- The Oxford Handbook of Early Modern European History, 1350–1750
- List of Figures
- List of Tables
- List of Maps
- List of Illustrations
- List of Contributors
- Introduction: ‘Early Modern’ Europe and the Idea of Early Modernity
- The Cartographic Emergence of Europe?
- Weather, Climate, and the Environment
- Disease and Medicine
- Historical Demography
- Travel and Communications
- Languages and Literacy
- Printing and Printedness
- A Revolution in Information?
- Economic and Social Trends
- The Social Order
- Households and Family Systems
- Social Roles and Individual Identities
- Consumption and Material Life
- The Agrarian West
- The Agrarian East
- Country and Town in Mediterranean Europe
- Towns and Urbanization
- The Christian Church, 1370<i>–</i>1550
- Protestantism and its Adherents
- Early Modern Catholicism
- The World of Eastern Orthodoxy
- The Transformations of Judaism
- Islam and Muslims in Europe
- Cultures of Peoples
- Belief and its Limits
- Index of Names and Places
- Index of Subjects
Abstract and Keywords
The chapter traces the development of Orthodoxy by focusing on the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople and the Russian Orthodox Church in the early modern period. It is based on the premise that in both cases Orthodoxy faced three main challenges: imperial/political, intellectual, and financial. In both the Ottoman and the Russian empires, the Orthodox Church played important roles in the political, administrative, cultural, economic, ideological, and social lives of the Orthodox believers. Orthodoxy usually provided legitimizing ideological support to state authority, was forced to reckon with Western cultural and theological trends, and also proactively defended its economic interests. For most of the period, the Ecumenical Patriarchate and the Russian Orthodox Church maintained constant contacts, even in the face of mutual suspicions of each other’s motives. The chapter argues that early modern Orthodoxy proved adaptive, developed over time, and withstood the challenges it faced, ultimately keeping its symbolic capital largely intact.
Nikolaos A. Crissidis, Department of History, Southern Connecticut State University.
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