 212, 303
Curaçao, 282
Cuzco, 188, 260–1, 291
Cyprus, 546, 623
d’Albuquerque, Afonso (1453–1515), 236
d’Alembert, Jean le Rond (1717–1783), 142
d’Anville, Jean Baptiste Bourguignon (1697–1782), 194
d’Este, Isabella (1474–1539), 24
da Gama, Vasco (c.1460s–1524), 25, 180, 183, 186, 205, 208
da Mosto, Alvise (c.1432–1483), 179
da Nóbrega, Manuel (1517–1570), 259–60
da Palestrina, Giovanni Pierluigi (1525–1594), 120
da Verrazano, Giovanni (1485–1528), 187
da Vinci, Leonardo (1452–1519), 88–9, 98, 484
Dam, Pieter van (1621–1706), 238
Dante (Durante degli Alighieri) (c.1265–1321), 66
Darnton, Robert, 145, 147, 161–2, 165
das Gupta, Ashin, 246
David, Georgius (1647–1713), 397
David, King of Israel, 84, 85, 89, 102
Davis, Natalie Zemon, 430
De La Court brothers (Johan (1620–1678) and Pieter (1618–1685)), 539, 545
Dear, Peter, 61
Delaware, 292
Delft, 233
Denmark/Denmark–Norway, 230, 380, 386–7, 390–1, 401–5, 411–12, 414, 455, 512, 541, 547, 568, 574, 579, 582, 594, 600, 603–4, 606–7, 638, 643, 648, 685
Descartes, René (1596–1650), 73–6, 80n51, 141–2, 154
Deshima, 241, 243, 248, 251
Dezhnev, Semyon (c.1605–1673), 194
Dias, Bartolomeu (c.1451–1500), 180
Diderot, Denis (1713–1784), 142, 144, 158, 164, 197
Dijon, 365, 430
Dobson, R. B., 418
Donatello (Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi) (c.1386–1466), 24, 84–6, 85, 89
Dordrecht, 233, 519
Dorothea of Mansfeld, Countess (1493–1578), 63
Dowland, John (1563–1626), 124
Downing, George (1623–1684), 527, 529
Drake, Francis (1540–1596), 649
Dresden, 129, 379, 684
Dublin Society, 162
(p. 703) Dufay, Guillaume (1397–1474), 119
Duchy of Burgundy, 90, 92, 358, 360, 365, 449–50, 516
see also Burgundy
Dumolyn, Jan, 420
Dumont, Jean (1667–1727), 686
Dunn, John 29
Dunstable, John (1390–1453), 119
Dürer, Albrecht (1471–1528), 92–3, 94, 105
Dutch East India Company (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie (VOC)), 189, 221, 228–51, 244, 280–1, 311, 314, 319, 600
Dutch Republic (also known as the Seven United Provinces of the Netherlands), 104–5, 148, 161, 221, 228–9, 231, 234, 238, 245, 247, 249–51, 282, 457, 480–1, 501, 516, 518, 523, 526–8, 538–40, 543–6, 576, 599–601, 603–9, 627–8, 638, 642, 646–7, 649, 651, 655, 683–5
Dyck, Anthony van (1599–1641), 105, 109, 463
Dyer, Christopher, 420
East Indies, 200, 227–51, 244, 545
Easter Island, 185
Eberhard Ludwig, Duke of Württemberg (1676–1733), 501, 503
Edelstein, Dan, 141
Edinburgh, 145, 163–4, 429, 645
Edward I, King of England (1239–1307), 425
Edward II, King of England (1284–1327), 424–5
Edward III, King of England (1312–1377), 362, 425, 514
Edward VI, King of England and Ireland (1537–1553), 121, 319
Egypt, 195, 613, 618, 620, 622, 648, 653
El Greco (Doménikos Theotokópoulos) (1541–1614), 98
Elias, Norbert, 445–8, 451, 458, 480
Elizabeth I, Queen of England (1533–1603), 9, 35, 121–2, 124–5, 128, 228, 369, 371–2, 379, 443, 462, 464, 644, 648–9, 654, 670–1, 679
Elizabeth Farnese, Queen of Spain (1692–1766), 654
Elliott, J. H., 418, 488, 491
Elyot, Thomas (1490–1546), 9
Engelbrektson, Engelbrekt (1390s–1436), 391
English East India Company (EIC), 228–30, 238, 247, 250–1, 286, 314, 319, 324, 331n25, 600
Epicurus (341–270 bc), 46
Erasmus, Desiderius (1466–1536), 8–9, 13, 18–19, 21
Eratosthenes (276–194 bc), 185
Erik III, King of Norway, Denmark, and Sweden (1381/2–1459), 387, 390–1
Erlach, Johann Fischer von (1656–1723), 107
Ertman, Thomas, 480–1
Escorial palace (Madrid), 98, 489
Ethiopia, 194, 205
Euclid (fl. 300 bc), 24
Eugen, Karl, Duke of Württemberg (1737–1793), 503
Eustace, Saint (2nd century ad), 87, 181
Évora, 215
Extremadura, 208
Eyck, Jacob van (c.1589–1657), 113
Fayard, Janine, 490
Felbiger, Johann Ignaz (1724–1783), 506–7
Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (1503–1564), 366, 515, 543
Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor (1578–1637), 525–6
Ferdinand II, King of Aragon (King of Spain as ‘Ferdinand V’) (1452–1516), 201, 203, 206, 208, 367, 452, 488, 599, 669–70
Ferguson, Adam (1723–1816), 158
Fernandes, Gonçalo (1541–1619), 269
Fernandes, Valentim (d. 1518/1519), 180
Ferrara, 86, 132, 482, 500, 668
Ficino, Marsilio (1433–1499), 21–2
Filangieri, Gaetano (1752–1788), 164
(p. 704) Filmer, Robert (1588–1653), 43, 49, 540
Finer, Samuel, 486
Finland, 197, 427, 437n47
Flanders, 90, 358–9, 365, 419, 422–3, 432, 489, 516, 519, 523, 563, 577, 591, 598, 645
Florence Cathedral, 86
Florida, 190, 260, 657
Fludd, Robert (1574–1637), 134, 139n28
Fonte, Moderata (1555–1592), 16
Fontenelle, Bernard de (1657–1757), 141
Ford, Ann (1737–1824), 133
Forqueray, Antoine (1671–1745), 133
Forqueray, Jean-Baptiste (1699–1782), 133
Fortunate Islands (mythological), 177
Foscarini, Ludovico (1409–1480), 15–16
Foucault, Michel, 143
Fourquin, Guy, 420
Francesca, Piero della (c.1415–1492), 87
Francesco I Sforza, Duke of Milan (1401–1466), 483
Francis I, King of France (1494–1547), 365, 368–9, 497, 594, 613, 647–8, 671
Francis II, King of France (1544–1560), 370, 372
Francke, August Hermann (1663–1727), 506
Frankfurt, 369, 448
Franklin, Benjamin (1706–1790), 292
Frari church (Venice), 96
Frederick I (Barbarossa), Holy Roman Emperor (1122–1190), 17
Frederick I, King of Denmark and Norway (1471–1533), 391, 401
Frederick I, King of Sweden (1676–1751), 406
Frederick II, King of Denmark and Norway (1534–1588), 401
Frederick II, King of Prussia (Frederick the Great) (1712–1786), 126, 142, 162, 164, 380, 466, 502, 504, 506, 652, 654, 657, 688
Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor (1415–1493), 361–2
Frederick III, King of Denmark and Norway (1609–1670), 402–3
Frederick III/I, Elector of Brandenburg and King in Prussia (1657–1713), 500
Frederick William I, King in Prussia (1688–1740), 380, 502, 506
Frederick William II, King of Prussia (1744–1797), 541
French East India Company, 314–15, 319
Fritz, Samuel (1654–1728), 195
Frobisher, Martin (1535–1594), 189
Froissart, Jean (1337–1405), 432
Fujian (China), 239
Furet, François, 418
Fyodor I, Tsar of Russia (1557–1598), 386
Gainsborough, Thomas (1727–1788), 133
Galilei, Galileo (1564–1642), 22–3, 57, 59, 65, 71–6, 193, 463
Gambia, 179
Ganson, Barbara, 265
Garden of Eden, 16, 24, 48, 84, 178
Garin, Eugenio, 6–8
Gatterer, Johann Christoph (1727–1799), 158
Gay, John (1685–1732), 115
Gay, Peter, 145, 147
Geneva, 144, 370, 542
Genovesi, Antonio (1712–1769), 159, 164
Gentile, Marco, 487
Gentileschi, Artemisia (1593–1656), 101
Gentili, Alberico (1552–1608), 41–2, 52, 672
Gentz, Friedrich von (1764–1832), 643
George I, Elector of Hanover and King of Great Britain and Ireland (1660–1727), 379, 462, 645
(p. 705) George II, Elector of Hanover and King of Great Britain and Ireland (1683–1760), 379, 462
George III, Elector of Hanover and King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1738–1820), 380, 514
Gesualdo, Carlo (1566–1613), 132, 135
Ghent, 92, 364, 434, 543
Giaches de Wert, Jacques (1535–1596), 132
Giambologna (Jean Boulogne) (1529–1608), 98
Giannone, Pietro (1676–1748), 150
Gibbon, Edward (1737–1794), 152–3, 158, 162
Gibraltar, 203, 647
Giese, Tiedemann, bishop of Chelmo (1480–1550), 69
Gillingham, John, 433
Giotto di Bondone (1266/7–1337), 24–5, 82, 83, 89
Giustiniani, Leonardo (1388–1446), 20
Glasgow, 145, 156
Gluck, Christoph Willibald (1714–1787), 130
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang (1749–1832), 504
Goldstein, Bernard, 68
Gomarus, Franciscus (1563–1641), 544
Gomes, Estevão (1483–1538), 187
Gomes, Fernão (fl. second half 15th century), 179
Gonzaga family, 87, 126, 668
Gonzaga, Cardinal Francesco (1444–1483), 676
Gonzaga, Luigi, Marquis of Mantua (1568–1591), 666
Gonzaga, Marie Louise, Queen of Poland (1611–1667), 410
Goodman, Dena, 161
Gosnold, Bartholomew (1572–1607), 190
Gossaert, Jan (c.1478–1532), 92
Göttingen, 158
Gournay, Marie de (1565–1645), 16
Gournay, Vincent de (1712–1759), 159
Grafton, Anthony, 12–13
Gramsci, Antonio, 428
Granada, 97–8, 203, 208, 488, 521, 564
Granvelle, Antoine Perrenot de, Cardinal (1517–1586), 543
Greece, 8, 178, 529
Greenland, 192
Greenwich Hospital (later Royal Naval College, London), 107
Gregory XIII (Ugo Boncompagni), Pope (1502–1585), 676
Gregory of Nazianzen, Archbishop of Constantinople (c.329–390), 21
Grotius, Hugo (1583–1645), 36, 47–8, 51–2, 149, 155, 544, 552, 679–80
Grünewald, Matthias (c.1470–1528), 92–3
Guadeloupe, 195
Guarini, Elena Fasano, 483
Guarini, Giovanni Battista (1538–1612), 675
Guevara, Antonio de (c.1481–1545), 50
Guilmartin, John, 591
Guinea, 283
Gustav I Vasa, King of Sweden (1496–1560), 391, 404
Gustav II Adolf, King of Sweden (1594–1632), 401, 404, 406, 513, 567, 569, 647, 679
Gustav III, King of Sweden (1746–1792), 406
Gustav IV Adolf, King of Sweden (1778–1837), 406–7
Guyana, 188, 282
Haarlem, 233, 519
Habermas, Jürgen, 146–7, 160–1, 164, 398
Habsburg empire, see Index of Subjects: empire
Haemers, Jelle, 420, 426
Haiti, 303, 653
Halle, 156
Halley, Edmond (1656–1742), 195
Hals, Frans (1580–1666), 105
Hamann, Johann Georg (1730–1788), 143
Han dynasty (206 bc–220 ad), 335
Handel, George Frederick (1685–1759), 129, 131–2, 136, 139n24
Hankins, James, 8
Hanover, 500, 504, 641–2, 645, 657, 681
Hardouin-Mansart, Jules (1646–1708), 106–7
Harkness, Deborah, 59
Harrington, James (1611–1677), 45, 539, 550–1, 554n10
Havana, 212, 219, 223, 293
Hawaii, 185
Haydn, Joseph (1732–1809), 126, 134–5
Hazard, Paul, 144
Hecker, Johann Julius (1707–1768), 506
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich (1770–1831), 143
Heidelberg, 379, 526
Hennepin, Louis (1626–1705), 195
Henrietta Maria of France, queen consort (1609–1669), 128, 456
Henriette-Anne of France, Princess (1727–1752), 133
Henrique, Duke of Viseau (Henry the Navigator) (1394–1460), 179, 181–3
Henry I, King of England (1068–1135), 433
Henry II, King of England (1133–1189), 498, 670
Henry III, King of France (1551–1589), 371–2, 394, 396, 425, 451, 541
Henry IV, King of England (1367–1413), 425
Henry IV, King of France (Henry III of Navarre) (1553–1610), 41, 371–2, 425, 495, 497–8, 541
Henry V, King of England (1386–1422), 359, 602
Henry VI, King of England (1421–1471), 360
Henry VII, King of England (1457–1509), 9, 368
Henry VIII, King of England (1491–1547), 9, 49, 98, 118, 121, 125, 365, 367–8, 429, 462, 513, 594, 596, 647, 671, 674, 676
Henshall, Nicholas, 495
Herberstein, Sigismund von (1486–1566), 397
Herder, Johann Gottfried (1744–1803), 143, 152, 158, 504
Hesse-Cassel, 501, 504, 641
Hilton, Rodney, 420
Hintze, Otto (1861–1940), 480
Hispaniola, 64, 208–9, 211–14, 218
Hobbes, Thomas (1588–1679), 36, 46, 48, 52, 155–6, 163, 409, 540, 549–52
Hofburg palace (Vienna), 378, 459–60, 503
Hofmann, Hasso, 552
Hogarth, William (1697–1764), 109–10, 109
Hojeda, Alonso de (c.1468–1515), 187
Holbein, Hans (c.1497–1543), 98, 109
Holy Roman Empire, see Index of Subjects: empire
Hoorn, 233, 236
Horace (Quintus Horatius Flaccus) (65–8 bc), 154
Horkheimer, Max, 143, 146
Houtman, Cornelis de (1565–1599), 232
Howard, Charles, 3rd Earl of Carlisle (1629–1685), 315, 318
Hudson Bay, 189, 192–3
Hudson, Henry (1565–1611), 189
Hughes, Edward (c.1720–1794), 250
Hume, David (1711–1776), 151–2, 154, 156, 158–64
Hus, Jan (1369–1415), 118
Hutcheson, Francis (1694–1746), 156
Iberia/Iberian Peninsula, 8, 10, 177
see also Portugal; Spain
Ignatius of Loyola, Saint (c.1491–1556), 254–8, 272
Imhoff, Gustaaf Willem van (1705–1749), 239, 249
Inca empire, see Index of Subjects: empire
Ingrao, Charles, 504
Iran, 314, 321–2, 324, 620
Iraq, 613, 622–3, 627
Ireland, 162, 361, 372, 374, 548, 552, 643, 645, 647, 655
Isaac, Heinrich (1450–1517), 119
Isabella I, Queen of Castile (1451–1504), 201, 203, 208, 213, 367, 488, 518, 599
Israel, Jonathan, 147–8, 151, 230
Ivan III, Grand Prince of Moscow (Ivan the Great) (1440–1505), 396–7, 399, 413, 564
Ivan IV, Grand Prince of Moscow and Tsar of Russia (Ivan the Terrible) (1530–1584), 319, 396–7, 399–401, 407
Jacob, Margaret, 147–8
Jadwiga, Queen Regnant of Poland (1373–1399), 390
Jahangir, Mughal Emperor (1569–1627), 324
Jaime II, King of Aragon (1267–1327), 691n12, 692n34
Jakarta (northwest Java), 236–7
Jamaica, 209, 222, 282, 285, 296, 298
James I and VI, King of England, Ireland, and Scotland (1566–1625), 40, 42–3, 52, 128, 323, 371, 441, 462, 645
James II and VII, King of England, Ireland, and Scotland (1633–1701), 43, 45, 368, 379, 453, 514, 640, 651
James IV, King of Scotland (1473–1513), 597
Jardine, Lisa, 12–13
Jeremias II, Patriarch of Constantinople (c.1530–1595), 386
Jerome, Saint (c.347–420), 21
Jerusalem, 208
Joan of Arc (c.1412–1431), 360
John I, King of Portugal (1358–1433), 203
John II, King of France (1319–1364), 514
John II Casmir Vasa, King of Poland (1609–1672), 409–10
John III, King of Portugal (1502–1557), 211, 217, 597
John III Sobieski, King of Poland (1629–1696), 411–12
John IV, King of Portugal (1604–1656), 221
John V, King of Portugal (1689–1750), 290
John V Palaiologos, Byzantine emperor (1332–1391), 617
John VI Kantakouzenos, Byzantine emperor (1292–1383), 617
John of Gaunt (1340–1399), 425
Jolliet, Louis (1645–1700), 195
Jones, Inigo (1573–1652), 107, 128
Jonson, Ben (1572–1637), 128
Jordan, William, 435n12
Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor and ruler of the Habsburg Monarchy (1678–1711), 107, 500
Joseph II, ruler of the Habsburg Monarchy (1780–1790) and Holy Roman Emperor (1765–1790), 462, 505, 507, 652, 654–5, 688
Jouanna, Arlette, 495
Juan, Jorge (1713–1773), 197
Julius II (Giuliano della Rovere), Pope (1443–1513), 443, 447
Julius of Braunschweig, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Prince of Wolfenbüttel (1528–1589), 63
Jung, Carl, 62
Kamen, Henry, 427–8
Kangxi, Emperor of China (1654–1722), 267
Kant, Immanuel (1729–1786), 142, 157–8, 164
Karl August, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (1757–1828), 504
Karl Leopold, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1678–1747), 640
Kazan, 400, 565, 670
Keenan, Edward, 397–9
Kelley, Donald, 8, 10
(p. 708) Kepler, Johannes (1571–1630), 70–1, 74, 76, 463
Kew palace (London), 251
Kiev, 388, 408
Kievan Rus’, 388, 396–8
King, Margaret L., 8
King’s College Chapel (Cambridge), 82
Kino, Eusebio del (1645–1711), 195, 263
Kircher, Athanasius (1602–1680), 134, 139n28
Kivelson, Valerie, 398
Klaiber, Jeffrey, 262
Knight, James (c.1640–c.1720), 193
Knott, Sarah, 164
Koenigsberger, H. G., 488
Koerbagh, Adriaen (1632–1669), 148
Koerbagh, Johannes (1634–1672), 148
Kollmann, Nancy Shields, 398
Kongo kingdom, 180, 205
Koselleck, Reinhart, 143
Koyré, Alexandre, 56
Kristeller, Paul Oskar, 6–8, 13–14
Kronstadt, 604, 607
Kuhn, Thomas, 57–8
Kurbskii, Andrei (1528–1583), 399
La Bruyère, see Bruyère
La Condamine, Charles-Marie de (1701–1774), 196–7
La Mothe de la Forêt dynasty, 420, 428
La Rochefoucauld, François de (1613–1680), 155
Labrador, 187, 189
Lahontan, Baron Louis Armand de (1666–c.1716), 197
Laínez, Diego (1512–1565), 258
Lalemant, Jerôme (1593–1673), 270
Languedoc, 423, 428, 496, 499
Lanson, Gustave, 144
Las Casas, Bartolomé de (c.1484–1566), 214–15
Lassus, Orlando (1532–1594), 121
Lawes, William (1602–1645), 119, 135
Lazzarini, Isabella, 673
Le Bon, Gustave (1841–1931), 419
Le Bret, Cardin (1558–1655), 494
Le Clerc, Jean (1657–1736), 149
Le Havre, 594
Le Jeune, Paul (1591–1664), 270
Le Nôtre, André (1613–1700), 107
Legazpi, Miguel López de (1502–1572), 219
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm (1646–1716), 500
Leipzig, 120, 126
Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor (1640–1705), 107, 129, 448, 454, 466, 500, 505, 526
Lepanto, 256–7, 489, 593–4, 623, 648
Lerma, Francisco Gómez de Sandoval, Duke of (1552/3–1625), 492–3
Leyden, Lucas van (1494–1533), 93
Li, Zizhao (1565–1630), 266
Library Company of Philadelphia, 292
Lieberman, Victor, 334–5, 344, 348–9
Lilti, Antoine, 161
Lima (Peru), 212, 219, 261, 288–9, 299
Limbourg brothers (Herman, Paul, and Johan) (fl. 1385–1416), 83
Linnaeus, Carl (1707–1778), 153
Linschoten, Jan Huyghen van (1563–1611), 232
Lipsius, Justus (1547–1606), 9, 34
Lisbon, 183, 213, 217–18, 220–1, 232, 260, 268, 302, 489, 607
Lithuania, 388, 390, 392–4, 396, 400–1, 404, 408–13, 427, 547, 564
Livy (64/59 bcc. ad 17), 18, 44, 375, 386, 540
Loaysa, García de (1490–1526), 185
Locke, John (1632–1704), 43, 45–6, 48–9, 51–2, 139n26, 141–2, 151, 155–6
Lombardy, 481, 484, 505, 520, 577
see also Milan
Lomonosov, Mikhail (1711–1765), 409
London Foundling Hospital, 132
Long, Pamela, 61
Longobardo, Niccolò (1565–1655), 267
Lorenzetti, Ambrogio (c.1290–1348), 82
Lorrain, Claude (c.1600–1682), 104
Louis I, King of Holland (1778–1846), 546
Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor (1282–1347), 666
Louis XI, King of France (1423–1483), 669
Louis XII, King of France (1462–1515), 484, 546
Louis XIII, King of France (1601–1643), 374, 447, 451–2, 495, 498, 552
Louis XV, King of France (1710–1774), 133, 378, 462, 494, 497–8, 505, 647–8
Louis XVI, King of France (1754–1793), 165, 462, 498, 517
Louis of Anjou, King of Hungary (1326–1382), 388
Louisiana, 222, 285
Louvain, 9, 35, 423
Lowth, Robert (1710–1787), 152
Loyseau, Charles (1564–1627), 497
Lübeck, 92, 131, 597, 603
Lubomirski, Jerzy Sebastian (1616–1667), 410–11
Lucca, 482, 519, 674
Lucretius (c.99–c.55 bc), 46, 46, 70
Lully, Jean-Baptiste (1632–1687), 125, 128, 130–1, 133
Luther, Martin (1483–1546), 21, 35, 47, 72, 98
Luxembourg, 117, 359, 361
Luzzaschi, Luzzasco (c.1545–1607), 132
Lyons, 520, 524
Mabillon, Jean (1632–1707), 663
Macao, 212, 221, 239, 265, 268, 315, 326
Macaulay, Catherine (1731–1791), 164
Machaut, Guillaume de (c.1300–1377), 117, 119
Machiavelli, Niccolò (1469–1527), 18, 34, 38, 44, 46, 52, 539, 549–50, 672
MacIntyre, Alasdair, 143
Madagascar, 195
Madariaga, Isabel de, 397, 399
Madeira, 178, 183, 204, 208, 216, 283, 329
Madrid, 92, 201, 215, 217, 219–20, 223, 225, 293, 326, 374, 458, 460, 489, 543, 613, 647, 651, 686
Magellan, Ferdinand (1480–1521), 185, 188
Mager, Wolfgang, 553n1
Magnus IV, King of Sweden (1316–1374), 390
Mahan, Alfred T. (1840–1914), 592
Mainz, 523, 641
Makassar, 242, 249
Malabar, 236, 241, 247
Malacca, 206, 221, 235–6, 241, 245–6
Mallett, Michael, 670
Malta, 647–8, 651
Mandeville, Bernard (1670–1733), 156, 161
Manetti, Giannozzo (1396–1459), 14, 21
Manila, 219, 223, 239, 243, 291, 293, 310–11, 325–6
Manning, Roger, 419, 427, 429, 431
Mansart, François (1598–1666), 106
Mantegna, Andrea (c.1431–1506), 87–8
Mantua, 24, 86, 95, 117, 126–7, 129, 132, 482, 666, 668, 672
Manuel I, King of Portugal (1495–1521), 200
Manutius, Aldus (1449–1515), 11
Marais, Marin (1656–1728), 134
Margaret, Duchess of Parma (1522–1586), 542
Margaret of Norway, Queen of Norway and Scotland (1261–1283), 386–7, 391
Maria Theresa, Queen of France and Navarre (1638–1683), 454–5, 462
Maria Theresa, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia and Archduchess of Austria (1717–1780), 505–7, 526
Mariana, Juan de (1536–1624), 41
Marie-Adélaide, Princess of Savoy (1685–1712), 457
Marie de Medici, Queen of France (1575–1642), 467, 495
Marinella, Lucrezia (1571–1653), 16
Marsh, Christopher, 112
Marten, Henry (fl. late 17th century), 159
Martens, Karl von (1790–1863), 690
Martin V (Otto Colonna), Pope (1369–1431), 669
Martinelli, Caterina (1590–1608), 132
Martini, Simone (c.1284–1344), 82, 84
Martinique, 290
Marx, Karl (1818–1883), 342
Mary I, Queen of England and Ireland (1516–1558), 121, 368, 488
(p. 710) Mary II, Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1662–1694), 230, 453, 645
Mary, Duchess of Burgundy (1457–1482), 531n37, 567
Mary of Hungary, governor of the Netherlands (1505–1558), 365, 516
Mary, Queen of Scots (1542–1587), 121–2, 372–3
Maryland, 285–7
Masaccio (Tommaso di Ser Giovanni di Simone) (1401–1428), 24, 84, 89
Mascarene Islands, 187
Maskiewicz, Samuel (1580–1633), 385–6, 396–7, 407–8, 414
Massachusetts, 190, 282, 302
Massachusetts Bay Colony, 286–7
Mataram, 237, 242
Matelieff, Cornelis (c.1569–1632), 235–7
Matthias II, Holy Roman Emperor (1557–1619), 627
Mattingly, Garrett, 665–7
Maupertuis, Pierre-Louis Moreau de (1698–1759), 193, 196–7
Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange (1567–1625), 544, 567, 569
Mauritius, 240
Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria (1573–1651), 525–6
Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor (1459–1519), 362, 364, 367, 396, 409, 463, 484, 531n37, 567, 669
Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor and ruler of the Habsburg Monarchy (1527–1576), 370
Mazarin, Jules, Cardinal (1602–1661), leading minister of Louis XIV, 129, 374, 466, 495, 551
Medici family, 17, 22, 25, 44, 86, 88, 92, 95, 370, 372, 422, 425–6, 429, 467, 495, 520, 539, 549, 671, 674
Medici, Cosimo de (1389–1464), 549
Medici, Lorenzo de (1449–1492), 671
Medina del Campo, 92
Mehmed II, Ottoman sultan (1432–1481), 618–19, 624, 626, 651
Meissen, 106
Melanchthon, Philip (1497–1560), 9, 35, 47
Melon, Jean-François (1675–1738), 159
Memling, Hans (c.1430–1494), 92
Mendaña, Álvaro de (1542–1595), 185
Mendelssohn, Moses (1729–1786), 142
Mercator, Gerard (1512–1594), 232
Merchant Adventurers of London (company), 307, 319
Mersenne, Marin (1588–1648), 134, 139n28
Metastasio, Pietro (1698–1782), 129
Metsu, Gabriel (1629–1667), 105
Mettam, Roger, 495
Metternich, Clemens Wenzel von (1773–1859), 657, 672, 689
Mexico City, 212, 217, 219, 263, 286, 288, 290–2
Meyer, Lodewijk (1629–1681), 148
Michael I (Michael Romanov), Tsar of Russia (1596–1645), 325, 386, 408
Michaelis, Johann David (1717–1791), 152
Michelangelo (Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni) (1475–1564), 24, 88–9, 95–6
Middelburg, 233–4
Middleton, Conyers (1683–1750), 149–50
Ming dynasty (1368–1644), 183, 266, 325, 337–8, 345, 519
Minorca, 647–8, 657
Mirabeau, Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, Comte de (1749–1791), 504
Moctezuma II, Aztec emperor (c.1466–1520), 209–10, 212
Moldavia, 406, 625–6, 629, 679
Molesworth, Robert (1656–1725), 402–3
Molière (Jean-Baptiste Poquelin) (1622–1673), 125
Moluccas (Spice Islands), 221, 231, 235–42, 245–6
Mongol empire, see Index of Subjects: empire
Monomotapa, Shona Kingdom in southern Africa, 194
Montagu, Elizabeth (1718–1800), 164
Montaigne, Michel de (1533–1592), 155
Montesinos, Antonio de (d. 1545), 214
Montesquieu, Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de la Brède et de (1689–1755), 157, 165, 539
(p. 711) Monteverdi, Claudio (1567–1643), 113, 117, 126–7, 132, 135, 138n21
Montmorency, Henri, Duc de (1595–1632), 572
Montoya, Antonio Ruiz de (1585–1652), 264–5
Montreal, 189, 270
Moravia, 505, 641, 651
More, Thomas (1478–1535), 8–9, 16, 25, 38–9
Mornet, Daniel, 144–5
Morocco, 203, 645
Moses (biblical figure), 149–50
Mossel, Jacob (1704–1761), 239, 249
Mousnier, Roland, 418
Mozambique, 221, 303
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus (1756–1791), 129–30, 134–6
Mughal empire, see Index of Subjects: empire
Muhammad (prophet) (c.570–632 ad), 149, 257
Munich, 106, 124
Munro, David, 137n2
Murad I, Ottoman sultan (1362–1389), 616
Murad IV, Ottoman sultan (1612–1640), 324
Muratori, Ludovico Antonio (1672–1750), 500
Muscovy, 318, 325, 327, 385–6, 388, 389, 392, 394, 396–402, 404, 407–9, 563–5, 568, 570, 574, 607, 646, 670, 679, 684
see also Russia
Muscovy Company, 318–21
Nadal, Jerónimo (1507–1580), 255, 272
Nagasaki (city in Japan), 221, 241, 245, 251
Najemy, John, 433
Nakabayashi, Masaki, 537n134
Napoleon Bonaparte (1769–1821), 142, 414, 469, 501, 539, 541, 584–5, 602, 608–9, 643, 689
Natal, 187
Nattier, Jean-Marc (1685–1766), 133
Naudé, Gabriel (1600–1653), 540
Nauert, Charles, 5, 8, 25
Navarre, 488, 491
Neck, Jacob van (1564–1638), 231
Negapatnam (India), 245, 250
Nelson, Admiral Horatio, 1st Viscount Nelson (1758–1805), 608–9
Netherlands, 21, 83, 90, 223, 311, 365, 367, 370, 373, 432, 488–9, 491, 493, 513, 515–16, 578, 599–600, 613, 657
see also Low Countries
Nettesheim, Cornelius Agrippa von (1486–1535), 16
Neuchâtel, 162
New England, 192, 284, 286–7, 291–2
New France, 269–71, 285–8, 290, 292, 295
New Granada, 218, 225, 301
New Mexico, 189, 195, 222, 299
New Netherland, 285, 287
New Orleans, 290
New York (city), 291, 299
New York (state), 282, 287
New Zealand, 185, 187, 193, 196, 240, 311
Newfoundland, 184, 319
Newman, William, 62
Newport, 291, 299
Newton, Isaac (1642–1727), 57, 59, 61, 65, 70, 75–6, 141–2, 196
Nicholas I, Emperor of Russia and King of Poland (1796–1855), 414
Nicole, Pierre (1625–1695), 155–6
Nikon (Nikita Minin), Patriarch of Moscow (1605–1681), 118
Nobili, Roberto (1577–1656), 268–9, 272
Nogarola, Isotta (1418–1466), 15–16
Normandy, 428, 564, 602
North America, 145, 184, 189–90, 194–5, 204, 270, 282, 284–6, 291–5, 298, 329, 336, 340, 642, 649
North, Douglass C., 343
North Pole, 193, 196
Nova Scotia, 187
Novgorod, 320, 392, 396–7, 399, 564
Nuremberg (Nürnberg), 7, 93, 183
Obrecht, Jacob (1457–1505), 119
Ochogavia, Miguel de (1563–1628), 195
Ockeghem, Johannes (1410–1497), 119
(p. 712) Oestreich, Gerhard, 494
Oldebarneveld, Johan van (1547–1619), 233, 544
Oñate, Juan de (1550–1626), 189
Oppenheimer, Samuel (1630–1703), 526
Orellana, Diego de (1511–1546), 188
Oresme, Nicole (c.1325–1382), 72
Ormuz, 206, 221, 235
Ortelius, Abraham (1528–1598), 232
Osman I, Ottoman sultan (1258–1327), 612, 617
Osman III, Ottoman sultan (1699–1757), 632
Ostade, Adriaen van (1610–1685), 105
Ottoman empire, see Index of Subjects: empire
Ovando, Nicolás de (1439–1511), 211
Pacheco, Duarte (c.1460–1533), 180
Padua, 12, 82, 84, 483–4
Paez, Pedro (1561–1622), 194
Pagano, Francesco Mario (1748–1799), 152, 165
Pagden, Anthony, 147
Paine, Thomas (1737–1809), 643
Paiva, Afonso de (c.1443–c.1490), 180
Palacca, Arung, Prince of Bone (1634–1696), 242
Palazzo Te (Mantua), 95
Palladio, Andrea (1508–1580), 97, 106
Panama, 188, 209, 219
Panofsky, Erwin, 88
Paracelsus (Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim) (1493–1541), 62–3
Paraguay, 216, 263–5, 264, 270, 297, 327–8
Parker, David, 494
Parker, Geoffrey, 429, 566
Parmigianino (Girolamo Francesco Maria Mazzola) (1503–1540), 95
Pascal, Blaise (1623–1662), 155
Paston, Edward (1641–1714), 122
Patinir, Joachim (c.1480–1524), 92
Patkul, Johann (1660–1707), 643
Patrizi, Francesco (1529–1597), 22
Paul III (Alessandro Farnese), Pope (1468–1549), 69, 258
Paul IV (Gian Pietro Carafa), Pope (1476–1559), 258
Paul V (Camillo Borghese), Pope (1552–1621), 269
Pecquet, Antoine (1704–1762), 688, 690
Pedro of Portugal, Prince (1392–1449), 179
Pelham, Henry (1694–1754), 528–9
Pelorson, Jean Marie, 492
Pepys, Samuel (1633–1703), 126, 133
Perestrello, Bartolomeo (c.1395–1457), 182
Persia/Iran, 105, 178, 245, 645
Persian Gulf, 206, 221, 235, 337, 603
Peter I, Tsar and Emperor of Russia (Peter the Great) (1672–1725), 194, 325, 386, 397, 399, 405–6, 408–9, 412, 414, 572, 582–3, 606, 630, 646–8, 684
Petrarch (Francesco Petrarca) (1304–1374), 10–13, 20–1, 26, 83–4, 90, 93, 177
Petrucci, Ottaviano (1466–1539), 139n29
Philadelphia, 291, 299
Philip II, King of Spain (1527–1598), 98, 192, 200–1, 220, 231–2, 367, 370, 373, 457, 466, 484, 488–93, 514, 516, 518, 521–2, 543, 599, 643, 654, 670, 673
Philip III, King of Spain (1578–1621), 125, 201, 492, 599
Philip IV, King of France (1268–1314), 419
Philip IV, King of Spain (1605–1665), 101, 125, 201, 443, 454, 518
Philip V, King of Spain (1683–1746), 524
Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy (1342–1404), 358, 531n37
Philippines, 185, 188, 201, 219, 221, 268, 291, 303, 310–11, 336, 645
Pico, Giovanni, Count of Mirandola (1463–1494), 14–15, 20, 22, 68
Pillorget, René, 427, 431
Pimenta, Nicolau (1546–1614), 269
Pinzón, Vicente Yañez (1462–1514), 187
Pio Ospedale della Pietà (Venice), 133
Pirenne, Henri, 418, 434
Pisa, 6, 432, 483
Pisanello (Antonio di Puccio Pisano) (c.1395–1455), 86–7
(p. 713) Pitt, William, the Elder (1708–1778), 650
Pizarro, Francisco (c.1471–1541), 188, 210, 212, 364
Plato (c.428/7–348/7 bce), 10, 22, 141, 164, 257
Playford, John (1623–1686/7), 115
Pliny the Elder (23–79 ad), 179
Pocock, John, 29, 146
Poe, Marshall, 397
Poggio, Giovanni Franceso, 39
Poland–Lithuania, 391–402, 395, 404, 408–14, 538–40, 547–8, 568, 626, 631, 646, 649, 655, 666, 670, 678–9, 684, 687
Polybius (c.200–118 bc), 37
Pomeranz, Kenneth, 343
Pomponazzi, Pietro (1452–1525), 22
Ponce de León, Juan (1474–1521), 190
Pontchartrain, Louis Phélypeaux de (1643–1727), 497
Pope, Alexander (1688–1744), 76
Porshnev, Boris, 418, 420, 436n34
Porter, Roy, 145
Portuondo, Maria, 63
Possevino, Antonio (1533–1611), 256–7
Post, Frans (1612–1680), 105
Potosí (Bolivia), 219, 286, 288, 291, 297, 322, 326, 521
Potsdam, 164
Poussin, Nicolas (1594–1665), 104
Prado Museum (Madrid), 92
Praetorius, Michael (1571–1621), 134, 139n28
Prague, 70, 98, 105, 359, 451
Prescott, Andrew, 422
Prescott, William H. (1796–1859), 209
Prez, Josquin des (1450–1521), 119
Principe, Lawrence, 62
Prokopovich, Feofan (1681–1736), 409
Provence, 517
Ptolemaeus of Lucca (c.1236–c.1327), 540, 551
Ptolemy, Claudius (c.100–c.175), 66–7, 69, 134, 178–9, 193
Puebla, 120
Puerto Rico, 209, 303
Pufendorf, Samuel von (1632–1694), 48, 155–6, 409, 504
Purcell, Henry (1659–1695), 119, 129
Pythagoras (c.570–c.495 bc), 134
Qing dynasty (1644–1912), 248, 267, 338–9, 345–6
Quebec, 270, 282, 290
Queirós, Pedro Fernandes de (1570–1614), 182, 192
Quesnay, François (1694–1774), 159
Quintilian, Marcus Fabius (c.35–100 ce), 11
Quito, 201, 299
Rabb, Theodore K., 496
Rabil, Jr., Albert, 8
Raja Singa II, King of Ceylon (1608–1687), 241
Rameau, Jean-Philippe (1683–1764), 129, 135
Ramsla, Johann Wilhelm Neumair von (1527–1641), 549
Rankin, Alisha, 63
Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino) (1483–1520), 84, 88–9
Raynal, Guillaume Thomas, Abbé (1713–1796), 158
Razin, Stenka (c.1630–1671), 427, 430, 433
Real Sociedad Bascongada de los Amigos del País (Basque Country), 162
Reddy, William, 419
Reid, Anthony, 334
Reims, 117, 119
Rembrandt van Rijn (1606–1669), 105
Reuchlin, Johann (1455–1522), 9
Rhineland, 231
Ricci, Matteo (1552–1610), 265–7, 272
Richard II, King of England (1367–1400), 360, 425–6
(p. 714) Richelieu (Armand Jean du Plessis), Cardinal and leading minister of Louis XIII (1585–1642), 286, 374, 466, 494–6, 521, 648
Richet, Denis, 497
Riebeeck, Jan van (1616–1677), 233
Rieber, Alfred J., 335
Rimini, 86
Rinuccini, Alamanno (1426–99), 17
Rio de Janeiro, 188, 221, 291, 302
Río de la Plata, 218, 293
Rivière, Mercier de la (c.1720–c.1793), 406
Roberts, Michael, 566
Robertson, William (1721–1793), 158, 162–3
Robespierre, Maximilien François Marie Isidore de (1758–1794), 551–2
Roche, Daniel, 144
Rogers, Clifford, 567
Roman empire, see Index of Subjects: empire
Romano, Giulio (c.1499–1546), 95
Romanov dynasty, 325, 386, 408, 548, 580, 583, 612–13, 632–3
Romanus, Aegidius (1243–1316), 538
Romulus (mythological founder of Rome), 44
Roper, Margaret, daughter of Thomas More (1505–1544), 16
Rorty, Richard, 143
Rosen, Edward, 79n38
Rosenberg, Hans, 504
Rosenthal, Jean-Laurent, 344
Rothkrug, Lionel, 497
Rotterdam, 149, 233, 235
Rouen, 82
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (1712–1778), 157–8, 160, 163, 165, 197, 539
Royal Academy of Arts (London), 109, 131
Royal Academy of Sciences (Académie Royale des Sciences, Paris), 141, 195–6
Royal Academy of Sciences (Turin), 162
Royal Academy of Sciences and Belles Lettres (Berlin), 162
Royal Observatory (Paris), 195
Rubens, Peter Paul (1577–1640), 100–1, 105, 108–9, 463
Rudé, George, 418–20
Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor (1552–1612), 70, 98, 451
Ruggieri, Michele (1543–1607), 265
Ruysdael, Jacob van (c.1629–1682), 104
Ruysdael, Salomon van (c.1602–1670), 104
Sá, Mem de (1557–1572), 259
Sabbadini, Remigio (1850–1934), 6
Sade, Marquis de (Donatien Alphonse François) (1740–1814), 197
Safavid empire, see Index of Subjects: empire
Sahara, 177–9, 203–4
St. Bavo Cathedral (Ghent), 90
St. Charles Church (Vienna), 107
St. Gallen (Switzerland), 11
St. Mark’s Cathedral (Venice), 116, 126–7
St. Mark’s Square (Venice), 88
St. Paul’s Cathedral (London), 107
St. Peter’s Basilica (Rome), 89, 96, 102, 107
St. Petersburg, 164, 321, 327, 547, 604, 607, 632, 646, 654
Saint-Domingue (Haiti), 282, 303
Saint-Simon, Louis de Rouvroy, Duke of (1675–1755), 447–8, 467
Salamanca, 214
Salle, René-Robert de la (1643–1687), 195
Salmasius, Claudius (1588–1653), 549
Salutati, Coluccio (c.1331–1406), 43–4
Salvador da Bahia, 212, 218, 259, 291
San Francisco, 223
Sansovino, Jacopo (1486–1570), 97
Santa Fe de Bogotá, 299
Santa Maria Novella (Florence), 86
Santa Maria della Vittoria (Rome), 103
Santo Domingo, city of, 212, 292 see also Hispaniola
São Jorge, 183
São Paulo, 222, 288, 295
São Tomé and Principe, 283, 285, 289
Sardinia, 6, 488, 490–1, 500, 685–6, 688
(p. 715) Savonarola, Girolamo (1452–1498), 20
Savoy, 467, 501, 657, 669
Saxony, 125, 133, 412, 517, 525, 549, 639, 641–2, 655, 681, 684–5
Scaliger, Joseph (1540–1609), 9
Scandinavia, 386–7, 387, 390–1, 401, 407–8, 410, 414, 449, 480, 565, 642
Scarlatti, Alessandro (1660–1725), 129
Schaffer, Simon, 61
Schlözer, August Ludwig, 158
Schola Cantorum Basiliensis (Basle), 137n2
Schönberg, Nicholas, Cardinal (1472–1537), 69
Schönbrunn palace (Vienna), 107
Schroeder, Wilhelm von (1640–1688), 540
Schubert, Franz (1797–1828), 115
Schulze, Winfried, 420
Schurman, Anna Maria van (1607–1678), 16
Schütz, Heinrich (1585–1672), 120, 125–6, 129, 133
Scotland, 145, 161, 323, 358, 370, 374, 379, 548–9, 563, 643, 645, 655
Scott, James C., 420, 434
Scott, Jonathan, 554n11
Scrovegni Chapel (Padua), 82, 83
Seckendorff, Veit Ludwig von (1626–1692), 503
Select Society of Edinburgh, 162–3
Selim I, Ottoman sultan (c.1465–1520), 622
Selim III, Ottoman sultan (1761–1808), 580, 633
Senatore, Francesco, 672
Seneca, Lucius Annaeus (c.1 bcece 65), 5, 70
Senegal, 179
Senegambia, 283
Senfl, Ludwig (1486–1543), 124
Sepúlveda, Juan Ginés de (1490–1573), 215
Serbia, 378, 617, 619, 625
Seville, 183, 191, 213, 217, 219, 222–3, 364
Sforza, Ludovico Maria, Duke of Milan (1452–1508), 483–4
Shaftesbury, 3rd Earl of (Anthony Ashley Cooper) (1671–1713), 156
Shakespeare, William (1564–1616), 66, 111, 114
Shapin, Steven, 61
Shirley, Robert (c.1581–1628), 105
Siam, 195, 245–6, 311, 315
Siberia, 194, 310, 325, 327, 397, 646
Sicily 6, 222, 256, 480–1, 488, 491, 500, 602, 623, 646, 648, 651
Siena, 82, 86, 421–4, 426, 433–4, 483, 522
Sierra Leone, 302
Sièyes, Emmanuel Joseph, Abbé (1748–1836), 165, 551
Sigismund II Augustus, King of Poland (also Zygmunt II August) (1520–1572), 393–4
Sigismund III Vasa, King of Poland (1566–1632), 403–4, 410–11
Sigismund of Luxemburg, Holy Roman Emperor (1368–1437), 359
Signorelli, Luca (c.1445–1523), 95
Silesia, 380, 388, 505–6, 580, 645, 651–2, 657
Simancas castle, 217
Simon, Richard (1638–1712), 149, 155
Simplicius of Cilicia (c.490–c.560), 73
Siqueira, Pero Vaz de (1684–1686), 315
Sistine Chapel (Rome), 24, 89, 95
Skinner, Quentin, 29, 551
Skocpol, Theda, 480
Smedley-Weill, Anette, 499
Smith, Adam (1727–1790), 157–60, 162–3, 200, 228, 342
Smith, John, Admiral of New England (c.1580–1631), 190, 587n28
Smolensk, 320, 396
Soboul, Albert, 418
Société Typographique de Neuchâtel, 162
Society of Jesus (Jesuits), 254–73, 298, 328, 506
Solomon Islands, 185
Soto, Hernando de (1496–1542), 189
South Africa, 281, 289, 298
South America, 59, 185, 188–9, 195, 204, 231, 240, 264, 270, 281–2, 284, 297, 310, 328–9, 336
South Carolina, 298
South Sea Company, 528
Spanish Netherlands, 543, 567, 647, 651, 657
Spary, Emma, 163
Speelman, Cornelis (1628–1684), 242
Spinoza, Benedict (Baruch) (p. 716) (1632–1677), 148–50
Stanisław II August, King of Poland–Lithuania (1732–1798), 547
Starkey, David, 446–7
Steen, Jan (c.1626–1679), 105
Steensgaard, Niels, 230
Stevin, Simon (1548–1620), 237
Stockholm, 105, 607, 643, 686, 688
Strabo (64/63 bc–24 ad), 179
Strahan, William (1715–1785), 162
Striggio, Alessandro, the Younger (c.1573–1630), 117
Strozzi, Barbara (1619–1677), 132
Sturm, Johannes (1507–1589), 9
Stuttgart, 379, 503
Suárez, Francisco (1548–1617), 41–2
Subrahmanyam, Sanjay, 336, 344, 349
Suffren, Pierre André de (1729–1788), 250
Süleyman I (the Magnificent), Ottoman sultan (1494–1566), 613, 615, 621–2, 624, 628–30, 650–1
Sumatra, 236, 241, 246
Surat, 245
Suriname, 282
Sweelinck, Jan Pieterszoon (1562–1621), 123, 131
Swift, Jonathan (1667–1745), 193
Swiss Federation, 541–3, 563
Switzerland, 11, 529, 538, 563, 641–2
Table Bay, 233
Tacitus, Publius Cornelius (c.56–c.117), 34, 375, 540
Tahiti, 197
Taiwan (Formosa), 239, 241–2, 248
Tallis, Thomas (c.1505–1585), 121
Tapia, Gonzalo de (1561–1594), 263
Tasman, Abel (1603–1659), 193, 240, 311, 314–15
Tasmania (Van Diemen’s Land), 240
Tasso, Torquato (1544–1595), 127, 675, 677
Tatishchev, Vasilii (1686–1750), 409
Taverner, John (c.1490–1545), 119
Tavernier, Jean-Baptiste (1605–1689), 327, 329
Taylor, Barbara, 164
Tekakwitha, Catherine (Kateri) (1656–1680), 270
Telemann, Georg Philipp (1681–1767), 126, 129, 131, 134, 136
Temple, William (1628–1699), 230
Tenochtitlan, 209–10, 212
Ternate Island, 177, 221, 236, 242
Terra Australis Incognita, 179, 193
Texas, 222, 529
The Hague, 238, 529, 544
Thévenot, Jean de (1633–1667), 195
Thomasius, Christian (1655–1728), 156
Thrace, 616–17, 624
Tibet, 309, 346
Tidore Island, 177, 236, 242
Tiepolo, Giovanni Baptista (1696–1770), 108
Tilly, Charles, 419–20, 430, 478–9, 507n1
Timur (Tamerlane) (1320s/30s–1405), 616–17
Tindal, Matthew (1657–1733), 149–50
Tintoretto (Jacopo Comin) (1518–1594), 96
Titian (Tiziano Vecelli) (c.1488/90–1576), 96, 105
Tocqueville, Alexis de (1805–1859), 142, 480
Tokugawa shogunate, 221, 239–40, 242, 339, 537n134
Toland, John (1670–1722), 149–50
Toledo, 98, 365
Toledo, Francisco de (1515–1582), 260
Topkapı palace (Istanbul), 619
Tordesillas, Portuguese-Spanish agreement (1494), 208
Torcy, Jean-Baptiste, marquis of Colbert see Colbert
Torres, Luis de (d. 1493), 192
Tournai, 422–3
Tournon, Charles-Thomas Maillard de (1668–1710), 269
Trajan’s Column (Rome), 107
Transylvania, 359, 365, 622, 625, 627
Trastamara dynasty, 358, 360
Traversari, Ambrogio (1386–1439), 21
Trémaugon, Évrart de (d. 1386), 363
(p. 717) Trevor-Roper, Hugh, 147
Trigault, Nicolas (1577–1628), 267, 277n66
Tromp, Maarten Harpertszoon (1598–1653), 601
Tunder, Franz (1614–1667), 131
Tunis, 364, 623
Turenne, Viscount Henri de la Tour d’Auvergne (1611–1675), 567
Turin, 162, 458
Turkey, 324, 638, 648
Turks and Caicos Islands, 653
Tuscany, 82, 88, 481, 488, 500, 674
Tye, Christopher (1505–1572), 119
Tyson, Edward (1651–1708), 153
Ukraine, 394, 408, 410, 427,430, 570
Ulloa, Antonio de (1716–1795), 197
Ulrika Eleanora, Queen Regnant of Sweden (1688–1741), 406
United Kingdom, 162–3, 340, 579–80
see also Great Britain
United States of America, 6, 294, 302, 529
Urban VIII (Maffeo Barberini), Pope (1568–1644), 72–3, 128, 527
Urbino, 86, 447
Uruguay, 328
Utrecht, 113, 525, 545
Valdemar IV, King of Denmark (1320–1375), 387
Valencia, 488, 491
Valera, Blas (1545–1597), 261, 275n31
Valignano, Alessandro (1539–1606), 265–6, 268
Valla, Lorenzo (1406–1457), 14, 21
Valladolid, 214, 217, 365, 493
Valleriani, Matteo, 61
Valverde, Francisco (fl. second half of 16th century), 190
Van Diemen, Antonio (1593–1645), 240–1, 250
Van Eyck, Hubert (c.1385/90–1426), 90–3, 91
Van Eyck, Jan (c.1390–1441), 90–2, 91
Vanhal, Johann Baptiste (1739–1813), 134
Vasari, Giorgio (1511–1574), 84, 95
Vasilii II, Grand Prince of Moscow (1415–1462), 388, 396, 398
Vasilii III, Grand Prince of Moscow (1479–1533), 396
Vauban, Sébastien Le Prestre de (1633–1707), 571
Vatican, 89
Vatican Library, 88
Vega, Garcilaso de la (1539–1616), 261
Velasco, Juan López de (c.1530–1598), 300
Velázquez, Diego (1599–1660), 100–2, 102, 105
Venezuela, 188
Venturi, Franco, 144–5
Vera Cruz, 212
Verbiest, Ferdinand (1623–1688), 267
Vergerio, Pier Paolo (1370–1444/5), 12, 14
Vermeer, Jan (1632–1675), 105
Verocchio, Andrea (c.1435–1488), 86
Verona, 11, 15, 483–4
Veronese, Paolo (1528–1588), 96
Verri, Pietro (1728–1797), 159
Vesalius, Andreas (1514–1564), 24
Vespucci, Amerigo (1454–1512), 25, 181–2, 187–8, 191–2
Vicentino, Nicola (1511–1575/6), 135
Vicenza, 97, 483–4
Vico, Giambattista (1668–1744), 143, 150
Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy and subsequently King of Sicily and Sardinia (1666–1732), 433
Victor Amadeus III, King of Sardinia and ruler of Savoy-Piedmont (1726–1796), 162
Victoria, Tomas Luis de (1548–1611), 120
Vieira, António (1608–1697), 260
Villa La Rotonda (Vicenza), 97
Villagrá, Gaspar Pérez de (1555–1620), 189
Villani, Giovanni (c.1276–1348), 422
Villari, Rosario, 428
Virgil (Publius Vergilius Maro) (70–19 bc), 5, 26
Virginia, 190–1, 282, 287, 291, 298, 323
Virginia Company, 194, 284, 287, 319, 587n28
Visconti family, 43, 483–6, 667
Visconti, Filippo Maria, Duke of Milan (1392–1447), 483–4
Visconti, Gian Galeazzo, Duke of Milan (1351–1402), 483–4
Visscher, François Jacobszoon (d. 1645?), 240
Vitoria, Francisco de (c.1483–1546), 50–1, 53, 214
Vitruvius (Marcus Vitruvius Pollio) (c.80/70–c.15 bc), 97
Vitry, Philippe de (1291–1361), 119
Vivaldi, Antonio (1678–1741), 133
Vives, Juan Luis (1493–1540), 8, 13, 16, 19, 21
Voigt, Georg (1827–1891), 5–6, 8
Voltaire (François-Marie Arouet) (1694–1778), 151–2, 158, 161, 163–4, 197, 263
Vries, Adrian de (c.1556–1626), 98
Vries, Jan de, 341
Vytautas, Grand Duke of Lithuania (1350–1430), 392–3, 396
Wade, Ira, 148
Wales, 361, 367
Wallachia, 617, 625, 629, 670, 679
Wallenstein, Albrecht von (1583–1634), 526, 578–9
Walter, John, 433
Wang, Zheng (1571–1644), 266
Warburton, William (1698–1779), 150
Warsaw, 408, 410, 412, 502, 547, 576, 664, 684
Watteau, Jean-Antoine (1684–1721), 108
Weber, Max (1864–1920), 464, 478–80
Weckmann, Matthias (1616–1674), 131
Wedgwood, Josiah (1730–1795), 340
Wenceslaus IV, King of Bohemia (1361–1419), 360–1
Wertheimer, Samson (1658–1724), 526
West Indies, 200, 298
Westman, Robert, 68
Weyden, Rogier van der (1400–1464), 90, 92
Wheeler, John (d. 1618), 307, 328
Whitehall palace (London), 128
Whitworth, Charles (1675–1725), 321
Whyte, Robert (c.1538–1574), 121
Wicquefort, Abraham van (1606–1682), 683, 688, 690
Wieland, Christoph Martin (1733–1813), 504
Wilhelm, Karl, Margrave of Baden-Durlach (1679–1738), 504
William I, Prince of Orange and Dutch Stadtholder (1533–1584) (‘William the Silent’), 371, 516, 529, 541, 543
William II, Prince of Orange and Dutch Stadtholder (1626–1650), 467, 544
William III, Dutch Stadtholder and King of England, Ireland, and Scotland (1650–1702), 230, 379, 453, 457, 462, 467, 545, 602, 645
William IV, Duke of Bavaria (1493–1550), 515
William V, Prince of Orange (1748–1806), 251, 546
Witt, Johan de (1625–1672), 543–6, 550, 601, 677
Witte, Hans de (1583–1630), 526
Wittek, Paul, 617
Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 29–30
Władysław I (the Short), King of Poland (1261–1333), 388
Władysław II Jagiełło, King of Poland (1362–1434), 390, 392–3
Władysław III, King of Poland (1424–1444), 390, 393
Władysław IV Vasa, King of Poland (1595–1648), 644
Wolff, Christian, German philosopher (1679–1754), 504
Wollstonecraft, Mary (1759–1797), 164
Wolsey, Thomas, Cardinal (1473–1530), 674
Wren, Christopher (1632–1723), 107
Württemberg, 501, 503, 641, 653
(p. 719) Wycliffe, John (1331–1384), 118
Xavier, Francis (1506–1552), 336
Ximénes de Cisneros, Francisco, Cardinal (1436–1517), 203
Xu, Guagqi (1562–1633), 266
Yang, Tingyun (1562–1627), 266
Yongzheng, Emperor of China (1678–1735), 268
Ypres, 423, 426, 434
Yucatán, 210
Zarlino, Gioseffo (1517–1590), 134
Zedler, Johann Heinrich (1706–1751), 440
Zeeland, 231–3, 457, 516, 543–5, 601, 603
Zhang, Huang (1527–1608), 266
Zheng, Chenggong (1624–1662), 239, 241, 248, 338
Zieglerin, Anna (c.1550–1575), 63
Zilsel, Edgar, 61
Žižka, Jan (c.1360–1424), 428
Zwingli, Huldrych (1484–1531), 122 (p. 720)