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date: 11 December 2019

(p. 597) Index

(p. 597) Index

Abelard, Peter 434–5
Abrabanel, Isaac 546
Abraham, William:
Crossing the Threshold of Divine Revelation 22
Achtemeier, Paul 43
Acts of the Apostles, The 12, 31, 48, 204, 298, 484
Adam 571
and original sin 437–40
temptation of 268
Adams, Marilyn McCord 456, 499–500
Adams, Robert M. 317–18, 329 n43
agent causation 118–20, 179
agnosticism:
and Incarnation 454
al-Farabi 557–8, 565–6
Alfonso X, King 369
al-Ghazali 557, 558–9, 570–1
al-Juwayni 562
al-Maʼmun, caliph 556
al-Sirafi 557
al-Suhrawardi 561
Alston, William
and belief 24–5, 27, 133
and ‘Christian mystical practice’ 24–5, 27
‘Divine Mystery Thesis’ 82–3
and human understanding 132, 233, 338, 380
and interventionism 242
‘Two Cheers for Mystery’ 80
Ames, Roger T. 584
Amos (prophet) 33
animal suffering 369–70
Anselm, St
Cur Deus Homo (Why The God-Man) 432–3
and divine aseity 107
and divine omnipotence 169
and divine omnipresence 200–1, 203
and divine omniscience 129–30
and divine simplicity 209
and God: concept of 212–3
and Hell: account of 494
Monologion 109, 200–1
ontological argument 212
Proslogion 84, 108, 169, 200, 201
Apollinarius 470
apologetics 348
apophatic tradition 96 n7
Apostles' Creed 482
Aquinas, St Thomas
and atonement 434
and creation 156, 231, 233, 234–5
and divine eternity 146–7
and divine knowledge 92, 129, 131
on divine omnipotence 169–70, 182
on divine omnipresence 170, 201–3
on divine punishment 361
on Eucharist 529, 533–5
and five ways 107
and foreknowledge 139
on Hell 495–6
and human reason 88–9
and the Trinity 88–9, 409–10
on liberty 267
and local presence 519, 520
and moral perfection 220, 230–1, 235
Summa contra Gentiles 83, 107, 201
Summa Theologiae 107, 129, 131, 132, 146–7, 156–7, 169–70, 201–2, 515, 520, 533, 534, 535
see also Thomism
on the will 234
Arabic language 568
Arian controversy 18–19
Aristotle
and approach to philosophy 545–7
and ethical theory 229, 547–8
and first mover 107
and form and matter 418–19
and Islam see Islam, Peripateticism
and natural law theory 314–16
and practical reason 232
and the soul 470
and substance 418–19, 533–4
and views, expression of 566
aseity see God, aseity of
Armstrong, David 111–12
(p. 598) Ashʿarites 562
Athanasian Creed 403, 415
atheism
arguments for 340 see also evil, problem of
and evil 355
and human suffering 341
and naturalism 61–2
and theism 340–3
atonement, doctrine of 11, 362, 430–47
commercial theory 433
forensic fiction 436
and Hell 494
and moral exemplar theory 434–5
and penal substitution theory 435–47
and ransom view 431–2
and satisfaction theory 432–5
Augustine, St
and Biblical interpretation 14–16
and compulsion 503
and Creation 17, 247
and divine foreknowledge 138
De Genesi ad Litteram 17, 28 n7
De Trinitate 108, 409, 421
and divine omnipotence 168–9
and divine revelation 14–15
and divine simplicity 107
and Heaven 502
and Hell 496
and human freedom 223
and moral perfection 223, 230
and original sin 437–40
Aulén, Gustaf 431
Auschwitz:
visit by Pope Benedict XVI 352
Averroes see ibn Rushd
Avicenna see ibn Sina
axiological goodness 225–6
axiology 237 n16
Ayer, A. J. 2
Baconian inductivism 61
Baillie, John:
The Idea of Revelation in Recent Thought 51 n5
Ban Gu 579
Barbour, Ian 74 n5
Barnes, Michael 420
Barr, James 49, 145–6
Barth, Karl:
Church Dogmatics 441, 442–3
Barton, John:
Reading the Old Testament 27 n5
Basil, St, of Caesarea 27 n3
Epistle 52 423
On the Holy Spirit 27, 67, 27 n3
Basinger, David 294
Bayes' theorem 339–49
Bayle, Pierre 86–7
Bayne, Tim 467
beatific vision 91–3
Beaudoin, John 395 n9
belief
and evidence 503–4
and evil 332–3
Islam 563, 567
justification for 19–27
Maimonides and 546
systems of 469–70
and trust 26
Benedict XVI, Pope 352
Bernstein, Mark 385
Berulle, Pierre de 80
Bible
Apocrypha: Acts of John 81
authority of 11–13, 21–2, 25, 45–6, 50
authorship 41–2, 47–9
and Christian tradition 12–19
and Creation 249–50, 252
and divine-human relationship 500
and divine revelation 11–13, 15, 18, 20–1, 35–6, 37–9, 43
Hebrew: book of Job 354
and history 35, 36–7
inconsistencies in 13–14
and inspiration 41–50
metaphor in 16
New Testament 12, 13, 14, 18, 39
Old Testament 12, 13–14, 16
and science 15
see also Scripture
bilocation, Eucharist 526–33
Bivalence, Principle of 164 n7, 219
Blount, Charles 85
Blount, Douglas K. 455–6
Boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus 138–9, 147
Brower, Jeff 425 n22
Brümmer, Vincent 448 n19
Buddha 319, 320
Buddhism 75 n18, 585
Madhyamikas 87
Burrell, David 454
Byrne, Peter and Houlden, Leslie:
Companion Encyclopedia of Theology 79
Cain, James 496
Calvin, John 20–1
Cappadocian Fathers 412, 413, 415, 416, 421–2, 423
Carnap, Rudolph 2
(p. 599) Categorical Imperative 223
Chalcedon, Council of 452–3, 455, 461, 472 n3, 515
Chalcedonians 172
Chang Tsai 258–9
Charlesworth, M. J. 84
Chesterton, G. K. 6 n3
Chinese philosophical theology see Confucianism
Choi, Isaac 295, 297–8
Christ see Jesus Christ
Christianity:
and divine omnipresence 211–12
Christian doctrine
justification of 19–27
source of 11–19
Christian tradition 12–13, 17–9
Christology 452–71
coherence of 453
and divine nature 172–3, 460–1
Hick, John on 435
‘Kenotic’ 465
Molinist 276
and parts and properties 458–63
relative identity solutions 457–8
restriction solutions 463–6
and ‘two minds’ solutions 467, 468
see also Nestorianism
Chrysostom, St John 79, 92
church:
and identity 19
Clark, Kelly James 76 n42
classical foundationalism 3
Clayton, Philip 67
Clouser, Roy 69
Coburn, Robert 153–4
cognition 71
Cohen, Richard 352
Collins, Robin 258
Colossians, Letter to the 250
commandments:
Judaism 542, 543, 546, 547–51, 549, 550, 551
communion 513
communion of saints 486
Companion to the Philosophy of Religion, A 79
compatibilism 121–3, 141, 236 n8, 266–7
Conee, Earl 226
Confucianism 574–94
Classical 580, 580–3
and Daoism see Daoism
future of 592–4
Neo-Confucianism 580, 582, 585
New Confucianism 580, 585, 588–94
religosity of 576–80, 589, 591
Song Revival 585–8
Zhongyong 583–4
Confucius 580, 581, 592
consequences, natural:
theodicy of 361–2
consequentialism 221–2
Constantinople, first Council of 470
Constantinople, Third Council of 453–4, 471
consubstantiality 406, 422
consubstantiation 514
contradictions 87
conversions 503
Corinthians
First letter to the 33, 39, 41, 91, 250, 441, 484, 518
Second letter to the 35, 444
Council of Chalcedon see Chalcedon, Council of
counterfactuals:
freedom of action 141–2, 174–7, 180–1, 268, 270–1, 274, 276–82, 394 n3, 395 n7
Craig, William Lane 42–3, 414, 415–16, 423
created rational beings 325
Creation:
explanation for 243–6, 578, 583 see also God: and creation
creationism 61
Credulity, Principle of 386
Crescas, Hasdai 543
crime, and punishment 436 see also punishment, theodicy of; Hell
Cross, Richard 409, 420
Cyril of Alexandria 462
Cyril of Jerusalem, St 168
Dai Zhen 585
Damasio, Antonio 71
Daniel, book of 484
Darwin, Charles 62–3, 73
Davis, Stephen 130, 135
Day of Resurrection 478, 479, 482, 484, 485
deification 173
Deism 30–1, 85–6
Dennett, Daniel 62
Descartes, René 370
determinism 260, 267, 496, 567
Devil, the 431–2
Dionysius the Areopagite:
Celestial Hierarchy 80
disasters, natural 357
divine action 68, 155–9
and evolution 241–59
divine attributes 107–17, 147
divine authority 306–26
(p. 600) divine essence 83–5, 87, 89, 91–5, 97 n27, 100 n68, 132, 569
divine eternity 145–64
divine goodness 217–35, 292–3, 319–20, 324
divine hiddenness 246
divine immutability 146–7
divine inspiration 2–3, 38, 41–9
divine knowledge see God: and knowledge
divine life 252–3
divine love 230, 233, 235, 384–5
divine omnipotence 167–91, 192 n36, 324, 519
and divine authority 324
and impossibility 188–90
range of 183–5, 186–7, 190
divine omnipresence 199–212
and Christianity 211–12
and co-location 211
and containment 210
and controversy 202–3
historical view of 200–2
and incorporeality 201–2, 210–11
as knowledge 201–3
and multiple location 209–10
and non-occupation relations 204–5
occupation accounts 205–6, 209–11
occupation relations 206–9
as power 201–3
and simplicity 209–10, 213 n17
and timelessness 210
and the Trinity 212
divine omniscience 129–42, 148–9, 154, 159–63, 266, 324, 454, 465
defined 130, 160–1
and divine authority 324
and Islam 559
and philosophical objections 133–42
divine perfection 84–6, 323–4, 326
divine personhood see God: personhood of
divine providence 43, 49, 90, 243–53, 262–82, 290, 298, 301 n14, 361
divine reason 88
divine retribution 494–5
divine revelation 11–13, 15, 18, 20–2, 27, 30–40, 83, 87
Deist interpretation of 31
general 36
modes of 34–9
progressive nature of 39–40
propositional and non-propositional 34–6
purpose of 32–4
and skeptical theism 389
special 36–8
verbal and non-verbal 34–5
divine simplicity 105–23, 146–7, 209
and coherence 110–17
and contingency 117–23
doctrine of 105–10
interpretation of 108–10
divine substance see Trinity, the
divine temporality 153–63
divine timelessness 146–52, 284 n4
divine volitions 118–20
divine wisdom 550
Dostoevsky, Fyodor:
The Brothers Karamazov 336
Draper, Paul 339, 343, 383–6
Dulles, Avery:
Models of Revelation 35
Duns Scotus, John 170, 173, 175
duty:
and moral perfection 223–7
Eastern Orthodox:
and Creation 250
Ecumenical Council 18
Edwards, Jonathan
on Hell 494
on the Trinity 79, 89–91
‘Miscellaneous Observations’ 91, 92, 99 n50
on mysteries 81–3, 89–92
Einstein, Albert 58, 71, 149–51, 157, 530
election:
doctrine of 441–2
Elijah:
and the prophets of Baal 293, 294
emanation 558, 560
Empiricus Sextus 553
emotions:
human 71
Ephesians, Letter to the 249–50
Ephesus, Council of 461
Epicurus 553
epistemic evaluation 71
Erigena, John Scotus 80, 83–4, 175
eschatology 249–53
eternity 145–64
ethics:
Islam 562
ET-simultaneity 157–8
Eucharist 510–36
Evans, Stephen:
The Historical Christ and the Jesus of Faith 25
evil
Bayesian arguments 339–49
conditions for 355–60
existence of 257 see also theism, skeptical; theodicy
and freedom of choice 245
good and 81, 376–81
and misery 500–1
moral 335, 362–5
MT (modus tollens) arguments 333–9
natural 335, 362, 365–7
power of 431–2
problem of 222, 223, 243–5, 257–8, 374–94
and the afterlife 332–3
logical 334–9
practical 332
evolution 23, 62–3, 241–59
existence:
eternal 145
Exodus, book of 35
externalism 23
facts
moral 309, 310–20
tensed 159–63
faith
Christianity 25–6, 35
Judaism 543
Fallen Humanity 438–9, 444–5
Falsafa see Peripateticism
families 254, 256
Faraday, Michael 65
Fiddler on the Roof 277
Fingarette, Herbert 577
Flint, Thomas 130, 142, 174–83, 234, 293
forgiveness 435
Francis of Marchea 65
Frankfurt, Harry G. 178
Freddoso, Alfred 133, 140, 174–83, 494
freedom
of action 132, 222, 223, 233, 245, 263, 289–90, 567
in Islam 571
challenges to 499–502
and divine foreknowledge 138–42, 218–19, 262–72, 274–6, 356–8
and God see divine freedom
and Hell 496, 499–502
libertarian 43, 141, 154, 180–1, 187, 248, 258, 263–70, 274–6, 496, 497, 501, 504
and non-human creatures 370
Free Process Defense 244
free will 68, 244–6, 362–5
Free Will Defense 222–3, 335
Free will theodicy see theodicy, free will
Freud, Sigmund 62
Friedman, Alexander 151
Gamaliel, Rabbi 548
Garcia, Jorge 229–30
Gavrilyuk, Paul 81
Geach, Peter 139, 218–19, 417, 500
Gellman, Jerome 179
Genesis, book of 13–14, 15, 16–17
Adam 268, 437
Gnosticism 81
god:
definition of 407
God
Anselmian concept of 212
and Atonement 362
as author of Scriptures 42, 47–8
and belief 26–7
and church doctrine 19
and control see divine providence
and creation 25, 155–6, 220, 231, 233, 241–59, 262, 313, 315, 325, 368, 558
in Confucianism 583
in Islam 569
definition of 306
Deist interpretation of 30, 31
and divine interpretation 108–9
and divine revelation 34, 36–9, 83
in Eastern Orthodox theology 250
embodiment of 201–2, 210–11
essence of 83–5, 87, 89, 91–5, 97 n27, 100 n68, 132, 569
eternal nature of 145–6, 152, 163
and evil see evil, problem of
existence of 4, 212, 243, 309, 342, 374–5, 382–3, 384–5 see also belief
and evil 333–5, 337, 338, 339, 342 see also theodicy and evil, problem of
in Islam 569
as first cause 156, 267
freedom of see divine freedom
and gratitude 325
and inspiration 2–3, 38, 41–9
and knowledge 91–5, 118, 121–2, 129–42, 159–63, 262–3, 274–5, 559
free knowledge 43, 141, 274–5
middle knowledge 42–3, 140–2, 149, 275–7, 301 n14
natural knowledge 42, 141–2, 274–5
(p. 602) probabilities 272–3
scientia visionis 148
self-knowledge 83–4, 87–8, 92–5, 101 n68
and love 230, 233, 235, 384–5
and moral perfection 217–35, 324
and obedience 310–2, 321, 323
omnipotence of see divine omnipotence
omnipresence of 199–212
omniscience of see divine omniscience
Islam 559
perfection of 84–6, 323–4, 326
personhood of 107–8, 153–5, 319
power of 187–90
and prayer 287–99
purpose of 245–53
Islam 570–1
redemption 32–3
and risk 272–3, 276, 358
sovereignty of 262, 268, 274, 313–4
temporality of 153–63
timelessness of 146–52, 284 n4
as truthmaker 118, 120
Word of 80
see also Trinity, the
Gödel, Kurt 88
Godhead, and the Trinity see Trinity, the
good
and evil 81, 376–81
maximizing 221–3
goodness, moral:
and divine authority 324
grace, optimal 498
Gracia, Jorge:
How Can We Know What God Means? 17
Gregory of Nyssa 14, 93, 421, 423
Gregory the Great 13
Grim, Patrick 136, 192 n25
haecceity 136
Hájek, Alan 396 n26
Hall, David L. 584
happiness, eternal 234, 506–8
Hare, John 318
Hartshorne, Charles 202–3
Hasker, Willam 139–40, 279, 280
Haught, John 243, 244–6, 259 n3
Heaven:
doctrine of 491–2, 506–8
Hebblethwaite, Brian 472 n3, 473 n13
Hebrews, Letter to the 33, 129, 202, 441, 464, 513
Hell 491–506
accounts of 499–502
defenses of 493–9
eternal 495, 502–6
and freedom 496, 499–502, 506–7
proportionality objection 495–9
separation conceptions of 498
Helm, Paul 37, 163, 220
hermeneutics 13–14
Hesse, Mary 70
Hick, John 368, 435
Evil and the God of Love 499
Hilbert, David 91
Himma, Kenneth 497–8
Hobbes, Thomas 314–16, 328 n24
Hodge, Charles 448 n17
Hoffman, J. and Rosenkrantz, G. 139, 175
Holocaust 352
Holy Spirit 24, 26–7, 27 n3, 36–8, 40, 41–2, 45–6, 48–9
Holy Trinity see Trinity, the
homoousion clause 404, 416
Hookway, Christopher 71
Howard-Snyder, Daniel 368, 376
Hudson, Hud 487 n6, 536 n5
human body 255
human identity 478
human intellect 83
humanity
attributes of 463–4
fallen see Fallen Humanity
human nature 581–2, 587, 590
and morality 314, 315, 318
human perception 23, 71
human reason 87–8
humans
emotions 71
interconnections 254–7
human suffering 233, 337–8, 339, 340–2, 344, 346, 354, 393, 495
Hume, David 78, 343
Hunt, David 131–2
Hyperactive Agent Detection Device (HADD) 62
Ibn al ʿArabi 560
Ibn Bishr Matta 557
Ibn Rushd (Averroes) 557, 558, 565
Ibn Sabʿin 560
Ibn Tibbon, Judah 545
Illuminationism:
Islam 560, 561–2, 563
Incarnation, the 237 n25, 452–71
indifference, hypothesis of (HI) 343, 344, 355, 383, 385–6
inspiration see divine inspiration
intellect:
human 83
Intelligent Design (ID) 61
Interconnections
and Creation 248–58
ancestral 249
emergent 248–9
redemptive 249–53
interventionism 241–3
intuition theory of morality 223
Irenaeus, St 14, 17, 368
Isaiah (prophet) 145, 444
Ishraqi thought see Illuminationism
Islam 556–72
and afterlife 564, 569
and bodily resurrection 476, 478, 482, 488 n11
ethics 562
Illuminationism 560, 561–2, 563
logic 564–8
mysticism (Sufism) 560–1
and Neoplatonism 557–60
Peripateticism (Falsafa) 557–60, 563–4, 565–6, 569
politics 563
and Qurʼan see Qurʼan
rituals 570
soul, the 559, 563–4
tradition 568–70
truth 565–6
Israelites 39–40
James, Letter of 169, 246
Jeremiah (prophet) 167, 353
Jesus Christ
and absence, real 533–5
and atonement 430–47
Crucifixion of 48, 81, 431, 442, 487 n3
divine attributes of 172–3, 464–6
human attributes of 456, 457–8, 464–5, 466
Incarnation of 237 n25, 452–71
on Mount of Olives 81
mystery of 80, 81
Passion of 354
presence, real 514, 515–33, 516–18
as prophet 22
resurrection of 482, 517–8
as revelation 41
sacrifice of 433, 513
and the Trinity 452–3, 461, 462–3
union with 442, 444
Jews 541–3
Job, book of 90, 129, 167, 354
John Chrysostom, St see Chrysostom, St John
John, Gospel according to 18, 33, 484, 535
John, St 18, 81
John the Scot see Erigena, John Scotus
Joshua, book of 39
Judaism 507
and bodily resurrection 476, 478, 488 n11
and philosophical theology 541–53
and practice 541–4
and reform 541–2
traditional 541
Kant, Immanuel 223, 224, 228, 308, 326, 329 n40, 547
Kaufman, Gordon 492, 493
Keightly, David N. 575
Kellenberger, James 90
Kellner, Menachem 546
Kennedy, John Fitzgerald 543
kenosis 465
Kepler, Johannes, Mysterium Cosmographicum 57
Kings, First book of 293
Kitcher, Philip 369
Knight, Gordon 510 n27
Knoblock, John 582
knowledge 132–3
accounts of 302 n26
de dicto 134
de praesenti 135–7, 162–3
de re 134, 162
de se 136, 162
first-person 135–7, 162
free 43, 141, 274–5
moral 318
natural 42, 141–2, 274–5
Kongzi see Confucius
Koons, Robert C. 526, 528
Kretzmann, Norman 135–6, 139, 151, 157–8
Kuhn, Thomas Samuel 65
Kvanvig, Jonathan 136, 160, 497, 498
(p. 604) Lamont, John:
Divine Faith 25
Lang, Bernhard 492
language:
and Islam 556–7, 558, 568
law
of nature 242, 246, 251–2
natural 314–17, 365–7
Judaism 548, 549, 550
Leftow, Brian 151, 158–61, 410–12, 461–2, 489 n16
legalism 31
Leibnitz, Gottfried Wilhelm 87–8, 99 n44, 353, 361–2, 516–7
Lewis, C. S. 6 n3, 235, 297, 496, 498, 503
Lewis, David 113, 360, 436–7, 528
libertarianism 43, 141, 154, 180–1, 187, 248, 258, 263–70, 274–6, 496, 497, 501, 504
life, eternal 507–8
liturgy 512
Locke, John 89, 543
logic:
logical empiricism 2–3
Lombard, Peter 169
Luke, Gospel according to 14, 167
Lunyu (Analects) 574, 576, 577
McCabe, Herbert 454
McCann, Hugh 266–7
McDannell, Colleen 492
McGinn, Colin 226, 237 n19
Mach, Ernst 150
MacIntyre, Alasdair and Flew, Anthony:
New Essays in Philosophical Theology 3
Mackie, J. L. 335
Madhyamikas 87
Maimonides, Moses 488 n11, 541–2, 546–53
The Guide of the Perplexed 545, 548, 549, 551, 552–3
Shemonah Peraqim (Eight Chapters) 548, 550
Malachi (prophet) 446, 513
Malebranche, Nicholas 370
Mann, William:
The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Religion 79
Mao Zedong 588
Marcel, Gabriel 82
Marcion 14
Mark, Gospel according to 432
Martin, C. B. 105, 112
Marty, Martin 492–3
Marx, Karl 255
Mary, Mother of Jesus 461–2
Masek, Lawrence 288
materialism 70
mathematics 71
Matthew, Gospel according to 40, 50, 167, 432, 464, 484
Mavrodes, George 51 n4, 88, 89
Mawson, T. J. 227
maximization problem 222–4, 226, 228, 234, 292
Maximus the Confessor 93, 173
Maxwell, James Clerk 65
Mencius, see Mengzi
Mendelssohn, Moses 541, 542–4, 551–2
Mengzi 580–2, 592
Merricks, Trenton 410, 462, 463
meta-epistemology 3
metamorphosis:
and redemption 250–1
metaphysics, monadic 516–17
Metzger, Bruce:
The Canon of the New Testament 12
Midgley, Mary 76 n50
middle knowledge 42–3, 140–2, 149, 275–7, 301 n14
miracles 293–4, 367, 525–6
Miskawayh 570
modalism 407, 409–10, 413
modality:
and God's power 187–90
Mohammad see Muhammad
Molina, Luis de 42–3, 122, 141–2, 263, 282 n4
Molinism 42–3, 140–2, 175, 195 n57, 269, 274–82, 394 n3, 395 n7
grounding objection to 278–81
monotheism 414–15
Islam 560
morality
and absolutes 230
defined 307
and divine authority 306–26
skepticism about 391–4
Theistic Explanation of Morality (ThEM) 307–8, 310–11, 312, 313, 317, 320–1
moral perfection see God: and moral perfection
Moreland, J. P. 414, 415–16
Morris, Thomas
and Christ, attributes of 464, 465–6
and duty theory 225–6, 227, 230–2
and God, Anselmian concept of 213
reduplicative analysis 455
and the Trinity 410
and two ‘minds’ solutions 466–7
Mou Zongsan 584, 588–91
Muhammad 556, 566
Murphy, George 245, 256
Murphy, Nancey 67, 68, 256
Murray, Michael 244, 246–7, 293–5, 297, 358, 497
Muslims 568 see also Islam
(p. 605) Muʿtazilites 562
mysteries 78–95
mysticism
Christian 80, 83
Islam (Sufism) 560–1
Myth of God Incarnate, The 453
Nasr, Seyyed Hossein 561
naturalism 58–9, 61–2, 65, 346–9, 582–3
natures:
defined 420
Nazianzen, Gregory 422, 423
Needham, Joseph 578
negative theology see apophatic traditon
Neo-Confucianism 258–9, 580
Neoplatonism, and Islam 557, 558, 559, 560
Nestorianism 452, 456–7, 467, 471
Nestorius 461–2
Neurath, Otto 2
New Confucianism 580, 585, 588–91
Newman, John Henry 18, 223, 264
New Testament see Bible: New Testament
Newton, Sir Isaac 57, 65, 150–1
Nicaea, second Council of 28 n3
Nicene Creed 17, 19, 404–5, 415–16, 420, 482
Nicene Council, First 404–5
Nietzsche, Friedrich 507
nihilism 31
obedience 321
obligations, moral 317–18
‘occasionalists’ 314
Ockham, William of 138, 140, 170
Old Testament see Bible: Old Testament
omnipotence see divine omnipotence
omnipresence see divine omnipresence
omniscience see divine omniscience
‘Open Theism’ movement (Openists) 76 n42, 139–40, 263, 264, 269–74, 281, 356–8, 510 n27
Oppy, Graham 176, 177–9, 195 n47
Origen of Alexandria 14, 15–16, 28 n11, 168, 361, 478
original sin 6 n3, 257, 437–40, 443–7
and imputation 437–8
traducianism 438, 440
Orr, James 43
orthodoxy 413
Eastern Orthodox 250
Otte, Richard 342
Otto, Rudolph 79, 82, 94
Oxford Handbook of the Philosophy of Religion 4–5, 79
pain see suffering
panentheism 69, 75 n34, 75 n35, 341
Pannenberg, Wolfhart 68
pantheism 62, 204, 341
paradox of the stone 184
Parmenides 219–20
Parsons, Josh 206
Pascal, Blaise 503–4
Patristic statutes 423 n2
Paul, St 13, 14
Chrysostom, St John of 79
and Corinthians 43
and creation 235, 252
on divine revelation 39
on eucharistic liturgies 518
and evil 258
on God, existence of 246
on knowledge 91
on scripture 48
teachings of 41
Paul VI, Pope:
‘Credo of the People of God’ 514
Peacocke, Arthur 67, 73
penance 434
Penelhum, Terence 86
Pereboom, Derek 393
perfection 84–5
moral 212–35
models of 221–32
Peripateticism (Falsafa) 557–60, 563–4, 569
Persia:
philosophy 558, 562
persons, inseparability of 422
Peter, St 293
First letter of 48
Second letter of 41
Phillips, D. Z. 336
philosophical theology see theology, philosophical
philosophy
analytic tradition 1–4
Continental tradition 1–4
of religion 3–4
physics:
and life 251–2
Pike, Nelson 138, 335
Plantinga, Alvin
and divine foreknowledge 140
and freedom of action 278
and Free Will Defense 222–3, 335
and God, existence of 212, 348–9
God, Freedom and Evil 353
and Incarnation 489 n16
and moral good 222–3
and omniscience 130
Warranted Christian Belief 22
and warrant theory 23–4, 26–7, 132
(p. 606) Plantinga, Cornelius, Jr. 414
Plato 564
Plotinus 97 n31
politics:
Islam 563
Polkinghorne, John 244, 245, 259 n3
polytheism 407, 413, 415
Popes 18
Benedict XVI 352
Paul VI 514
prayer
petitionary 286–99
answered 287–91
predication 109–17, 124 n1, 125 n3
Prior, Arthur 134
Process Theists 282 n3 see also free process defense
prophecy 41, 272, 277
prophets 46–7
propositional revelation 12–27, 34–6
providence see divine providence
Pruss, Alexander 125 n23, 310
Psalms 12, 15, 32, 35, 95, 167, 169, 212 n1
Pseudo-Dionysius 78, 93
Celestial Hierarchy 80
Mystical Theology 78
punishment
crime and 436
theodicy of 360–1
theory of 435
see also Hell
Qing dynasty (China) 585
quantum mechanics 68, 251
Quine, W. V. 492
Quinn, Philip 313–17, 323, 328 n25, 435, 508
Quinn, Philip and Taliaferro, Charles, Companion to the Philosophy of Religion, A 79
Qurʼan 559, 564
and logic 566–8
and reason 568–9, 571–2
rabbis 548–9
Rachels, James 311
Rahner, Karl 85, 92–3, 95
Ramanuja 578
rationality, religious 62–3, 67
realism
Augustinian 437–40
and regions 199
Rea, Michael 302 n19, 358
real absence:
doctrine of 533–5
real presence:
doctrine of 512–36
reason, human 87–8
Redeemed Humanity 441, 442, 443, 444–5
redemption 249–53, 256, 434
reductionism 69
reduplicative analysis 455
Reformed theological tradition 220
Régnon, Theodore de 424 n15
Reid, John:
The Authority of the Scripture 52 n33
Reitan, Eric 506
relativism 31
Relativity Theory 251, 359 see also Einstein, Albert
reliabilism 23, 24
religion 591
erosion of 63–4
point of 570
and reason 565–6, 568
and science 54–73
religious rationality 62–3, 67
religious studies:
schools 492–3
representationalism 443
Resurrection Day of see Day of Resurrection
resurrection, doctrine of 476–86
Revelation, book of 485
revelation see divine revelation
risk see God: and risk
ritualism 31
Romans, Letter to the 129, 246, 249, 255, 258, 444, 446, 447
Roughgarden, Joan 249
Rowe, William 81, 219–20, 222, 226, 341, 376, 381–2, 390
Russell, Robert 242
Saadya Gaon 552
Book of Doctrines and Beliefs 544–5, 546
sacrifice 513
Sadra, Mulla 562
salvation 32, 36, 45–6, 434, 441
Satan 431–2
Schellenberg, John 382–5
Schleiermacher, Freidrich 505
Schlick, Moritz 2
science
metaphysical principles 70–1
natural 70
(p. 607) and religion 54–73
conflict (warfare) views 60–7, 72
dialogue 67–70, 72
independence 57–60, 72
scientism 67–8
Scripture 39, 48
and atonement 45, 100 n50
and authority 11–13, 21–2, 25, 45, 100 n50
authors of 42, 48, 488 n14
God, revelation in see divine revelation
interpretation of 13–19
see also Bible
Segal, Alan 507
Sellars, Wilfred 2
Senor, Thomas 455, 456–7
Seymour, Charles 497, 498
Shang kings (China) 576
Shankara 578
Sheldrake, Rupert 250
Shiʿas, Islam 567, 569
Sima Tan 579
sin
and free choice 269, 357
original 6 n3, 257, 437–40, 443–7
and revelation 33
and truth 33
see also atonement and Hell
skeptical theism see theism, skeptical
skepticism 86–7
about external world 390–1
moral 391–4
and principles of reason 86–7
Smalley, Beryl 16
Smart, John D.:
The Interpretation of Scripture 51 n6
Smith, Quentin 105
Smith, Wilfred Cantwell 576
Socinianism 435
Socinus, Faustus 435, 448 n13
Socrates 320, 566
Song dynasty (China) 580
Song Revival:
Confucianism 586, 594
Sorai, Ogyū 585
soul-making 254, 367–9
soul, the 248–9, 255
in Islam 559, 563–4
and resurrection 479–80, 485
Spinoza, Benedict de 545, 553
spirituality:
New Confucianism 589
Stenmark, Mikael 67
Stump, Eleonore 139, 151, 157–8, 296, 460, 509 n20
subordinationism 407
suffering
animals 243, 247, 253, 369–70
horrific 388–90
Sufism see mysticism, Islam
Sunnis, Islam 567, 569
supererogation 224, 226, 232, 433–4
Swinburne, Richard
and atonement 433–4
and the Bible 50, 51 n16
and Christ 463–6, 468–71, 473 n12
nature of 459
omniscience of 469–70
on damnation 496–7
and deification 173
and divine omnipotence 168
and divine omnipresence 201–2, 203
and divine omniscience 139, 228
The Existence of God 21
and freedom 234
Revelation 21–2
and human attributes 463–4
and kenosis 465
and petitionary prayer 295–6
The Resurrection of God Incarnate 6 n3
and skeptical theism 386–8
and theodicy 258
and the Trinity 414–15
and two ‘minds’ solutions 468, 470
Talbott, Thomas 500–6
Taliaferro, Charles 203 see also Quinn, Philip and Taliaferro, Charles
Tanner, Kathryn 454
Taoism see Daoism
Ten Commandments 224
Tertullian 17
Thagard, Paul 71
theism
and atheism 339–42, 346–9
canonical 22
and divine aseity 123
and divine attributes 116–17
and divine personhood 106–7
and free will 254
and human suffering 341, 346
hypotheses of 347
and morality 307–8, 310–20
and moral perfection 218–20
Open Theists (Openists) 76 n42, 139–40, 263, 264, 269–74, 281, 356–8, 510 n27
(p. 608) and ‘perfect-being theology’ 212
and petitionary prayer 286–99
Process Theists 282 n3
and science 67
skeptical 344, 354–5, 374–94
Theistic Explanation of Morality (ThEM) 307–8, 310–11, 312, 313, 317, 320–1
theodicy 352–70
animal suffering 369–70
connection-building (CBT) 257–8
free will 244, 254, 362–5
natural consequence 361–2
natural law 365–7
and Open Theism 356–8
punishment 360–1
recent deterrents to 353–5
soul-making 244–5, 254, 367–9
standards for success 355–60
virtuous response 257–8
theology
Eastern Orthodox 250
Hindu 578
philosophical 1
Chinese (Confucian) 574–94
Islamic 556–72
Jewish 541–53
thermodynamics, second law of 246, 251–2
Thessalonians, First letter to the 484
Thomas Aquinas, St see Aquinas, St Thomas
Tillich, Paul J. 578
time
cosmic 151
nature of 148–51, 163–4
Timothy
First letter to 169
Second letter to 13, 48
Toland, John 78, 85–6, 87, 96 n3, 98 n36, 98 n41
Tooley, Michael 390
tradition
analytic 1–3
Christian 12–13, 17–9
Islam 568–70
traducianism 438, 446
transubstantiation 514–15, 516, 529
Trembath, Kern Robert, Evangelical Theories of Biblical Inspiration:
A Review and Proposal 44–6, 52 n34
Trent, Council of 515, 529
Trinitarianism 408–16
Constitutional 417–23
Greek (eastern) 412–16
Latin (western) 409–12
part-whole 414–16
and relative identity 417–8
social 412, 413–4, 416, 423
Trinity, the 403–23
adoration of 95
and Christ's identity 452
and consubstantiality 405–7, 417
doctrine of 86–7, 88–91, 406, 424 n4
logical problem of 405–6
and matter 420
mystery of 79
and omnipresence 212
Relative Identity Strategy 417–18
truth
counterfactuals and 277–82
double truth issue: Islam 565–6
God and 118
truthmakers 110–17, 125 n17, 190, 197 n75, 278
Tuggy, Dale 426 n36
Tu Wei-ming 579, 591
universalism 499, 500
U.S. News and World Report 493
utilitarianism 221–3
van Huyssteen, J. Wentzel 59, 74 n10
van Inwagen, Peter 131, 362, 380, 457–8, 487 n6, 488 n9
verificationism 150
virtue theory 228–35, 319–20
volition see divine volitions
Wainwright, William, The Handbook of Philosophy of Religion 79
Walls, Jerry L. 498
Wang Fuzhi 585
Wang Yangming 585
Ward, Keith 242, 250, 256
warrant theory 23–4
Westminster Confession 17, 264
Westminster Shorter Catechism 17
Whitehead, Alfred North 63, 179–80, 195 n54, 578
Wielenberg, Erik 185–6
Wierenga, Edward 136–7, 160, 161, 171–4, 182, 201, 203
Wilkinson, Sir Denys Haig 71
William of Auxerre 169, 180
William of Ockham see Ockham, William of
Williams, Bernard 507–8
Wilsom, David Sloan 62
Wolterstorff, Nicholas 3, 4, 135
Divine Discourse 46–7
(p. 609) world-views:
dialogue 72–3
Wright, J. Edward 507
Wykstra, Stephen 375
Xunzi 580, 582–3, 587, 592
Zagzebski, Linda 130, 318–19
Zaleski, Carol and Philip 491
Zhang Zai 585–6, 594
Zhongyong (Confucianism) 583–4
Zhou dynasty (China) 576
Zhu Xi 585, 586–7
Treatise on the Completion of the Mind-heart 587–8
Zimmerman, Dean 488 n10
Zionism, Political 542 (p. 610)