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date: 19 January 2020

(p. 763) Index of Subjects

(p. 763) Index of Subjects

Numbers in bold refer to illustrations, maps, and tables.

actor-network theory, 235
agrarian society, 15–16, 71–6, 282–4, 398–424, 428–46, 429
arboriculture, 401, 413
black soil region (Russia), 330, 442–5, 452n79
capitalist agriculture, 382, 398, 404–5, 409, 412–16, 421–2, 424, 431
commune system, 169, 413–14, 444
contado system, 414–15, 462–5, 468, 486
cottage industry, 511, 520
craft production, 421, 444–5, 512, 526, 534
credit systems, 411–12, 462
enclosure, 283, 401, 403, 405–6, 411, 417, 419–22, 529
fairs and bazaars, 154, 156, 445
farmhands, 438–9, 450n48, 452n78
fishing, 398, 404, 407
forestry, 398, 400, 407, 518
hide (peasant landholding) system, 432, 435, 440, 451n68
historiography of rural life, 457–8
hunting, 404, 434
irrigation, 74, 85, 398–400, 423
kinship landholding, 439–40
land reclamation, 403–4, 406
landholding, 417–22, 424
landless peasants, 415, 417, 424, 438, 449n45, 527–8
parish networks, 168, 283, 432, 435, 440–2, 448n28
pastoralism, 139, 399–402, 404–5, 407, 409, 414, 418, 420, 484
ploughing, 74, 154, 271, 402, 406, 435, 522
regional variety, 398–408
seigneurial exploitation, 299, 418–19, 430–3, 438, 440, 442–6, 451n60, 462, 529, 705, 707
serfdom (Gutsherrschaft), 18, 279, 282, 315, 327–8, 354, 356–8, 378, 400, 405, 419, 428, 442–3, 445, 480–1, 486, 500, 510, 516, 526–7, 532, 536, 645
share-cropping, 369, 379, 399–401, 407, 410, 412–16, 418, 423–4, 467
smallholding, 399, 402–3, 407–8, 414, 416, 438
soil and productivity, 75, 139, 283, 398–400, 402–6, 408–9, 434, 443–5, 447n21, 455, 513, 524–5
specialized production, 277, 283
subsistence agriculture, 16, 73, 87, 135, 282–3, 403, 414, 421, 520
swidden (slash and burn) agriculture, 404, 406, 434, 447n21
terracing, 401
urban landowners, 399–401, 403, 412–16, 462, 467, 486
(p. 764)
viticulture, 399–402, 413
American Declaration of Independence (1776), 234
Anabaptists, 298, 495, 561, 575, 582, 585, 587, 606, 620, 728–9
ancien régime, 15, 168, 171, 181, 183–4, 258, 280, 288, 295–6, 383, 601, 623
Anglicanism, 160, 558, 563–4, 606
art
consumption of art works, 471–2
depiction of time, 154
International Gothic, 436
painting, 17, 44, 160, 203, 381, 436
portraiture, 350
religious/devotional, 495, 576, 581, 585–6, 597n32, 604, 618–19
sculpture, 436
urban architecture, 494–5, 499–500
works:
An Election Entertainment (Hogarth), 160
Beaune Altarpiece (Van der Weyden), 724–5
St. Francis Adoring the Crucifix (Reni), 619
St. Theresa in Ecstasy (Bernini), 619
St. Theresa’s Vision (Rubens), 619
Windmills (Brueghel the Elder), 187n11
art history, 5, 350, 503, 585–6, 694
bureaucracy/bureaucratization, 7, 192, 205, 466, 612
see also governance
Calvinism, 204, 381, 495, 551, 561–3, 583, 586–7, 629, 687–8, 730, 732
capitalism, 4, 9, 11, 129, 142n16, 156, 160, 253, 269, 272, 288, 329, 389, 403, 416–19, 421–2, 446, 458, 479, 514, 587–8, 593–5
cartography
Arab and Persian maps, 61
Asian maps, 61–2
biblical representations, 42–3
borders and boundaries, 56–60
cartographic science, 43–4
Chinese maps, 62
construction of ‘Europe’, 37–65, 39–40, 45–7, 49–50, 52, 56, 58, 63, 65
depiction of monstrous races, 39, 41
development of collective identity, 39, 42, 44–7, 51, 54–66
female personification of continents, 38, 48–54, 49–50, 52, 66
Mercator projection, 44
myth and legend, 38, 42–3
political propaganda, 51
portolan charts, 43
Ptolemaic maps, 39, 43–5, 45, 61–2
Russian maps, 62–5, 63, 65
T-O (orbis terrarium) maps, 39–41, 40, 43, 51, 57
use of maps by pilgrims, 44
works:
Geography (Ptolemy), 38, 43, 253
Catholicism, 543–66, 601–23, 723–37
canonization, 616
conciliarism, 547–8, 556
Concordat of Bologna (1516), 556
confraternities, 550–1, 609, 613–15
crusades, 552–3
doctrine of Real Presence, 560–1, 578, 590, 602–5, 610–11, 620, 622
East–West schism (1054), 41, 553, 577
Great (Western) Schism (1378–1417), 42, 245, 545–9, 556, 607–8, 727
Gregorian calendar system (1582), 160
hierarchical office, 304–6, 608–9
Index of Prohibited Books, 233, 612
Inquisitions, 230, 283, 352, 473, 552, 556–7, 577, 612, 617, 619–21, 677, 734–5
Investiture Controversy (11th–12th centuries), 556–7
Jesuits (Society of Jesus), 252–3, 565, 594, 614–16, 618–19, 640, 694
localism, 611–12, 616–17
Marian devotion, 610
material culture, 621
mendicancy, 546, 549, 550, 605, 607, 614
Modern Devotion, 545–6, 550, 580
(p. 765)
monasticism, 351–2, 549–50, 564, 615
Observantism, 549–50
papal authority and supremacy, 551, 553, 556, 577, 580, 727–8
professionalized piety, 603, 607, 609, 619, 622–3
residence in Rome, 607–8, 612
Second Vatican Council (1962–5), 601
spiritual charity, 618
suspicion of women, 619
Teutonic Order, 157, 434
universalism, 42, 554, 611–12, 616–17
use and promotion of Latin, 194
vernacular bibles, 201
Christendom, 3, 21, 37, 40–2, 51, 494, 547, 553, 561, 573, 593, 678, 733, 735
Christianity, 20–1, 41–3, 46, 53, 61, 64, 543–66
affective piety, 578–9, 589–92, 619
belief, 720–42
blood debates, 578–9
Book of Common Prayer, 564
canon law, 577, 613, 635, 642
challenge of Enlightenment thought, 722, 738–41
collective repentance and piety, 604–5, 610
communal vs. doctrinal, 722, 726
conception of time, 145
confessional coexistence, 722, 727–31
confessionalization, 557, 607, 613, 633, 643, 722, 732–3
conversion experience, 580–3, 606–7
Credo, 720–1, 724
crusades/crusading, 41, 169
early hospitals, 108
Eucharist sacrament, 248, 550, 553, 559–61, 573, 578, 583, 586, 590, 602, 610–11, 614, 620, 640, 720, 724
festive calendar, 160, 605, 610
historiography, 543–5
humanist critique of, 555
imitative piety, 604
King James Bible, 197
lived experience, 575–7, 580–3, 617–18
mystics, 351–2, 546–7, 591
pilgrimage, 44, 169, 495, 553, 565, 578–9, 629
reform movements, 549–52, 556–65, 577–9, 606
regulation/control of popular religious practices, 722, 731–7
relics, 214, 495, 579, 616–17, 639, 646, 676
sacred space, 611
salvation narratives, 723–7
shrines, 604–5, 617, 629
Vulgate Bible, 231
works:
Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536, revised, 1539), 562
Spiritual Exercises (Loyola), 565, 619
The Golden Legend (Voragine), 565, 603, 736
The Imitation of Christ (Thomas à Kempis), 550–1, 565, 604
Church councils
Council of Basel (1431–49), 551, 556
Council of Constance (141418), 547–9, 551, 577
Council of Ferrara–Florence (1437–39), 631, 635
Council of Nicaea (325), 160
Council of Trent (1545–63), 119, 304, 545, 547, 554, 565, 612, 621–2, 677, 727
communication(s), 21, 74, 85, 165–86
ambassadors and diplomats, 44, 176–7, 180, 254–6
‘communications revolution’, 165–6, 186, 228–9
correspondence networks, 248
costs, 173–4
couriers, 157–8, 167, 173–7
distribution of news, 177–81
increase in speed, 173, 175, 185
letter writing, 175, 229, 245, 248, 361
newsletters, 177–81
penny post, 175
postal systems, 157–8, 166, 172–7, 174, 183, 245
telegraph, 165, 187n2
(p. 766)
works:
Wealth of Nations (Smith), 167
Counter-Reformation, 53, 160, 169, 216, 222, 224, 389, 495, 564–5
see also Catholicism
cultural history, 9, 77, 94, 165, 270, 458, 473–4, 503, 521, 545, 592, 666
‘Dark Ages’, 2, 6, 43
decolonization, 8, 348
deism, 739–41
demography
crisis of the seventeenth century, 129–34, 271–2, 278, 302
cultural drivers of change, 122–3
demographic transition, 121–4
European Marriage Pattern, 126, 137–40, 321–2
family reconstitution method, 119, 136–7
historical demography, 119–48
household and family, 313–38
ideas as drivers of change, 123
impact of military conflict, 132–3
life expectancy, 95–6, 114, 141, 143n32, 314
macro trends and cycles, 270–80
Malthusian crises, 15–16, 114, 131–2, 271, 329
Malthusian theory, 127–9, 134–7, 271–3
marriage patterns and fertility rates, 75, 121–6, 128–37, 142n26, 143n32, 271–3, 320–4, 328–31, 340n37, 483
migration and immigration, 75, 132, 171, 238, 283, 288, 338, 400, 407, 423–4, 474, 484, 498, 606, 653–5, 677
mortality rates, 95–6, 98–9, 103, 114, 121, 123–6, 128–36, 142n26, 143n32, 271, 283, 314, 465, 483, 580
periodization and time scales, 120–1
population rates and levels, 21, 74–5, 119–48, 122, 125, 171, 219, 272–3, 314–15, 399, 402, 404, 436, 441, 459–60, 479–84, 520–1
socio-economic drivers of change, 123
theories of population change, 127–9
total fertility rate (TFR), 121
works:
Essay on the Principle of Population (Malthus), 15, 127
Diggers, 298, 739
disease and epidemics, 76, 86, 94–115, 278
bills of mortality, 114, 249–50
Black Death (1348–51), 15–17, 75, 97, 124–5, 128–30, 139, 141n8, 152, 215, 245, 329, 404–5, 409, 413, 420, 436, 455, 481, 483, 490, 499, 604
diphtheria, 99
epidemiology, 103, 107, 114
epizootics, 86–7, 86, 97, 113
dysentery, 76
gout, 95
influenza, 95, 99, 119, 483
lepers/leprosy, 41, 109
mental illness, 96
mortality rates, 95–6, 98–9, 109, 114, 124–5, 127–30, 132–4, 483
nutritional disease, 95, 135
plague pits, 97
prevention, 103
smallpox, 76, 98–9, 103, 109, 114, 483
syphilis (Great Pox), 98–9, 109
typhus, 76, 99, 483
works:
Natural Observations on the Bills of Mortality (Graunt), 114
see also medicine
Domesday Book (1086), 249
early modernity
concept of, 1–22
economic and social trends, 269–89
German-language scholarship, 9–12
modernization theory, 6–8, 10, 17–19, 123, 165, 269, 501, 723
periodization, 2, 5–6, 10–11, 13–14, 16–21, 23n5
(p. 767)
regional studies, 15
social and economic history, 269–70
terminology and study, 4–9, 11
Eastern Orthodox Church, 577, 626–48, 627
administrative pluralism, 634–5
apophaticism, 639
eldership system (gerontismos), 629–30
financial resources and administration, 643–5
Greek Orthodox Church, 41, 553, 630, 646–7
heresy, 645–6
Hesychasm, 636, 638, 645, 649n26
millet system, 634
monasticism, 630, 634–7, 644–5
Orthodox utopia, 634
patriarchs, 628–9, 632
Petrine reforms, 633, 638, 641
Russian Orthodox Church, 630–4, 636–8, 644–7
schools and colleges, 640–1
theological development, 638–43
Third Rome theory, 631
Union of Brest (1596), 633
economic growth and development, 3, 134, 252–3, 280–4, 378, 382, 484–6, 532
consumer revolution, 225–6, 277, 284, 287, 362–3, 369–91, 485
cyclical trends, 14–15
globalization, 44, 53, 74
imperial windfall gain, 274
industrious revolution, 287, 315, 373–4, 381, 387, 520–2
macro trends and cycles, 270–80
output per capita, 281
proto-industry, 135, 269, 274, 283–7, 315, 399, 403, 423–4, 445, 514, 520–2, 524, 526, 528–30, 533, 536
putting-out system, 274, 283, 486, 511–13, 516, 528, 533
economics
classical, 127, 133
demand side, 283, 287, 371, 373
‘dismal science’, 128–9
iron law of wages, 127–8
neo-classical, 474
opportunity costs, 520, 522–8, 531, 538n24
Prebisch–Singer hypothesis, 290n16
quantitative information, 250
supply side, 237, 373, 387
total factor productivity, 408, 422–3
transaction costs, 400, 416, 520, 522–6, 531–3, 539n37
education
examinations, 247
history teaching, 8, 11, 13
home schooling, 198
humanist, 151, 195, 205, 259, 622
internationalization of, 169
national languages, 192
numeracy, 202–3, 216, 227, 244, 250–1
peripatetic teachers, 198
school timetables, 151
schools, 198, 202, 204–5, 246–7
Welsh circulating schools, 200
empire
Aztec, 167, 360, 479
Byzantine, 41, 428, 456, 553, 628, 636, 646, 648, 674, 679
Habsburg, 88, 173, 175, 252, 278, 323, 360, 531, 675–81
Holy Roman, 157, 169, 174, 175, 178–9, 199, 300, 302, 307, 436, 483, 492, 499, 525, 532, 546, 557–8, 653, 727, 729, 735
Inca, 167
Mongol, 21, 41, 170, 176, 628, 631, 636
(p. 768)
Roman, 100, 455, 553, 577
Safavid, 628, 685, 688
employment and labour
apprenticeship, 100, 103–4, 113, 156, 226–8, 285, 305, 307, 489, 491, 512
Corvée (unpaid, enforced labour), 185
day-labourers, 206, 306–7, 371, 386, 399, 470, 522–3, 527–8
guilds, 153, 285–6, 307
proto-industry, 135, 269, 274, 283–7, 315, 399, 403, 423–4, 445, 514, 520–2, 524, 526, 528–30, 533, 536
regulation of labour time, 152–4, 158–60, 161n17
Saint Monday absenteeism, 153, 156, 286–7
serfdom (Gutsherrschaft), 18, 279, 282, 315, 327–8, 354, 356–8, 378, 400, 405, 419, 428, 442–3, 445, 480–1, 486, 500, 510, 516, 526–7, 532, 536, 645
Enlightenment period (late 17th–18th century), 2–3, 21, 123, 193, 207–9, 216, 225, 227–8, 234, 496, 603, 738–41
philosophes, 60, 227, 298, 740
environment and climate, 24n13, 70–88
archives of nature, 76–7, 79
biotopes, 71
climate–society interaction, 84–8, 85–6
climate trends, 81–4, 278–9
deforestation, 72–3, 404–5
effect of climate on population growth, 75, 279
energy resources, 72–4
environmental determinism, 84
environmental history, 70–1, 76–81, 84–8
fossil fuel, 72–4, 128
global warming, 82, 279
Little Ice Age (c.1300–c.1850), 82, 87–8, 171, 278–9
meteorology, 78–9, 81
natural crises, 76, 279
rubbish and waste, 74
social metabolism, 71–2
weather cycles, 292n43
weather history, 77–81, 78, 80
European expansion and colonization, 3, 42, 74, 145, 166, 169, 245, 252–3, 273–8, 375–6, 483–4
importation of disease, 98–9
native populations, 99
religious motivation, 553–4
evolutionary theory, 7
exploration, 3, 20, 74, 247, 273
navigation, 155, 166
see also cartography
feudalism, 4, 9, 129, 142n16, 269, 271, 278, 281, 398, 405, 416, 419, 451n61, 458, 479, 520, 527
functionalism, 7, 343–4
gender studies, 3, 20, 33n107, 469, 472–3, 708–9
see also women
governance and government, 3
absolutism, 302
administrative innovation, 21
administrative reach, 288
cameralism, 288
centralization, 192, 288
city-states, 278, 288, 306–7, 492, 494, 501
contado system, 414–15, 462–5, 468, 486
estates system, 436–7, 448n35, 451n61
information gathering and record-keeping, 249–50
international relations and diplomacy, 254–6
language, 192, 194, 196, 198–202
legitimacy, 73, 288, 738
power elites, 437, 442
tyranny, 42
(p. 769)
urban investment, 184–5
use of statistical science, 114
see also monarchy
Great Crash (1929), 14–15
‘Great Man’ theories of history, 347–9, 351, 365
Great Council of Venice, 112
historicism, 10
historiography, 9, 12, 16, 139–40, 244, 303, 370–1, 373–4, 376, 405, 457–9, 474–5, 500–4, 575, 670–2, 683, 688–9, 695–700
Annales school, 12–16, 165, 270, 316, 370, 374, 457–8, 474, 502
horse-racing, 155, 162n30
households and family systems, 313–38, 402, 440, 443–4, 452n78, 452n79, 452n81, 472–3, 489–91, 511, 513, 520–3, 527–8
co-residence, 313–21, 323, 334–6
demographic constraints, 335–7
European Marriage Pattern, 126, 137–40, 321–1, 328–9
family system dimensions and variables, 319–21, 331–3
geo-cultures, 337–8
headship, 331–2, 332
home-leaving patterns, 320, 323–6, 331
Index of Patriarchy, 321
industrious revolution, 287, 315, 373–4, 381, 387, 520–2
joint-family system, 334–5
kinship groups and networks, 3, 313, 317–18, 336, 418, 439–40, 611, 615, 682
life-cycle servants, 320, 322, 325, 326–8
marriage patterns and fertility rates, 75, 121–6, 128–37, 142n26, 143n32, 271–3, 320–4, 328–31, 340n37
nuclear family model, 314, 322, 329, 333–6, 333, 402
regional differences, 315, 321–37, 332
stem-family system, 334–6
Huguenots, 155, 530, 729–31
humanism, 11, 192, 230, 252, 256, 552–3, 559–60, 562, 611, 687
civic, 234, 491
critique of scholasticism, 555
education, 151, 195, 205, 259, 622
ideal of man, 199
importance of literacy, 199, 205
periodization of history, 2
preservation of ancient texts, 247
studia humanitatis, 195
translation of the Bible, 201
use of Latin, 194–5, 256
Hussitism, 551, 577–8, 611
individualism, 3–4, 7, 234, 329, 350–1
Industrial Revolution, 16, 18, 128, 158–60, 227, 271, 363, 424, 482, 485
industrialization, 7, 18–19, 165, 284, 371, 373, 382, 467, 509–10, 513, 515, 519–22, 524, 529–30, 535–7
evolutionary vs. revolutionary views, 522
industrious revolution, 287, 315, 373–4, 381, 387, 520–2
proto-industry, 135, 269, 274, 283–7, 315, 399, 403, 423–4, 445, 514, 520–2, 524, 526, 528–30, 533, 536
see also manufacturing
information ‘revolution’, 244–59
accessing and managing information, 245
almanacs, 249
archives, 4, 252, 255
‘archives of nature’, 77–81, 78, 80
botany and natural history, 247–8
collection and stockpiling, 247
correspondence networks, 248
culture of display, 247
diplomatic dispatches, 254–6
florilegia, 247
handbooks of arithmetic, 250–1
information brokers, 245
manuscript production, 244–5, 249, 255
misinformation and propaganda, 254
news distribution, 253–9
news-sheets (avvisi), 177, 255–7
oral culture, 186, 196, 216, 229, 232, 254, 256, 258, 695, 699, 722, 731–2, 736–7
public lectures, 245–6
questionnaires and surveys, 251–2
reference works and encyclopaedias, 245, 247
scribal culture, 220, 229, 237, 658
(p. 770)
works:
Bibliotheca universalis (Gessner), 247
Codex Mendoza, 252
Encyclopédie (Diderot and d’Alembert), 247, 252
Islam/Muslims, 5, 41, 54, 61, 100, 456, 518, 552–4, 557, 606–7, 620, 626, 628, 635–6, 670–89
Christian conversion to Islam, 674–5
communal identity, 673
historiography, 670–2
Iberian and Balkan Muslims, 672–5
Islamic law (sharia courts), 353, 355, 635, 673, 675, 682, 685
labels and categories, 671
mass expulsion and persecution, 677–8
Moriscos, 488, 557, 676–8, 686
Muslim diplomats and travellers, 685–7
Muslim merchants, 683–5
Muslim slaves and captives, 681–3
Qur’an, 358, 673, 688
religious coexistence (convivencia), 672–3, 676
scholars and intellectuals, 687–8
Sufism, 673–5, 680
Judaism/Jews, 41, 198, 204, 300, 308, 488, 536, 557, 603, 606–7, 620–1, 652–67
anti-Semitism, 552, 594
boundary-crossing with Christianity, 663–6
communal self-government, 656–8
conversos, 654, 661, 663–6, 677
Jewish identity, 663–6
mass expulsion and persecution, 653, 676
mobility and migration, 653–5, 667n2
peripatetic intellectuals, 655
printed texts, 658–60
rabbinic vs. lay authority, 657–8
Sabbateanism, 661–7
sub-communities, 652–3
trade and communication networks, 654
‘wandering Jew’, 653
languages and literary culture, 192–209
Arabic, 42, 195, 221, 675–7, 686–8
Bible-reading and translation, 192, 194–5, 198, 200–1, 205, 231
Czech, 194
English, 193, 196, 202, 209
German, 194, 196, 199–202, 208, 248
Greek, 100, 151, 195, 200, 221, 231, 552, 626, 629, 641–3, 647
Hebrew, 200, 204, 231, 552, 658–60, 665–6, 687
Italian, 200–1
Ladino, 219, 655, 659
libraries, 203, 224–5, 234, 236, 247
linguistic basis of nationhood, 201
national languages, 192–4, 196, 199–202, 207–9
Ordonnance de Villers-Cotterêts (1539), 198, 200
readers, 193, 197, 202, 206–9, 229–30
reading public, 192, 194–5, 197, 203, 207, 209, 225, 473, 659
regional dialects, 192–3, 198–200, 207
republic of letters (respublica literarum), 196, 208–9, 222, 248, 496
sites of mediation, 234–5
translation, 193, 195, 198, 208, 231
vernaculars, 192–202, 204, 206–8, 221, 230, 248–9
Welsh, 200
works:
Dialogues in French and English (Caxton), 198
Prose della volgar lingua (Bembo), 200
Yiddish, 199–200, 204, 219, 655, 659
Lollardy, 551
(p. 771) manufacturing, 21, 485–6, 509–37
cottage industry, 511
crafts, 511–12
division of labour, 371, 509–10, 512–13
factory system, 18, 509, 520, 535
growth and expansion, 509–10, 535–7
guilds, 533–5
industrious revolution, 287, 315, 373–4, 381, 387, 520–2
manufactories, 513–14
mining and metallurgy, 73, 401–2, 404, 407, 420, 511–12, 515–18, 528, 534, 645
natural resources and geographical location, 524–6, 535
opportunity costs, 520, 522–8, 531, 538n24
proto-industrialization, 135, 269, 274, 283–7, 315, 399, 403, 423–4, 445, 514, 520–2, 524, 526, 528–30, 533, 536
putting-out system, 274, 283, 486, 511–13, 516, 528, 533
regional specialization, 510
rural conditions and institutions, 526–30
state government impact, 530–2, 539n37
textile production, 72, 284, 363, 511–16, 525, 528, 537n7, 538n24
transaction costs, 400, 416, 520, 522–6, 531–3, 539n37
material culture, 4, 270, 275, 287, 370–5, 385, 389, 469–70, 503, 585–7, 602, 617, 619, 621
availability and cost of goods, 376–87
Catholic, 621
clothing, 370–1, 377, 383, 385–9, 391
communal goods, 389
consumer revolution, 225–6, 277, 284, 287, 362–3, 369–91, 485
effect of warfare, 378
elite shopping, 379
fashion, 362–3, 371, 385–7
food and foodways, 375–6, 384, 387, 470–1
hospitality and social interaction, 388, 390
households of the poor, 289, 374
industrious revolution, 287, 315, 373–4, 381, 387, 520–2
inventories of goods, 371–3, 375, 377–83, 388, 390, 392n7, 469, 522
luxury goods, 369–71, 373, 377, 381–2, 390, 484, 519
middle-class markets, 371, 373, 378
morality of consumption, 588
pawn shops, 379
Protestant, 585–8
public opulence, 370, 376
sumptuary laws, 156, 307, 362, 386, 389, 488
taste, 369, 376, 471
mathematics and arithmetic, 250–1
medicine, 94–115, 709–10
alchemy, 100–1
anatomy, 94, 100, 102, 104, 115
apothecaries, 104, 113
astrology, 107
corporate regulation, 113–14
elite vs. popular, 709–10
exclusion of women, 113–14
exorcism, 107
Galenic, 100–3
health initiatives, 111–15
herbal and botanical remedies, 100, 105, 107, 589
hospitals, 103, 107–11
iatrochemistry, 101, 103
inoculation/vaccination, 99, 102–3, 114
institutional care, 107–11
magic, 100, 107, 734
medical knowledge, 100–5, 116n11
medical training, 103–4, 108
mercury, 98, 101
midwifery, 104–5, 110, 113
military hospitals, 110
number of practitioners, 106, 116n19
Paracelsian, 101, 105
religion, 107
self-help, 106–7
state physicians, 112–13
surgery, 100, 103–4, 113
treatment of mental illness, 96, 107, 110–11, 117n22
vitalism, 101–3
works:
An Essay on Health and Long Life (Cheyne), 107
Aristotle’s Masterpiece (Anon.), 107
(p. 772)
De Humani Corporis Fabrica (Vesalius), 102
Man a Machine (La Mettrie), 101
Primitive Physick, Or an Easy and Natural Method of Curing Most Diseases (Wesley), 107
Sure and Certain Methods of Attaining a Long and Healthy Life (Cornaro), 107
Methodism, 107
microhistory, 270, 473–5, 700–3, 711, 713
monarchy
absolutism, 464, 486, 608
announcements of royal marriages, births, and deaths, 180, 254
authority and power, 16, 464
cadastral surveys, 51
costs of, 4
coronations, 607
divine right doctrine, 738, 742
official publications, 180–1
rituals, 254
myth and legend, 38, 42–3, 154
peace settlements
Augsburg (1555), 557
Pyrenees (1659), 288
Versailles (1919), 12
Westphalia (1648), 175, 278, 566n2
philosophical modernity, 11
philosophy, 11
Hegelianism, 16
scholasticism, 554–5
works:
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (Locke), 738
Letter Concerning Toleration (Locke), 738
Leviathan (Hobbes), 196, 295
The Praise of Folly (Erasmus), 555
Two Treatises on Government (Locke), 738–9
popular culture, 694–713
anthropology, 697–8
carnival and social order, 706
cognitive science research, 708
elite vs. popular culture, 694–5, 699–703, 709–10, 721–2, 731–2
gender studies, 708–8
medical practices, 709–10
methodological approaches, 695–700
microhistory, 270, 473–5, 700–3, 711–13
micronarratives, 711–12
‘popular turn’, 696
recourse to law, 707
religious practices, 703–6
ritual and social cohesion, 696–8
sub-cultures, 696, 710
thick description, 697–8
witchcraft studies, 707–8
popular protest and resistance, 3, 700
anti-enclosure protest, 421
calendar riots (1752, in Britain), 160
Celali Rebellion (Anatolia) (1596–1610), 88
food riots, 466, 493
radical movements, 348, 739
role of women, 709
tax riots, 493
positivism, 12
postcolonial theory, 19, 38, 273, 349
postmodernism, 31n95, 346
poststructuralist theory, 235
poverty, 76, 87
beggars and vagrants, 99, 228, 489–90
corporate charity, 618
migration, 283
poor law, 272, 279, 283, 286
poor relief, 108, 111, 171, 283, 286, 489–90
result of illness, 111
result of imperial expansion, 274, 510
rural, 462, 467
urban, 171, 489–90
printing and print culture, 4, 18, 165–6, 192–209, 247–8, 736–7
banned books, 232
bibles, 197, 214–17, 231–2, 551, 737
block printing, 214
book burning, 232
books of hours, 217, 721
censorship, 179, 205, 218, 221, 232–3, 257
chapbooks, 219, 221, 232, 698–9
circulation and trade, 221–5, 235–7, 658–60
commercialization and consumer culture, 226, 235–6
conservation of ancient literature, 247
copperplate engraving, 214–15
(p. 773)
copyright regulation, 218, 236
engraving, 214–15, 218, 249
etching, 214–15
false imprints, 221
fonts, 215
heretical power of print, 232
intaglio printing, 214–15, 217–18
jobbing work, 217–19, 225–8, 238
medical texts, 103
mezzotint, 215
modernizing impact, 228–9
news and newspapers, 157, 166, 177–81, 205, 207, 219, 226–7, 245, 253–9
pamphlet wars, 256
paper manufacture, 218–20, 228, 519, 737
poetry, 178, 197, 207
political pamphlets, 197, 205, 218, 245, 256
print capitalism, 234
print market for women, 236
‘printedness’, 228, 230, 234, 236–7
publication volume, 220–1
publishing industry, 178, 197, 204, 214–38
religious texts and artefacts, 214–15, 551–2, 579, 581–2
road maps, 157
self-help manuals, 106–7
trade and book fairs, 222, 224, 233
trade regulation, 233–4
vellum, 217, 737
woodcuts, 214, 217, 231–2, 597n32
xylography, 237
Protestantism, 2–3, 52, 107, 152, 160, 178, 198–201, 203–4, 206, 223, 233, 246–7, 494–5, 558–66, 571–95, 606, 620–11, 723–7
belonging and identity, 583–5
Edict of Nantes (1598), 155
emotional experience, 589–91
hierarchical office, 304–6
horticulture and gardening, 588–9
light vs. darkness imagery, 585
link with the rise of capitalism, 587–8, 593–4
martyrologies, 584
material culture, 585–7
music and hymns, 592
religious diversity, 576–84
see also Christianity; Reformation; and individual denominations
public sphere, 26n33, 165, 199, 225, 234, 258–9, 497
Puritanism, 156–7, 584, 587
Quakers (Religious Society of Friends), 111, 247, 495, 739
Renaissance period (1350–1650), 2–3, 16, 20, 43, 102, 192, 194–5, 199, 247, 254, 350–1, 495–6, 602–6
science
alchemy, 100–1, 248
astronomy, 42, 79, 145–9, 230, 248, 251
cosmography, 62–3, 252
Newton’s laws of motion, 251
physics, 101, 251, 640
Scientific Revolution, 2–3, 94
sites of science, 105
see also medicine
shipbuilding, 484, 515, 517–19, 538n26
social anthropology, 9, 12, 117n23, 270, 315–17, 370, 373–4, 458, 475, 585–6, 602, 618, 694, 696–8
social classes, 4, 273, 305, 308, 342, 344–5, 347, 373, 428, 487
social order and structure, 272–3, 295–308, 486–8
(p. 774) Christian teaching on social order, 295–8
commoners (Third Estate), 306–8
ennoblement, 301–3
entailing of property, 303
hereditary rights, 299–303
hierarchical religious office, 304–6
inequality, 4, 274, 297–8, 308, 462
law and punishment, 352–3, 359–60, 499
Lutheran doctrine, 297, 305
male primogeniture, 303
millenarian social experiments, 298
natural rights doctrine, 295
nobility/social elites, 299–306
patronage and friendship networks, 301, 304–5
performance and symbolism of rank, 303
social mobility, 296, 299–300, 304, 308, 360, 465, 486, 489, 510, 535, 573, 677, 679
sumptuary laws, 156, 307, 362, 386, 389, 488
‘Three Estates’ doctrine (oratores, bellatores, and laboratores), 296, 298, 304–8
urban elites, 306–8
works:
Confession Concerning Christ’s Supper (Luther), 297
Leviathan (Hobbes), 295
Summa Theologiae (Aquinas), 297
social roles and identity, 342–65
agency, 337, 343, 346, 348–53, 356, 362, 364, 380, 474, 589
consumerism and fashion, 362–3
deconstructionist analysis, 345–6, 349–50
effect of geographical mobility, 359–60
effect of literacy and print culture, 361–2, 497–8
effect of military service and conscription, 363–4
functionalist analysis, 343–4, 365
gender analysis and women’s history, 345–6, 349, 351–2, 354–6, 364–5
history from below, 348–9, 469–70
individual identity/the self, 54, 234, 343, 346–51, 353, 361, 364–5, 385, 710
Marxist analysis, 344–5, 347–8
norms of behaviour, 352–6, 358
postcolonial analysis, 349
servitude and unfreedom, 356–60
sexuality, 353–4
sovereignty, 61, 200, 254, 288, 563, 738–9
monopoly of the legitimate use of force, 501
state formation and state-building, 3, 20, 186, 194, 221, 254, 287–8, 501, 613
linguistic standardization, 199–201
national identity, 193, 201, 208, 710
patronage networks, 304
subaltern studies, 19, 38, 349, 365
Third World, 7–8
time, 145–60
Aristotelian conception, 145
astrology, 149
astronomical clocks, 148
astronomy, 145–6, 148–9
Augustinian/Christian conception, 145, 605
automated clocks, 147, 149
calendar time, 160
chronotopes, 149
church time, 146, 148–9, 151–2
clock time, 146, 149–54, 156–7, 160
commerce and trade, 148, 150–1
commoditization of, 153, 156–7
concept of leisure time, 153, 156, 159–60
factories and industrial discipline, 146, 158–60
geographical time, 459
Greenwich Mean Time, 158
horological revolution, 154–6
hourglasses, 149–53
hour-striking, 149–50
iconography, 154
labour time, 152–4, 158–60, 161n17
marine chronometers, 155
mathematical vs. relative, 145
merchant time, 146, 148
miniaturization, 148
modern hours, 149–52
money and, 156–7, 163n37
Newtonian conception, 145
periodization of history, 459
(p. 775)
public clocks, 145, 147–51, 155, 158
Puritan conception, 156–7
regulation of church sermons, 152
school timetables, 151
social history, 145–6
subjective experience of, 145
sumptuary law, 156
tax on watches, 156
temporal coordination, 146, 148, 157–8
time consciousness, 146, 154
universal history, 145
water clocks, 146
works:
Diary (Pepys), 162n32
Tractatus Horologii Astronomici (Richard of Wallingford), 148
Trionfi (Petrarch), 154
Utopia (More), 153
trade
coffee, 371, 376, 378, 382, 390
Columbian Exchange, 273
commodity chains, 273
companies, 233, 245, 252–3, 275, 277, 288, 485
convoys, 172
cotton, 273, 357, 371, 378, 390
effect of tolls, 171–2
excise tax, 288
global expansion, 3, 44, 53, 74, 169, 222–5, 235–6, 245, 252–3, 273–8, 375–6
Hanseatic, 169, 277, 500
local/regional, 485
maritime, 169
mercantile record-keeping, 244, 252, 671
mercantilism, 180, 251, 274, 277, 288, 389, 402, 415, 472, 488, 530–1, 653, 656–7
monopoly, 288
navigation laws, 288
networks, 75, 169, 184, 389, 484–5
news circulation, 245, 253–4
piracy, 390, 681
regulation, 233–4
role of jobbing printing, 226–8
routes, 62, 253, 257, 375–6, 380, 484
slaves, 273, 290n14, 291n22, 349, 357, 484, 488, 510, 681, 742
spices, 277, 375
sugar, 273, 357, 371, 375, 378, 382, 390, 484
tea, 371, 375–6, 378, 382, 390
textiles, 363
tobacco, 288, 357, 374–6, 378, 390, 484
transition to use of Arabic numerals, 250
transportation and travel, 73–4, 85, 165–86
bridges, 166–7, 175
brigands and robbers, 172
canals, 165–6, 183–4, 186
carriages and coaches, 166, 171–2, 175, 183
constraints on travel, 170–1, 175
cost of travel, 171–2
effect of demographic growth, 171
ferries, 166–7
horse-drawn barges, 157, 170, 183
improvements in infrastructure, 181–6
mail-coaches, 157–8, 183
maps, 183
monks and pilgrims, 169
mountain passes, 169
railways, 158, 165, 183
river transport, 169–70, 175–6, 183, 186
road maintenance, 168, 171
routes and tracks, 167–8, 187n11
shelter and accommodation, 168, 176, 183–4
signposts, 183, 208
street lighting, 585
tarmacadam, 168
tolls and turnpikes, 171–2, 184–5
travel on foot, 171
travel guides, 183, 236, 252
use of animals, 172
urban society
architecture, 494, 499–500
cities and civility, 501
citizenship, 487
contado system, 462–5, 468, 486
defining cities, 459–61
disposable income and consumption, 470–2
economic cost of children, 123
food supply, 466
government and officeholding, 491–3
guild system, 104, 113, 232–3, 284–6, 307, 463, 487–9, 533–5
(p. 776)
historians of towns and cities, 457–8, 500–4
identity, 493–8
intellectual activity, 496–7
literacy, 497–8, 736
military fortification, 494
mortality rates, 75, 126, 283, 360, 465, 483, 490
music performance, 496
occupational specialization, 485
poverty, 171, 489–90
prevalence of disease, 483
public ritual and display, 496
relations between town and country in the Mediterranean region, 455–75
social exclusion and intolerance, 488–9
social relations and hierarchy, 486–91
status group marriage, 486
trade and commercial activity, 484–6
urban and rural bastardy ratios, 482–3
urban–rural interdependence, 465–9, 503, 532–3
urban and rural perceptions and identities, 461–4, 494, 503
urbanization, 7, 123, 126, 169, 199, 277, 279, 479–504, 512, 520
agro-towns, 460
dwarf towns, 482
major cities, 480–1
patterns, 274
rates and levels of, 274–5, 282–3, 282, 289, 436, 459–61, 479–85
rural to urban migration, 283, 399–400, 404, 465, 467
urban systems, 461
utopian socialism, 153–4
Waldensians, 577, 734
war/warfare
confessional, 53–4
conscription, 363
field hospitals, 110
demographic impact, 132
economic impact, 224, 289, 531
equestrian, 299
gunpowder, 18, 494
military barracks and roads, 185
military service, 299–300
mortality rates, 132–3
naval, 531–2
standing armies, 302
wars and battles
American War of Independence (1775–83/4), 216
Battle of Lepanto (1571), 681–2
Battle of Poltava (1709), 342–3
English Civil Wars (1642–6; 1648–9; 1649–51), 197, 205, 226, 233, 256–8, 352, 390, 739
French Revolutionary Wars (1792–99), 1–2, 8, 10, 14–15, 178, 185–6, 195, 201, 203, 205, 216, 298, 308, 352, 362, 378, 383, 423, 487, 603–4, 623, 641–2, 707, 740–2
French Wars of Religion (1562–98), 378, 575, 728
Fronde Rebellion (1648–53), 233, 256, 278, 352
German Peasants’ War (1524–5), 560–1, 575, 700
Glorious Revolution (1688), 179, 739
Hundred Years War (1337–1453), 483, 546
Hussite Rebellion (1419–36), 436, 551
Italian Wars (1494–1559), 531
Jacobite Risings (1715 and 1745), 185
Livonian War (1558–83), 451n60
Ming–Qing conflict (1619–83), 259
Northern Wars (1558–1721), 55
Ottoman sack of Negroponte (1470), 178
Reconquista, 21, 183, 224, 488, 676
Russian Revolution (1917), 60
Thirty Years War (1618–48), 126, 132–3, 142n21, 218, 224, 233, 257, 278, 378, 390, 402, 438, 483, 532–3
‘Time of Troubles’ (Russia) (1598–1613), 87, 443, 632
War of the Spanish Succession (1701–14), 175
wealth, 128, 163n37
effect on consumption, 376
result of imperial expansion, 274
surveys of, 250
works:
Wealth of Nations (Smith), 167
(p. 777) witchcraft, 352–3, 499, 549, 592–4, 619–21, 646, 696, 703–4, 707–8, 710, 722–3, 732–6
works:
Malleus Maleficarum (Kramer and Sprenger), 735
The Discoveries of Witchcraft (Scot), 733
The World Bewitched (Bekker), 593
women
agency, 351–2
authors and writers, 361–2
childbirth, 95, 110
consumers of fashion, 371, 377, 383, 386–7
cross-dressing, 708
devotional reading, 217
education, 123
embroidery, 589
exclusion from medical practice, 113–14
experience of, 20
female home schooling, 198
food preparation, 387
gardeners, 589
gender studies, 3, 20, 33n107, 469, 472–3, 708–9
household labour, 472–3, 511, 538n20
labour force participation, 139, 490–1
licentious behaviour, 99
literacy, 198, 203–7, 246, 736
marriage, 354–6
medical knowledge and practice, 105
midwives, 104–5, 110, 113
misogyny, 99
mystics, 351–2, 546–7
numeracy, 251
participation in print culture, 236
patriarchal society, 473, 490–1, 722, 741–2
political involvement, 352
slaves, 345
social roles and identity, 345, 347–9, 351–2, 354–6
status of, 3
suffrage, 742
wage discrimination, 522–3, 538n19
warriors and soldiers, 708–9
wet-nursing, 483
widowhood, 490
works:
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (Wollstonecraft), 741
The Perfect Woman (de Léon), 473
women’s movement, 348
world systems theory, 273–4, 430, 501