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date: 22 September 2019

(p. 606) Index

(p. 606) Index

Absalom, Roger 73
ACimoviC, Milan 420
Action 495
Adams, Hendrik 461
Adenauer, Konrad 573
Adorno, Theodore 556
Agulhon, Maurice 547
Albert I, King of Belgium 471, 481
Albinanas, José Maria 368
Alecsandri, Vasile 399
Alexsandrov, Grigory 356
Alfieri, Dino 310
Alibert, Raphael 522
Alicata, Mario 125, 126
Allied Screening Commission 145
Almirante, Giorgio 589, 594
Amaudruz, Gaston Armand 592
Amendola, Giovanni 111, 224, 226
Angleton, James Jesus 59
Angus, James, Marquess of Graham 49
Antall, Jozsef 39
anti-Comintern Pact 347
anti-fascism:
Catholic 180–2
Italy 100, 199, 229, 234
Manifesto of Anti-Fascist Intellectuals 561
A Reply from Italian Writers, Professors and Journalists 111, 561
Afascismo (afascism) 181
Arditi del Popolo 97
Committee for National Liberation 235
fuorusciti 224
Matteotti Brigade 228
Movimento Guelfo D Azione 181
anti-Semitism 178, 299, 307, 603
and neofascism 591
Austria 437–9
Belgium 474, 479, 483
Britain 490, 492, 493, 496, 503–5
Catholic Church 178, 179, 367
fascism 344
Fascist Italy 302, 308 see also Fascist Italy, racial laws
Fascist Italy 110, 124, 178, 270, 271, 306 see also Fascist Italy, racial laws
Hungarism 179, 381, 383, 384, 386, 387, 388, 391
Mussolini, Benito 301
Nazi Germany 179, 290, 296, 304, 306
Netherlands (the) 454, 455, 458, 461, 463, 466
Romania 178, 399, 400, 405, 411
Slovak Republic 179
Spain 366, 367
Yugoslavia 419
Antonescu, Ion 260, 400, 407, 411, 459
Antonini, Giacomo Antonio 228
Aosta, Amedeo, Duke of 250
Arendt, Hannah 339
Argentina 548, 564
Argetoianu, Constantin 399
Armenians 67
Armstrong Vickers 63
Arpinati, Leandro 93
Ash, Timothy Garton 567
Askel Wolthuis, Jan 459
Attlee, Clement 59
Australia 85, 501
Austria 79, 81, 178, 437
and Nazi regime 434, 438
Austrian Freedom Party 602
Austro-Fascism 436, 443, 445, 447–50
Austro-Marxists 437
Christian Social Party 436, 437, 439, 441–8
Danubian Federation 435, 445
Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (German Workers' Party; DAP) 441
Deutsche National-Sozialistische Arbeiterpartei (DNSAP) 434, 438, 440, 441, 443, 446–7
Deutsche National-Sozialistische Arbeiterpartei Österreichs (Hitlerbewegung) (Hitler movement) 441–3
Fascist Italy 438, 441, 444
(p. 607) Frontkämpfervereinigung (Front Fighters’ Association) 441
Groß deutsche Volkspartei (Greater German People's Party) 437, 442
Heimatblock 443, 444
Heimwehr (Home Defence/Guard) 325, 434–41, 443–4, 446, 448
Hitler Jugend, Schutzstsaffel (SS) 442
Hitler Jugend, Sturmabteiling (SA) 442
Korneuburger Oath 439–441, 447
Landbund (Agricultural League) 437, 440, 442
Österreichische Legion (Austrian Legion) 446
Social Democrat Party 325, 436–8, 442
Ständestaat (Corporate State) 434, 436, 439, 443, 445, 447–80
territory 435, 437–8, 443
Trabrennplatz (race course) speech 447
Avanti! 92, 98, 100, 267, 343
Aversini, Andrea Calabrese 229
Axmann, Artur 195, 199
Baars, Jan 454
Bab, Julius 41
Badoglio, Pietro 242–3, 245–6, 248, 270, 282
Bainville, Jacques 518
Bakunin, Michael 128
Balabanoff,Angelica 270
Balbo, Italo 224, 267–9, 285
Baldwin, Stanley 498
Balescu, Nicolae 399
Balkenende, Jan Peter 467
Ballin, Albert 49
Bardèche, Maurice 591
Barletta, Gesualdo 237–8
Barrès, Maurice 402, 510
Becker, Jean-Jacques 54
Beckmann, Max 47
Belgium
Abwehr 480, 483
Action Française 470
Action Nationale 471–472
Amis du Grand Reich Allemand (Friends of the Great-German Empire) 485
Association Catholique de le Jeunesse Belge (ACJB; Belgian Catholic Youth Association) 476
Belgian Socialist Party (BWP) 471, 481
Boerenbond (Farmers’ Union) 476
Catholic Action (CA) 476
Catholic Flemish nationalism 474–5, 478
Catholic Flemish People's Party (CFP) 478
Catholic Party 471, 472, 476–8, 481
Christian Democracy 476, 478
collaboration 470–2, 474, 484–5, 487
Comité de Politique Nationale 471
Communauté Culturelle Wallonne (Walloon Cultural Community) 485
corporative system 475–6, 478, 482
Duits-Vlaamse Arbeidsgemeenschap (DeVlag; German-Flemish Labour Community) 486–487
Eenheidsbeweging-VNV (Unity Movement, VNV) 484
fifth column 472, 479, 480–81
Flemish National Socialist unity party 483, 484
Flemish nationalism 470, 471–5, 479, 482–3, 487
Flemish SS 483–4, 486
Front de Libération National (National Liberation Front; FLN) 478
Formations de Combat (Combat Formations) 482, 484–5
France 477, 479
Front Movement 472, 480
Frontpartij (Front Party) 472–3, 475
Istituto Storico Belga (Belgian Historical Institute) 474
Italian fascism 470, 472, 480
Légion Belge 482
Légion Nationale 472, 480–82
Nationaal Verbond (Catholic Flemish National Union) 473–4
national socialism 474–5, 480, 483, 486
nationalism 470–72
neofascism 487
New Order (fascist) 473, 487
pan-Dutch nationalism 473–5, 479, 483
Resistance 485, 487
socialism 472, 476, 477, 479
socialisme nationale 481
SS-Sturmbrigade Wallonien 485
Tradesmen's associations 476, 478
Verbond van Dietse Nationaal Solidaristen (Verdinaso; Union of Pan Dutch National Solidarists) 473–5, 481–4
Vlaams Belang (Flemish Interest) 487, 601
Vlaams Nationaal Verbond (VNV; Flemish National League) 474–5, 477–9, 481–7
Vlaamse Concentratie (Flemish Concentration) 478–9
VNV Militants 479, 481
Zivilverwaltung 487
Bellamy, Reynall 494, 498
Bellavia, Vincenzo 228
(p. 608) Ben-Ami, Shlomo 369
BeNedićt XV, Pope 168
Beneduce, Alberto 102, 162
Benni, Antonio 158
Bentham, Jeremy 16,
Berger, Gottlob 486
Bergson, Henri 17, 410
Berlin Olympics 190
Berlinguer, Enrico 549, 580
Berlinguer, Mario 237
Berlusconi, Silvio 581, 582
Bernasconi, Giuseppe 235
Berstein, Serge 508
Bethlen, Istvân 381, 383, 385
Bevin, Ernest 505
Bianchi, Michele 168
Bidussa, David 310
Bilenchi, Romano 117, 126
Biondi, Antonio 228
Bismarck, Otto von 22, 551
Bissolati, Leonida 91
Blackbourn, David 551
Blasetti, Alessandro 117
Blinkhorn, Martin 4
Bloch, Marc 547
Blum, Léon 477, 518
Boban, Mate 431, 432
Bobbio, Norberto 109
Bocchini, Arturo 227–30, 233–4, 272, 560
Bolland, Gerardus Johannes Petrus Josephus 454
Bonomi, Ivanoe 94, 97, 99–102
Bonsanti, Alessandro 121
Borgese, Giuseppe Antonio 112
Borghese, Junio Valerio, Prince 593, 595, 597
Bormann, Martin 284
Bosnia
Bosnian HDZ 431
Party of Democratic Action 432
Social Democratic Party 431
13th SS Volunteer Bosnian-Hercegovinian Division (Croatia) (Handschar Division) 424, 432
Bosnia-Herzegovina 415, 418, 419, 420, 421, 422, 424, 426, 427, 428, 429
Bosshammer, Friedrich 314
Bossi, Umberto 581
Bosworth, Richard 244, 321, 324, 327
Böszörmeny, Zoltân 386
Botta, Dan 401
Bottai, Giuseppe 118–19, 121, 125, 153, 157–8, 164, 191, 198, 267, 310, 346
Botz, Gerard 442, 450
Boulanger, Georges Ernest 24
Bourgeois, Léon 84
Brancati, Vitaliano 114
Brancusi, Constantin 410
Brandt, Willy 574
Brasillach, Robert de 172, 510, 523
Bratianu, George 399
Bratianu, Ion 399
Brazil 548, 564
Brezhnev, Leonid 353
Brichetti, Enrico 228
Brinon, Fernand de 521
Britain 74, 80, 85
Africa 499, 500
Conservative Party 489–90, 492–3, 495–6, 500, 502
corporatism 491, 494, 497
Defence of the Realm Act 63
empire 79, 84, 491, 498–500
Establishment 490, 493, 499, 501–2
eugenics 492
General Strike (1926) 491
Government of India Bill (1935) 500
Home Office 493
Home Rule (Irish Nationalists) 491
House ofLords 502
immigration 505
Irish Union 492
January Club 499, 501
Jewish refugees 490, 503
Labour Party 489, 500, 504
League of Empire Loyalists 505
Ministry of Munitions 64
monarchy 497, 498, 499
National Front 505
National government 489, 498, 500, 502
National Party 505
nationalism 496–7
New Party 489
peace campaign 495, 496
Public Order Act (1936) 490
shopkeepers 494, 503
White Defence League 505
women 494–495
working class 496, 499, 504
xenophobia 491
Brookman, Fritz 463
Broszat, Martin 574
Brucculeri, Angelo, Fr. 178
Brüning, Heinrich 59
Brustein, William 554
Brzezinski, Zbigniew K. 348
Bucard, Marcel 507, 513,
Bukharin, Nikolai 349, 352
(p. 609) Bulgaria 251, 344
Bũnuel, Luis 365
Burleigh, Michael 13, 29–30
Burrin, Philippe 240, 508
Bush,George H.W. 260
Caballero, Ernesto Giménez (GeCé) 365–6
Caesar, Julius 114
Calabria 128
Camicia nera (1933) 119
Campo di Maggio (1930,1935) 114
Canada 500–501
Cantacuzino, Alexandru 404
Cantimori, Delio 293
Canto, Alfio 236
Caradossi, Umberto 229
Carcopino, Jérôme 522
Carol II, King 399, 400, 407, 411
Carosi, Alessandro 92
Carrara 99
Carsten, F.L. 439, 448
Carter, Jimmy 580
Cartià, Mario 234
Casini, Gherardo 121
Cassels, Alan 326
Castellani, Dino 233
Castro, Fidel 266
Catholic Church 5
and Austria 443, 447–8
and Belgium 483
and fascism 167–70, 172–3, 175, 182, 292, 557
and Fascist Italy 122, 166–8, 170, 183, 292
Azione Cattolica (Catholic Action; AC) 171, 176, 178
Italian Catholic students movement (FUCI) 176, 188
Lateran Pacts (1929) 122–3, 166–7, 170, 188, 271, 292, 302
and France 509, 511
and Mussolini, Benito 168–9, 174
and Nazi Germany 171–2, 174–5, 292, 480
and Slovak Republic 167, 177
and Soviet Union 173–5, 177, 247
and Spain 169, 365, 367, 369, 376
and Spanish Civil War 173
and the Netherlands 453
Code of Canon Law (1917) 175
corporatism 178
eugenics 20
youth organizations 188
Cavour, Camillo Benso di 114
Chamberlain, Houston Stewart 23, 300–1, 402
Chamier, J. A. 501
Chaplin, Charlie 262
Chesterton, A. K. 491, 496–7, 503, 505
Chickering, Richard 63
Chile 604
Churchill, Winston 490
Ciano, Galeazzo 119–20, 174, 247, 251, 269, 324
Cincar-Markovic, Aleksandr 419
Cioran, Emile 403–4, 406, 412
Class, Heinrich 28
Clemenceau, Georges 52, 78, 84, 322
Clémentel, Etienne 64
Codreanu, Corneliu Zelea 401, 403, 405–7
Cointet-Labrousse, Michèle 523–4
Cold War 1, 323, 567, 588, 592, 603–4
Colle Val d Elsa 117
Collotti, Enzo 236
Comaniciu, Horatiu 407
communism 1, 340, 549
and Germany 72
Communist Party 553
and Belgium; Communist Party 477
and Britain; Communist Party 489, 504
and fascism 348
and France 512, 514
Communist Party (PCF) 510, 515–16
and Hungary 344, 383
new state (communism) 394–395
Hungarian Communist Party 395
and Italy; Italian Communist Party (PCd I; pre-1945) 117–18, 125, 190, 229, 231–2, 342–3
Partito Comunista Italiano (PCI, Italian Communist Party; post-1945) 579–80, 589, 595–6
and Japan 529–30, 534
Rono communists 533–4, 540
Koza communists 533–4, 537, 540
Communist Party 534
and Netherlands (the), Dutch Communist Party 453–5
and Romania, Romanian Communist Party (RCP) 409, 412
and Serbia; League of Communists of Serbia 428
President of the League of Communists of Serbia see Milošević, Slobodan
and Soviet Union; Communist Party 352
Soviet Communism 339, 348
Fascist Italy and Soviet Communism 339
and Yugoslavia, Yugoslav Communist organization 427
Twentieth Communist Party Conference 360
Communist International 588
Compagni, Dino Perrone 97
Conta, Vasile 399
Contarini, Salvatore 324
(p. 610) Convivio letterario 123
Contadino 98
Conway, Martin 173
Corner, Paul 6,
Corradini, Camillo 101
Corradini, Enrico 22
Corriere della Sera 113
Ćosić, Dobrica 426
Crainic, Nichifor 408
Craxi, Bettino 580
Crispi, Franceso 128, 223
Critica Fascista 119, 346
Croatia see also Yugoslavia
anti-Yugoslav terrorists 418
concentration camps 430
constitution 430
Croat Council ofDefence 431–2
fascism 417
Croat Peasant Party (HSS) 415, 418–19
Croat Republic ofHerceg-Bosna 431
Croatian autonomy 415, 419
Croatian Democratic Community (HDZ) 429–31
Croatian Home Guard 418
Croatian Party of the Right (HSP) 417–18, 432
fascism 429, 431
historical revisionism 429–30
Independent State of Bosnian Muslims 424
Independent State of racist ideology 423
Independent State of religion 423
Independent State of Yugoslav Muslim Organization 424
Independent State of Croatia (NDH) 166–7, 251, 422–4
nationalism 429–30
neo-Ustasha 431–2
propaganda 431
Sporazum (agreement) 419
Ustasha 167, 169, 174, 181, 330, 418, 419, 422–3, 430,
Ustasha [Insurgent], Croatian Revolutionary Organization 418,
Wehrmacht 422–3
Yugoslav conflict 416–17, 419
Croce, Benedetto 109, 111, 118, 124, 321, 561, 579
Crockaert, Paul 477
Csurka, Istvân 396
Cuvantul 403
Cuza, Alexandru Ioan 399–404, 407
Cuza, George 403
Cvetković, Dragiša 419
Czechoslovakia 79–80, 82, 85, 167, 247, 320
D Andrea, Giuseppe 229
D Annunzio, Gabriele 16, 18, 19, 29, 36–37, 48, 82, 94, 110, 113, 191, 235, 267, 322, 473
Dagnino, Jorge 176
Daily Mail 490
Daladier, Édouard 508, 515, 518, 524, 557
Dannecker, Theodor 314
Danzig 80, 85
Dâranyi, Kâlmân 388
Darlan, François 522
Darnand, Joseph 523
Darwin, Charles 15, 19
Darwinism 19, 27
Daudet, Léon 67
De Benoist, Alain 600
De Bezem 454
De Bono, Emilio 223–4, 227, 245
De Clercq, Staf 474–5, 478–81, 483–4, 486
De Felice, Renzo 118, 125, 138, 139, 151, 166, 264–5, 290, 294, 297, 318–19, 325, 562, 580–1, 583
De Gaulle, Charles 59
De Grand, Alexander 298
De Grazia, Victoria 204
De Jonge, B. C. 456
De Man, Hendrik 481–2
De Misthoorn 461
Deakin, F. W. 317
Déat, Marcel 521, 523
Défense de l'Occident 591
Degrelle, Léon 169, 172–3, 403, 476–8, 480–2, 484–7, 591, 593
Dehmel, Richard 41
Del Boca, Angelo 246, 584
Delbrück, Hans 35
Delle Chiaie, Stefano 590, 593, 594, 597, 598
Deloncle, Eugène 521
Denmark, Progress Party 602
Depero, Fortunato 264
Der Stürmer 304
Der wahre Staat (The True State; 1921) 440
Deutschen Christen 179
De Vecchi, Cesare Maria 167
Dewey, John 83
Dictionary of National Biography 502
Dimitrijevic, Dragutin (Apis) 416
Dinter, Artur 169
Dix, Otto 47
Dobry, Michel 515
Dollfuss, Engelbert 178, 320, 325–6, 436, 444, 446, 448
Donati, Guido 181
Donegani, Ardiccio 231
Donner, Patrick 502
(p. 611) Donno, Fabrizio De 310
Dorgères, Henry 518
Doriot, Jacques 504, 507, 516–17, 521, 523
Dostoevsky, Fydor 410
Doumergue, Gaston 515
Draskovic, Vuk 429
Drummond Wolff,Henry 502
Duhem, Pierre 17
Duijnmeijer, Kerwin 465
Dujic, Momcilo 431
Duke of Buccleuch 499
Duke of Montrose 499
Duke ofSpoleto 422
Duke ofWindsor 499
Dumini, Amerigo 95, 223–6
Duplessis, Maurice 500
Durkheim, Emile 16, 18, 30
Earl ofErroll 499
East German Democratic Republic (GDR) 567, 568, 572
Eatwell, Roger 527, 601
Edmondson, C. E. 439, 450, 451
Edward VIII, King 498–9
Eichmann, Adolf 305, 312
Einaudi (publishing house) 118, 126
Einaudi, Giulio 118
Einaudi, Luigi 111, 118
Einstein, Albert 35
Eisenstein, Sergei 356
Eley, Geoff 551, 557
Eliade, Mircea 402, 403–4, 406, 407, 412
Elias, Hendrik 473–4, 486
Eminescu, Mihail 399
Empire of Forced Labour 347
Enciclopedia nazionale 111, 310, 561
Ender, Otto 440
English Array 493, 497, 503
English Mistery 493, 497
English Review 172
Enlightenment 15, 19, 20
Escherich, Georg 438
Esden-Tempeska, Carla 450
Essay on the Inequality of the Races 300
Estonia 81
Ethiopia 50
ethnicity 82
eugenics 20, 300–1
Fascist Italy 303
Nazi Germany 303
Esposizione Universale di Roma (EUR) 115
Evola, Julius 301, 589–90, 598, 600–3
Fabre, Giorgio 300–1, 307
Falkenhayn, Erich von 47
Fanfani, Amintore 178
Farinacci, Roberto 93, 97, 171, 267, 268–9, 285, 308, 343, 353
Fascist Italy 2, 5, 84, 93, 97, 152, 170, 241
Acerbo law 280
Africa 250, 251
agricultural policies 129, 131–2, 136–7, 151, 167, 177, 291
agricultural syndicates 134
Albania 243, 247, 330
and Nazi Germany 13, 329, 332–4, 549–50, 553
and Russia 346
and Yugoslavia 330, 332
anti-bourgeois 92, 124, 308
anti-socialist 94, 98
anti-Soviet propaganda 347
architecture 114–15
Armata Italiana in Russia (ARMIR) 252, 253
art and culture 111, 114, 118–19
Associazione Nazionale dei Combattenti (National Returned Soldiers Association) 186
autarky 151, 154, 159, 289
Avanguardia Giovanile Fascista 187
Avanguardia Studentesca (Student Vanguard) 187
Avanguardisti Moschettieri 187, 200
Azione Cattolica Italiana 123
Balilla Moschettiere 187
battaglioni giovani fascisti (battalions of young fascists) 191
bonifica etnica (ethnic cleansing) 255
Book Reclamation programme 308
BrigateNere(BlackBrigades; BN) 200
Campi Dux 192, 194, 200
Carta della Scuola (School Charter) 188
Case del Balilla 193
Case della Giovane Italiana 193
Ceka 223–6
censorship 118, 293, 308
Central Corporative Committee 158, 164
Centro Informativo Politico (Political Information Centre; CIP) 234
Centro Nazionale Italiano 167
Centro Sperimentale di Cinematografia 117
Cephalonia massacre 576
Chamber of Fasces and Corporations 157, 290
chemical weapons 244, 270, 327
Comando Supremo Interforze (Supreme Inter-force Command; CS) 242
concentration camps 311, 313
(p. 612) Confindustria 158
confino 226–227, 561
Corpo di Spedizione Italiano see Armata Italiana in Russia
corporatism 153, 156, 157, 158, 178, 268, 292
Decennale 119
Demography and Race Office 306
Directorate of General and Special Affairs 227
Divisione Polizia Politica (Political Police; Polpol) 227–33, 235, 237
Dopolavoro (OND) 190
economy 138, 151, 155, 159–60, 162–5
education 111, 122
empire 241, 244–5, 271, 302, 323, 330, 584
Eritrea 244
Exhibition of the Fascist Revolution (Mostra della Rivoluzione Fascista) 119
Experimental Centre for Cinematography 356
Fabbriguerra 248
FascidiCombattimento 73, 91–7, 133, 187, 210, 223, 269
Fasci Femminili (FF) 187, 189, 210–13, 217
Fasci Giovanili di Combattimento 189–190, 289
Fasci Italiani all Estero 193
Fascist Confederation of Agricultural Cartels 163
Fascist Institute of Culture 122, 354
Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista; PNF) 97, 160–1, 167, 189–90, 268, 274, 285–6, 289, 302, 340
Fascist University Groups (Gruppi Universitari Fascisti; GUF) 125, 187, 198
federconsorzi 140
Ferramonti di Tarsia 311
Fiamme Bianchi (White Flames) 200
Figli della Lupa (sons of the She-Wolf) 186, 200
Figlie della Lupa (daughters of the She-Wolf) 187, 200, 215
Finsider 162
Foreign Ministry 155, 269, 324
foreign policy 242–3, 287, 318, 322, 324
Fosse Ardetine massacre 314
France 248, 249
gender 203, 358
German occupation 236
Giovani Fascisti 189, 192, 215
Giovani Italiane (Young Italian Women) 188, 200, 214–15
Gioventù fascista (Fascist Youth) 189
Gioventù Italiana del Littorio (Italian Lictors' Youth; GIL) 191, 193–4, 215, 289
Grand Council (of fascism) 157, 163, 167, 281, 327
Graziani Proclamation 200
Greece 250, 330–331
Guardia Giovanile Legionaria 201
Guardia Nazionale Repubblicana (National Guard; GNR) 200
Igiene della razza 180
Institute for Industrial Reconstruction 350
Institute of Industrial Reconstruction (Istituto di Riscostruzione Industriale; IRI) 155, 161–163
inter-syndical committees 160–161
Istituto Nazionale di Economia Agraria (National Institute of Agrarian Economics) 142
Istituto Nazionale Fascista di Cultura (National Fascist Institute of Culture) 111
Italian Jewry 306
Jewish Question 124
leggi fascistissime 226–8, 281
Legione Muti 236
Libya 243–4, 313, 329
Mafia 99, 561
Manifesto of Fascist Intellectuals 111
Manifesto of Racist Scientists 304, 306, 309–10
March on Rome 167, 170, 186, 268, 280, 285, 515
Matteotti Crisis 170, 225–6, 228, 281, 285, 343, 352
Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale (MVSN) see squadrism
Ministry of Popular Culture 114, 118–20, 125–6, 310
Ministry of Corporations 156–8, 160, 216, 346
Ministry of Internal Migration 140
Ministry of National Education 119, 188, 190, 193, 214, 289, 310
Ministry of Public Posts 98
Ministry of the Colonies 245–6
Ministry of the Interior 120, 235
miscegenation 303, 307–9, 327
Monarchy 225, 241, 271, 281
Monografie di famiglie agricole 142–5
Moscatelli band 234
National Council of Corporations 157–9, 164
Nucleo Speciale del Servizio Riservato (IPSA) 235–6
Opera Nazionale Balilla (ONB) 122–3, 187–9, 192–4, 200, 289
(p. 613) Operazione Nazionale Maternità ed Infanzia (ONMI) 192, 194, 209, 212
Organizzazione per la Vigilanza e la Repressione dell Antifascismo (Organization for Vigilance and Repression ofAnti-Fascism; OVRA) 223, 227, 229–33, 237–8
pact of pacification 96, 97, 101
Partito Nazionale Repubblicano 200
Partito Socialista Unitario 224
peasantry 129, 134, 141–3, 148
Piccole Italiane 192, 200, 214–15
Pisanelli Code 208
Press Office (Ufficio Stampa del Capo del Governo) see Ministry for Popular Culture
prisoners of war (Anglo-American) 146
pro-natalist propaganda 208, 357, 358
propaganda 113–14, 127, 134, 137, 140, 142, 245–6, 252, 294, 313, 356
Racial Laws 120, 124–5, 171, 173, 180, 306–7, 310, 322
racism and racialism 240, 271, 302–03, 307, 309–310
Reale Accademia d Italia 112
Repubblica Sociale Italiana, Verona Law 314
Repubblica Sociale Italiana (Italian Social Republic; RSI) 95, 199, 200–1, 218, 233–238, 254, 287, 313–14, 579
Republican Fascist Party 95
Risiera di San Sabba 313
ruralization policy (sbracciantizzazione) 139–41, 177, 208, 293
Secretariat for Press and Propaganda 354
Section for Women Workers and Home-Workers (Sezione Operaie e Lavoranti a Domicilio; SOLD) 210, 213
Servizi Informazioni 253
Servizi Militari Informativi Italiani (SIM) 228
Servizio Ausiliario Femminile (Female Auxiliary Service; SAF) 218
Servizio del Lavoro (Work Service) 216–17
Servizio Speciale Riservato (Special Reserve Service; SSR) 233
Sezione Massaie Rurali (Rural Housewives Section) 210, 214
Sharecroppers Charter (1934) 141
silk industry 159
Slovenes 236, 331
Socialists 93, 99
Società Italiana per le Strade Ferrate Meridionali (Italian Company for Southern Railways) 234
Somalia 244
Soviet Union 252, 347
spazio vitale (living space) 153, 240, 247, 319, 330
squadrism 73, 91–9, 101, 112, 134, 168, 186, 189, 200, 223, 230, 240, 241–2, 269, 285, 343
SS 235
Supreme Commission for Autarky 164
Supreme Commission of Defence 14, 164
Terra del Duce 193
Togliatti amnesty 238
total (land) reclamation (bonifica integrale) 138–40, 290
totalitarianism 118, 121, 164, 221, 227, 269, 272–3, 324–5, 327, 344
trade unions 95, 134, 154
violence 92–3, 97, 102, 134, 186, 224–5, 235–6, 553, 557
Fede e Ragione 179
Feinstein, Wiley 299
Feldman, Gerald 63
Ferdinand, Franz, Archduke 416
Ferguson, Niall 315
Ferrari, Enzo 93
Ferrari, Francesco 181
Fest, Joachim 201
Fey, Emil 443
Fiat 156
Fichera, Filippo 123
Fini, Gianfranco 581–2
Finizio, Mario 233–4
Finland 178, 344, 557
Fischer, Fritz 573–4
Fontamara 131
Forni, Cesare 224–5
Fortuyn, Pim 467–468
Forzano, Giuseppe 114, 119
Foti, Ion 405
Foucault, Michel 16
Foundation ofthe Nineteenth Century 300
France 3, 75, 80, 81, 252
Action Française (AF) 67, 180, 182, 509, 511–12, 514, 517–19, 522
Algeria 516, 591
Alsace 509
and Fascist Italy 510, 512
and Nazi Germany 512, 514
(p. 614) anti-parliamentary leagues 507
Blanquistes 24
blue shirts 512–13, 518
Bonapartists 507
Boulangism 509
Camelots du Roi 511–13
Cartel des Gauches 511
Cercle Proudhon 512
collaboration 509, 520–24, 568
Comités Secrets d Action Révolutionnaire (CSAR) 228, 518, 521
corporatism 511–12
Croix de Feu 510, 513, 515–19
deportations 520
Dreyfus Affair 25, 40, 54, 299, 509
État Français 519–20
Faisceau 507, 511–13, 517, 519
Fédération Républicaine (FR) 517
Francistes 507, 513–14, 517–18
Freemasons 519
French Revolution 14, 208, 509, 519
Front Populaire (Popular Front) 476, 508, 514, 516–18, 556
Gaullism 524, 597
genocide 524
German occupation 508–9, 519, 522–4
greenshirts 518
immigration 509, 514, 516
Jeunesses Patriotes (JP) 513–14, 517–18
Légion 511, 513
legitimists 507
Ligue des Patriotes 509, 511, 513
Lorraine 509
Mouvement Social Révolutionnaire 521
National Front 465
nationalism 509, 511–13, 522
Orléanists 507
Parti Populaire Français (PPF) 507, 510, 514, 516–17, 520–23
Parti Social Français (PSF) 514, 516–17, 521
Progrès Social Français 522
Qu-est-ce qu'un collaborateur? 523
radical right 508–24
Rassemblement National Populaire 521
Resistance 523
Socialist Party (SFIO) 510, 515
Solidarité Française (SF) 510, 513–14, 517–18,
Stavisky riots (1934) 514–15
Francetic, Jure 431
Franco, Francisco 182, 234, 260, 320, 327, 375, 376, 378, 564
Franco, Ramon 234
Frank, Josip 417
Frauenfeld, Alfred, E 442
Freda, Franco 600
Freddi, Luigi 187
Freemasonry 93, 175
Fresco, Bernard 463
Freud, Sigmund 18, 30, 35, 36, 556
Frick, Walther 283
Friedrich, Carl J. 348
Frigerio, Pietro 100
Fuerza Nueva 594
Fukuyama, Francis 260
Fuller,J.C.F. 502, 503
Fundamental Principles for the Reorganization of Japan (1919) 531
Futurism 37, 39, 47–8, 73, 112, 264, 335
Galen, Bishop August Von 181
Gallian, Marcello 94
Gallone, Carmine 114
Galton, Frances 20, 300
Gardner, Richard 580
Gasparotto, Luigi 102
Gasparri, Pietro 170
Gazzetta del Popolo 123
Gehlen, Reinhard, General 593
Geibel, Emanuel 43
Gellot, Laura 450
Gemelli, Agostino 180
Genio de Espana 366, 376
Gentile, Emilio 3–5, 12–13, 15, 21, 126, 183, 307
Gentile, Giovanni 16, 29, 38–9, 110–11, 286, 310
George V, King 498
Germany 2, 3, 72, 75, 82 see also First World War, Nazi Germany
Auxiliary Service Law 63
Einwohnerwehren 72
Freikorps 58, 72, 345
German modernist art 41
German Nationalism 22–3
German Resistance Memorial 574
Hohenzollern monarchy 279
Los von Rom (Away from Home) 168
myth ofresistance 571, 575–8
Plötzensee Memorial 574
Schlussstricht 570
Social Democracy 553, 557, 574
Sparticist Union 345
Wehrmacht 568, 573, 576
Widerstand 574
worker organizations 547–8
Zentrum 556–557
(p. 615) Germany, Federal Republic (FRG) 274, 567–8, 573–4, 593
Geyer, Michael 53, 63
Ghini, Celso 231
Giannuli, Aldo 593
Gide, André 410
Gil Robles, José Maria 370–1
Gini, Corrado 561
Ginori-Conti, Piero, Prince 95
Ginzburg, Leone 118
Giolitti, Giovanni 93–4, 101, 113, 180, 226, 553
Giuriati, Giovanni 189
Giustizia e Libertà (GL; Liberty and Justice) 112, 228–9
Glaise-Horstenau, Edmund 449
Glimmerveen, Joop 462–4, 466–7
Gobetti, Piero 112
Gobineau, Joseph-Arthur 19, 29, 300, 402
Godfrey, John 64
Goebbels, Joseph 117, 168, 293, 402
Goga, Octavian 400, 407, 411
Goldhagen, Daniel 577
Gömbös, Gyula 383–385, 387
Gordon, Bertram 523
Göring, Hermann 285, 288–289, 311
Goyet, Bruno 512–13
Graaf, Volkert van der 467
Gramsci, Antonio 118, 343, 600
Grandi, Dino 93, 97, 168, 267, 269
Grass, Günther 201
Graves, Robert 45
Graziani, Clemente 589
Graziani, Rodolfo 243, 246, 248, 250, 270, 329
Grćić, Radmilo 417
Greece 80, 251, 252
Gregor, A. J. 4, 151, 156, 265, 266, 582
Grey, Charles 502
Griffin, Roger 4–6, 176, 451, 528, 601–3
Groener, Wilhelm, General 553
Grosz, George 47
Grotjahn, Alfred 65
Gueli, Giuseppe 236–238
Guidi, Guido Buffarini 236
Gulick, Charles A. 450
Guttuso, Renato 126
Gyurcsâny, Ferenc 396
Habermas, Jürgen 567–8
Habsburg empire 79, 83, 321
Hadžihasanović, Muhamed-aga 424
Hadžihasanović, Uzeir-aga 424
Haeckel, Ernst 20, 28
Haig, Douglas 45
Haighton, Alfred, A. 454–5
Haller, Johannes 43
Halliday, Jon 530
Hanisch, Ernst 439
Hannon, Patrick 493
Hartman, Jan 459
Hasdeu, Bogdan Petriceicu 399
Heinrich, Walter 439
Heisenberg, Werner 561
Henriot, Philippe 517, 523
Herder, Gottfried von 15, 21
Herseni, Traian 405, 408
Herwig, Holger 66
Herzegovina 417
Hess, Rudolf 284
Het Nationale Dagblad 456
Heydrich, Reinhard 312
Hillgruber, Andreas 576
Hiltle, Hermann 441
Himmler, Heinrich 168, 285, 458, 483
Hindenburg, Paul von 47, 63, 64, 280–1, 332, 572
Hirohito, Emperor 542
Hitler, Adolf 1–3, 53, 55, 67, 166, 402, 403, 549, 572
First World War 58
ideology 13, 286
Nietzsche, Freidrich 16, 402
rise to power 279–2
Romania 411
Serbia 421–2
Wagner 23
Weltanschauung 290
Hoder, Svetislav 416
Homan, Eite 466
Homosexuals 313
Hoogduin, Ton 464
Hoornaert, Paul 472, 482
Horthy, Miklos 86, 297, 344, 391, 393, 422, 459
Höss, Rudolph 312
Houston, Lucy, Lady 498
Howard, Michael 59, 64
Howard, Peter 489
Huber, Ernst 287
Hueber, F. 444
Hugay, Kâlmân 392
Hungary 79, 82, 86, 177, 251
Hungarism 380, 381, 386, 388
1956 Revolution 395, 397
1989 395
Christian 384–5, 393
Christian nationalism 382, 384, 387
FIDESZ Party 396–7
General Staff 386–7
Horthy fascism 380
(p. 616) Hungarian Democratic Forum (Magyar Demkrata Forum) 395–6
Hungarian Justice and Life Party (Magyar Igazsâg és Élet Pârtja) 396
Hungarian Life Party (Magyar Élet Pârtja) 396
Hungarian National Defence Association (Magyar Orszâgos Vêderő Egylet; MOVE) 384
Hungarian Socialist Party (Magyar Szocialista Pârt) 396
Independent Smallholders Party 395
monarchy 382, 383
National Unity Party (Nemzeti Egység Pârtja; NEP) 385
Revolution 1918 382
Scythe Cross Movement 386
Social Democratic Party 383, 385, 389
Treaty of Trianon 79, 82, 384
and Nazi Germany 388, 391
Arrow Cross Party (Nyilaskeresztes Pârt) 167, 380, 386, 389–94
German National Socialism 381, 386–7, 392
Italian Fascism 386
Jewish Question 387, 389, 393–4
National Socialist Hungarian Party, Hungarist Movement (A Nemzeti Szocialista Magyar Pârt, Hungarista Mozgalom) 387, 389
neo-conservatism 380–2, 387
Party of National Will (Nemzet Akaratânak Pârtja) 387
racist state 391
Hussein, Saddam 260
Hutchinson, Graham Seton 499
I giganti della montagna 114
Ikki, Kita 532–3, 541
Il Bargello 115
Il Duce e il fascismo nei canti dialettali 123
Il mondo 226
Il paese 100, 101
Il popolo d Italia 91, 97, 117, 168, 205, 223, 267, 269
Il selvaggio 117
Imrédy, Béla 391, 394
Inquart-Seyss, Arthur 450, 458
Interlandi, Telesio 303, 306, 310
International Labour Office 78
Interscambio Spagna (The Spanish Trading Company) 234
Ionescu, Eugene 410, 412
Ireland 53, 167, 178
Irvine, William 516, 517
Islamofascism 587
Isnenghi, Mario 121
Italy 2, 5, 72, 79
1919 elections 73
Alleanza Nazionale 601–2
and Libya 113, 243, 246, 285, 327
Arditi 58, 73, 91, 93, 186
banditry 128–9, 134
Berlusconi government 110
Bersagliere 93
biennio nero 96
biennio rosso 73, 96, 177, 222
Blocco Nazionale 94
Bologna 73, 92, 100, 128
Brigate Rosse (Red Brigades) 580, 600
census 131, 133, 136–7, 139, 150
clientalism 129
compromesso storico (historic compromise) 580
Consiglio Nazionale delle Donne Italiane 211
Constitution (Albertine) 287
Democrazia Cristiana (DC; Christian Democrats) 579–80, 595
Directorate General for Public Security (DGPS) 222
Divisione Affari Generali e Riservati (Division for General and Special Affairs; DAGI) 223
domicilio coatto 226
economic miracle 148, 150, 579
European Union (EU) 579
Fasci Siciliani (1893-4) 128
Federazione Metallurgica della Confederazione Generale del Lavoro (FIOM) 102
Forza Italia (Up, Italy) 581
FTASE 598
General Confederation of Agriculturalists 133
Istituto Pollio 598
Italian Regency of Carnaro 82
Italian Socialist Party (PSI) 73, 132, 342
Italiani brava gente (good Italian) 255, 297, 331, 570, 579
Italy-Yugoslav friendship pact 243, 418
latifundia 128
Lega Nord (Northern League) 581, 600, 602
Liberal Italy 72, 94, 96, 113, 170, 208, 221, 222, 267, 341, 342
Mafia 597
Margherita (or Daisy) 581
Masonic Lodge Propaganda 2 (P2) 597
Maximalists 553
National Federation of the Italian Press 99
Novecentisti 112
Office of Strategic Services (OSS) 593
peasantry 127–8, 130–133
People's Party (PPI; Partito Popolare Italiano) 132, 167, 170–1, 177, 180–1
Resistance 190, 218, 256, 567
Sacchi decree 221
sharecropping 133, 141
Social Movement (Movimento Sociale Italiano) 567
Socialist Party 553, 596
Strategy of Tension 597, 604
Ufficio Centrale Investigativo (UCI: Central Investigative Branch) 223, 229
unions 94, 96
Venezia-Giulia 73
Visocchi reforms 133–4
workers councils 73
Izetbegovic, Alija 432
Jackson, Julian 523
James, William 17
Janmaat, Hans 464–6
Japan 2, 8
anarchists 534
anti-Western colonialism 529
comparison with Fascist Italy 538, 542
comparison with Nazi Germany 537–8, 541, 542
Confucianism 532
economic development 533
emperor 528, 531–4, 536, 538
exceptionalism 530, 537, 543
expansionism 532, 538
family state (kazoku kokka) 538
Great Kanto earthquake 534
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere 535
Imperial Rescripts 531
Imperial Rule Assistance Association 535, 541
kokutai (national polity) 532, 541
Kokutai no Hongi (Cardinal Principles of our National Polity) 531
Korea 532, 534
labour movement 531, 534
League of Nations 535
London Naval Conference (1930) 535
Manchuria 532, 535
Manchurian Incident (1931) 534, 537
Meiji Constitution 531, 534, 537
Meiji era 528, 529, 531–4, 539
Meiji Restoration 531, 532, 534, 539, 542
particularism 527, 529–30, 533, 538, 541–3
propaganda 535
protectionism 529
racism 538
Reale Accademia d Italia 123
Rice Riots 534
Russian Revolutions 531
Showa Research Association 529
Showa Restoration 539
Sino-Japanese War (1937) 534
socialism 531, 534
Taisho democracy 531, 534
totalitarian state 528, 536
Triple Intervention (1895) 534
Washington system 541
Western colonialism 532, 538, 541, 543
Wilson,Woodrow 531
Jazz Comedy 356
Je suis partout 521
Jedlicka, Ludwig 439, 450
Jenkin, Brian 515
Jenks, Jorian 494, 498
Jerrold, Douglas 172
John XXIII, Pope 596
Jonić, Velibor 417, 420
Jonna, Guglielmo 232
Jordan, Colin 460
Joubaire, Alfred 56
Jovanovic, Slobodan 419
Joyce, William 490, 491, 503–4
Judt, Tony 315, 571
Kant, Immanuel 17
Kaplan, Alice 524, 603
Karađorđević, Aleksandar, King of Yugoslavia 415–19
Karađorđević, Pavle, Prince 418–19, 432
Karađzić, Radovan 428, 431
Károly IV 382–383
Károlyi, Gyula 385
Karolyi, Mihaly 86
Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) 243
Kennedy, John F. 596
Kershaw, Ian 4, 245, 274, 283, 559, 572
Keynes, John Maynard 83–4
Kikuo, Nakamura 542
Kipling, Rudyard 365
Kirchheimer, Otto 557
Kirov, Sergei 352
Knox, MacGregor 240, 317, 322, 331
Koch, Pietro 234
Kocka, Jürgen 547, 548
Koekoek, Hendrik 461
(p. 618) Kogalniceanu, Vasile 399
Kohl, Helmut 575, 580
Kok, Wim 467
Kokoschka, Oskar 410
Kolchak, Aleksandr 347
Konst, Nico 465
Koon, Tracey 186
Kosovo War 429
Kruls, Jan 462
Krushchev, Nikita 360
Kruyt, C. J. A. 455, 459
Kulenović, Džafer 424
Kun, Bela 86, 344
Kusters, Constant 466
Kvaternik, Eugen Dido 422
Kvaternik, Slavko 422, 431
L'eco di Bergamo 123
L'Émancipation nationale 521
L'Humanité 44, 518
L'Illustration 44
L osservatore romano 168
La Conquista del Estado 366
La Corona di ferro 117
La Critica 118
La difesa della razza 124, 303, 306, 308
La disintegrazione del sistema (1969) 600
La gaceta literaria 365
La Gerbe 521
La lotta di classe (Class Struggle) 267
La Rocque, François de, Colonel 504, 515–17, 522, 523
La Stampa 99
La Voce 25
La voce della fogna 600
Labriola, Arturo 26
Lafarge, John 174
Lagarde, Paul 16, 23, 24
Lamarckianism 19
Lamirand, Georges 520, 522
Lamprecht, Karl 35
Landra, Guido 306
Larsen, Stein Ugelvik 527–9
Lasson, Adolf 41
Latvia 81
Laval, Pierre 522
Lavisse, Ernest 43
Lazzaretti, David 129
Le Bon, Gustave 11, 16, 17, 18, 27, 28, 30
Le Pen, Jean-Marie 430
Le Play, Frédérick 143
League of Nations 77–8, 80, 83, 154, 322, 435
Lebanon 80
Ledesma Ramos, Ramiro 366–70
Lédier, Antoine 511
Leese, Arnold 493, 497, 503
Legion of the Archangel Michael see Romania, Iron Guard
Lehmann, Max 35
Lenin, Vladimir 76, 340, 346, 349, 365
Leo XIII, Pope 175, 178, 447
Leopold III, King 475, 480–82
Lessona, Alessandro 246
Leto, Guido 233, 237
Levi, Carl 561
Lewin, Max 461
Lewis, Jill 444
Lewis, Ted ‘Kid’ 489
Libertad 366
Lichtenberg, Bernard 181
Liebknecht, Karl 72, 345
Lintorn-Orman, Rotha 493
Linz, Juan 181, 363, 550, 555
Lippmann, Walter 84
Lithuania 80
Littoria 115
Livorno 100
Ljotić, Dimitrije 417, 420–421
Lloyd George, David 64, 78, 84, 322
Lo Castro, Fortunato 237
Lo Sport Fascista 190
Lodi 93
Logic and Psychology of Ultranationalism 536, 537
Lombardy 128
Lombroso, Cesare 21, 22, 197, 300 see also criminology, Italian
Looij, Guus 462
Lorca, Federico Garcia 365
Lord Erroll 499
Lord Erskine 502
Lord Lymington 502
Lord Semphill 502
Lorenzini, Antonio 100
Louvain 33
Lucetti, Gino 227
Ludendorff,Erich 47, 49, 52–53, 63, 67, 168
Ludwig, Emile 302
Lüer, Heinrich 196
Luongo, Joseph 593
Lutkie, Walter 453–4, 460
Luttman-Johnson, H. W. 502
Luxemburg, Rosa 72, 345
Lymington (Viscount) 493
(p. 619) Maccari, Mino 117
MacDonald, Ramsay 489, 497
Mack Smith, Denis 321
Macmillan, Harold 59
Malaparte, Curzio 114, 115, 222, 224
Malvy, Louis 52
Mandel, Georges 523
Manganiello, Emilio 237
Manganiello, Raffaele 95
Mangano, Roberto 230
Mann, Michael 4, 363, 402, 405
Mantica, Paola 26
Mao, Zedong 266
Maoist China 600
Marazzi, Giuseppe 232
Marconi, Guglielmo 112
Maria de Ariezla, José 370
Marin, Louis 517
Marin, Vasile 407, 408
Marinetti, Filippo Tommaso 37–8, 91, 93, 110–11, 123, 168, 267, 310
Marinetti, Piero 112
Marion, Paul 520–22
Markovic, Mira 428
Marks, Sally 80, 82
Martian, Dionisie Pop 399
Martire, Egilberto 173
Marx, Karl 365
Marxism 77
Marxist socialists 128
Marxist-Leninism 354
Masao, Maruyama 529–30, 534–41
Mason, Tim 153
Massa 100
Massis, Henri 172
Matteotti, Giacomo 95, 111, 268, 343
Matthijs, Victor 485
Maurin, Jules 55
Maurras, Charles 180, 182, 402, 472–3, 511, 518–519, 522
Mayer, Edward 18,
Mazzantini, Carlo 201
Mazzini, Giuseppe 13, 21
Mazzolani, Ulderico 224
McCormack, Gavan 529
Meijer, Arnold 454, 458, 459, 500
Mein Kampf 58, 286, 301, 305, 307, 345, 366
Meinecke, Friedrich 53, 572–3
Meldini, Piero 204
Men among the Ruins (1953) 590
Mesic, Stipe 430
Mesopotamia (Iraq) 80
Metaxas, Ioannis 251
Meyer, Arnold 167
Mezzaroma, Giovanni Cialli 236
Miccoli, Giovanni 179
Miglioli, Guido 181
Mihailovic, Draza 424–5
Mileti, Alessandro 231
militarism 70, 71, 75, 76, 85
Millerand, Alexandre 61
Milošević, Slobodan 419, 421, 426, 428–432
Milza, Pierre 508
Misuri, Alfredo 224
Mitford, Diana 497
Mladic, Ratko 428
Modena 98–99
Moljević, Stevan 425
Moncada, Franceso Crispo 227
Mondadori (publishing house) 120
Mondadori, Arnaldo 120, 125
Mondolfo, Rodolfo 111
Montale, Eugenio 111
Moore, Barrington 364, 529
Moore-Brabazon, L. T. C. 502
Mordaunt, Stewart 465
Mori, Cesare 99, 553
Mori, Renato 326
Morning Post 490
Moro, Aldo 580, 595, 597
Morreale, Eugeneo 325
Mosca, Gaetano 27
Mosley, Oswald 169, 403, 489–504, 555, 559, 591
Mosse, George 58, 74, 75, 527
Mota, Ion 407–8
Mounier, Emmanuel 172
Müller, Adam 439
Musco, Arturo 238
Mussert, Anton 455–6, 458, 459, 463
Mussolini, Arnaldo 97, 269
Mussolini, Benito 2, 4, 11, 44, 73, 85, 91, 96–7, 110, 112, 114, 119, 125, 191, 225, 239–42, 261, 266–7, 287, 303, 402–3, 426, 473, 512, 549
British Fascism 490
Darwin, Charles 26
economic policies 161
empire 319, 320, 326, 329
family 270
First World War 58, 266
foreign policy 318, 319, 321
Le Bon 27
Libyan War 26
Nietzsche, Freidrich 16
relationship with Nazi Germany 247
revisionismo fascista 319, 324
(p. 620) rise to power 268, 302
Socialism 25, 26, 342
Switzerland 26
war 39, 239, 256, 327
Zionism 301, 302
Mussolini, Edda 269
Mussolini, Vittorio 125, 198
Nanni, Torquato 346
Napoleon 114
Napoleonic Wars 61
Nationalism 19, 21, 22, 24–5, 45, 70, 76, 83, 86–7, 548
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) 429, 575, 588, 595–7
Nazi Germany 1, 2, 3, 80, 119, 175, 178, 288–90, 293–4, 301, 329, 352, 389, 534, 557, 561
Abwehr 480, 483
and Austria 325 see also Anschluss
and Poland 305
and Romania 251
and the Soviet Union 305, 345
Anschluss 247, 305–6, 320, 325, 418, 435, 436, 443, 449
anti-Soviet propaganda 347
autarky 154, 289
Bavarian People's Party (BVP) 180, 280
BDM-Werk Glaube und Schöenheit 195
Centre Party (Catholic) 169, 172, 180
Chelmo 312
concentration camps 126, 294, 304, 305, 312
corporatism 178, 292
Dachau 304, 305
Enabling Act (1933) 557
eugenic programmes 305
Final Solution 305, 306, 311–12, 345, 353, 561
foreign policy 286, 288
Four-Year Plan 289
Führerprinzip 286
Gleichschaltung 274
Hitlerjugend (HJ) 195, 196, 198
Holocaust 2, 174, 311
jazz 196
Jehovah's Witnesses 577
Kristallnacht 179, 305, 353
living space (Lebensraum) 153, 289, 305, 345
Ministry for Popular Enlightenment and Propaganda (Reichsministerium für Volksaufklärung und Propaganda) 120, 293, 345, 347, 356
Ministry of the Interior 283
Munich Putsch 67, 72, 515
NAPOLA (National Politische LehrAnstalt) 199
National Labour Front 421
National Socialist Party (NSDAP) 81, 168–9, 171, 280, 286, 403, 484
New European Order 508, 522
Night of the Long Knives 282, 287–288, 353, 558
Nuremberg Laws 304
Nuremberg Rallies 347
racialism 172, 174, 179, 180,
racism 296, 304–7
Reischskonkordat (1933) 167, 171, 172
Reischsnährstand 289
Resistance, 20
July plot 567–9, 568, 571, 572, 574–8
SA 280, 285, 288, 304
Sobibor 306, 312
Sonderweg 551, 571
SS 195, 196, 199, 235, 288, 294, 312, 421
Streifendeinst (SRD) 196
Treblinka 306, 312
Waffen SS 288, 458, 484, 590
Wannsee conference 312
youth 195, 197–201
Nazi-Fascist Axis 125, 153, 247, 252, 253, 254, 306, 310, 317, 318, 324, 347
Nedić, Milan 419–22, 425
Nemolovsky, Alexander, Archbishop of Brussels 478
Nenni, Pietro 92
neo-fascism 110, 429, 460, 563,
passim 586–604
Neo-Nazism see neo-fascism
Netherlands (the) 114, 356
Aktiefront Nationaal Socialisten (ANS) 466
Algemene Nederlandse Fascisten Bond (General Dutch Fascist Association) 454
Boerenpartij (BP; Farmers’ Party) 461–2, 468
Centrumpartei (CP) 463–466
Centrumpartij ‘86 (CP ‘86) 465–6
Christian Democrats 467
Detmold Programme 460
Flemish nationalism 455
Hulp aan invalide oud-Oostfronts-trijers, nabestaanden, politieke gevangenen e.a. (HINAG; Help for Former Eastern Front Soldiers, Relatives, Political Prisoners) 460
immigration 461–3, 466–8
Italian Fascism 453, 457
Jong Dietschland 473
Jongeren Front Nederland ‘94 (JFN'94) 466
(p. 621) Landstorm (Home Guard) 458
Landwacht 457
Leefbaar Nederland 467
Leefbaar Rotterdam (LR) 466–7
Lijst Pim Fortuyn (LPF) 467–8, 600
National Europese Sociale Beweging (NESB) 460–61, 465
NationalOppositie Unie (NationalUnion of Opposition) 460
National-Socialistiche Beweging (NSB) 455–62, 465
National-Socialistische Nederlandse Arbeiderspartij (NSNAP; Hitler Movement) 454–5, 458–9
National Socialism 457, 459, 463, 465, 468
Nationale Unie 454
Nationale Volkspartij (NVP) 466
Nazi Germany 457
Nazi trials 459
Nederlandse Volk-Unie (NVU) 461–7
Centrumdemocraten (CD) 465–7
Nieuw Verbond van Nationalisten 454
Noorbond (Northern League) 460
Partij de Arbeid (Labour) 467
Partij Nieuw Rechts (PNR) 461
Per Engdahl in Malmö 460
racism 457, 461–3, 465, 466
Scheldt issue 456
Social Democratic Party 453, 455
Socialist Party 455
The Hague 454
Verbond van Actualisten 454
Verbond van Dietse National-Solidaristen (Verdinaso) 455
Vrijwilligersleigioen Nederland (Netherlands Volunteer Legion) 458
Weerafdeling(WA) 457
Zwarte Front 454, 458
Neurath, Konstantin von 288
Nevinson, C.R.W. 48
New Zealand 147
Nicolson, Harold 78, 489
Nicola. Enrico De 94, 97
Nicolei, Colonel 34
Nietzsche, Friedrich 13, 16, 19, 29, 300
Nieuw Vlaanderen (New Flanders) 478
Nitti, Francesco 93, 100, 222, 224
Nobukatsu, Fuijoka 530
Noica, Constantin 407, 412
Nolte, Ernst 70, 528, 562
Norway, Progress Party 602
Noske, Gustav 49
Nothomb, Pierre 471
Novick, Peter 2, 282
Nudi, Francesco 229
Nuremberg Trials 313
Nuvoli, Alvise 228
Nye, Robert 14
O'Duffy, Eoin 167
Oberhaidacher, Walter 442
Olympic Committee (CONI) 190
Operation Barbarossa 271
Operation Condor 598
Orano, Paolo 308
Orbân, Viktor 396
Organization der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen (ODESSA; Organization of Former Members ofthe SS) 593
Orientamenti (1950) 590
Orlando, Vittorio Emanuele 44, 78, 94
Orman, Rotha Lintorn 74
Orpen, William 48
Ossessione 125
Pacelli, Eugenio 171
pacifism 33, 48, 54
Pact of Steel 247, 320, 328, 576
Pagano, Giuseppe 114 126
Pagnotta, Leo Joseph 593
Palacio, Jesus 594
Palazzo della Civiltà Italiana 115, 116
Palestine 80
Panaitescu, Pertre P 408, 409
Papen, Franz von 279
Papini, Giovanni 16
Paraga, Dobroslav 432
Pareto, Vilfredo 26–8
Parezanin, Ratko 417
Passmore Kevin 516
Patrascanu, Lucretiu 409
Patriach ofLisbon 179
Paulescu, Nicolae Costache 405
Pauley, Bruce 442
Pavelic, Ante 167, 297 330, 418, 422, 424, 431, 593
Pavese, Cesare 118
Pavolini, Alessandro 95, 118, 200, 201
Pavone, Claudio 199
Paxton, Robert 4, 80, 82, 306, 311, 436, 508, 518, 520, 526
Payne, Stanley 362, 527, 555
Pearson, Ethel 502
Pecanac, Kosta 420
Péguy, Charles 25
Pelley, Walter 564
Pende, Nicola 304, 310
(p. 622) Pennacchio, Eugenio 233, 235, 236
Perón, Juan 564
Péronne 33
Peruzzi, Francesco 229
Pétain, Henri 182
Pétain, Phillippe 260, 519, 520, 521, 522
Petrie, Charles 497
Petrillo, Tommaso 229
Pfrimer, Walter 443
Piacentini, Marcello 114, 193
Piaggio, Armando 235
Piave 114
Picard, Mgr Louis 275
Picasso, Pablo 410
Pilsudski, Josef 344, 403
Pinar, Blas 594
Pinochet, Augusto 604
Pintor, Giaime 198
Pirandello, Liugi 110, 112, 114
Pirelli 156
Pirenne, Henri 35
Pius IX, Pope 175
Pius XI, Pope 166–7, 170–3, 174, 176, 177, 178, 180, 47, 476
Pius XII, Pope 174, 182, 579
Planck, Max 561
Plavsic, Biljana 431
Poincaré, Henri 17
Poincaré, Raymond 28, 60, 512
PolPot 266, 549
Poland 79–82, 305, 311, 320, 561
Pòlito, Saverio 237, 238
Pollard, John 4,
Polverelli, Gaetano 123, 126
Portugal 178, 182, 548, 593
Potsma, Bernard 461
Pour l autorité 472
Predappio 213
Preobrazhensky, Yevgeni 351
Preston, Paul 364
Preti, Luigi 198
Previati, Gaetano 47
Preziosi, Giovanni 299, 308
Prezzolini, Giuseppe 16, 25
Pribicevic, Svetozar 415
Priebke, Erich 235
Primato 125
Primo de Rivera, Miguel 169, 182, 362, 369, 403
Primo de Rivera, José Antonio 182, 362, 365, 368, 369, 370 373
Primo de Rivera, Pilar 372, 378
Prost, Antoine 68
Protocols of the Elders ofZion 299, 367
Proust, Marcel 410
Prussia 60, 62
Pucheu, Pierre 522
Putato, Aldo 224
Qu est-ce que le fascisme? (1961) 591
Quaglia, Antonio 231
Quartararo, Rosaria 318
Radic, Stjepan 415
Ragionieri, Ernesto 96
Ranke, Leopold von 16, 573
Rathenau, Walter 62
Rauter, Hans Albin (Generalkommissar) 458
Rauti, Pino 589, 590, 594, 597
Ravasio, Carlo 125
Ravera, Camilla 231, 232
Raznatovic, Zeljko (Arkan) 429
Reagan, Ronald 580
Rebatet, Lucien 511
Red Week 25
Redondo, Onesimo 169, 366, 367
Reed, John 34
Rémond, René 507–12, 514, 515
Renaud, Jean 507
Renner, Karl 445, 449
Revolt against the Modern World (1934) 590
Revue Blanche 29
Revue catholiques des idées et des faits 472
Ribbentrop, Joachim von 247, 248, 288
Ricci, Renato 93, 117, 191, 198, 200
Riehl, Walter 441
Rintelin, Andre 448
Ritter, Gerhard 573, 577
Rizzioli, Elisa Majer 211
Roatta, Mario 255
Rocco, Alfredo 25, 111, 196
Rochat, Giorgio 244, 246, 252, 584
Rodogno, Davide 331
Roey, Joseph Van 179
Röhm, Ernst 285, 288
Romania 82, 398
censorship 400
corporatism 408
cult of the dead 407, 408
eugenics 405
Fascist Regime 411
Iron Guard 344, 400–2, 405–11, 523, 557, 590
Italian Fascism 402
League of the National Christian Defence (LANC) 400–3, 405
National Agrarian Party 400
(p. 623) National Christian Party (PNC) 399, 400, 401, 408, 410, 411
National Italo-Romanian Fascist Movement (Miscarea Nationala Fascista Italo-Romana) 402
National Liberal Party 399
National Peasant Party 399
nationalism 399, 400, 403–4, 412
Nationalist Party of the People 399
Nazi Germany 402–3, 411
Orthodoxy 400, 404, 406
peasantry 409
pogrom 411
racism 402, 403, 405
Romanian National Fascio (Fascio Nationala Romana) 403
Rome Protocols 320
Rommel, Erwin 250
Romsée, Gerard 484, 485
Romualdi, Pino 589
Roosevelt, Franklin D. 174
Rosenberg, Alfred 169, 402
Rosselli, Nello 112, 228, 229, 518, 561
Rosselli, Carlo 112, 228, 299, 518, 561
Rossi, Cesare 223, 224, 225, 226
Rossi, Pasquale 18
Rost van Tonningen, Florentine 462, 465
Rost van Tonningen, M. M. 456, 457, 458, 463
Rothemund, Marc 577
Rothermere, Lord 490
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 15, 21
Rousso, Henry 568, 579
Row, Thomas, A. 82
Ruhr 80
Ruiz de Alda, Julio 368
Russo, Luigi 111
Rusu, Nicolae 404
Rutelli, Francesco 581
Ruthenes 82, 83
Sogoro, Tanaka 540–41
Sabaudia 115
Salandra, Antonio 61, 94, 328, 553
Salazar, Antonio de Oliviera 260, 403, 455, 509, 548
Salvemini, Gaetano 84, 112, 321
Salvini, Guido 597
Santhià, Giovanni Battista 231
Saporetti, Secondo 229
Sarfatti, Margherita 110, 112, 301
Sarfatti, Michele 302, 310
Sartorio, Giulio Aristide 48
Sartre, Jean-Paul 524
Sassoon, Siegfried 45
Saturday Review 498
Saunders, Robert 494
Saz, Ismael 365
Schacht, Hjalmar 288
Schallmeyer, Wilhelm 20
Scheffler, Karl 41
Schirach, Baldur von 195
Schleicher, Kurt von 282, 552
Schmidt, Fritz 457
Schmitt, Carl 287
Schmidt, Guido 449
Schneider, Wolfgang 560
Schober, Johann 436
Schopenhauer, Arthur 23
Schultz, Karl 441
Schuschnigg, Kurt von 325, 444, 448, 449
Schuster, Ildefonso 180
Scipione l'Africano (1937) 114
Scoccimarro, Mauro 237
Scorza, Carlo 93, 189, 191, 289
Scott, James 131
Scott, William, Lord 499
Scout movement (Baden-Powell) 122
Scozzese, Francesco Ciccotti 100
Secchia, Pietro 231
Seipel, Ignaz 436, 437
Serac, Guerin 593, 598
Serac, Yves Guerin 591
Serbia
Chetnik 415, 419–21, 425, 429
concentration camps 421
elections 428
fascism 431
JNA 427, 429
Nazi occupation 305, 421
People's Radical Party, Serb 415, 418
Racial ideology 421
Serb Cultural Club (SKK) 419, 425
Serb terrorism 415
Serbian Military Corps 421
Serbian Radical Party 429
Serbian Renewal Movement 429
SerbianStateGuard 420
Serbian Union of Work 421
Serbian Volunteer Guard (Tigers) 429
Socialist Alliance of Working People of Serbia 428
Socialist Party of Serbia (SPS) 427, 428
Titoist Yugoslavia 426
violence 421, 425
Yugoslav Left 428
Serpieri, Arrigo 139, 143
ŠeŠelj, Vojislav 429
(p. 624) Severen, Joris van 455
Shapiro, Paul 400, 402, 410
Sheffield, Gary 46
Short Course History of the Party 354
Sicily 128
Sieghele, Scipio 18
Signal 125
Silone, Ignazio 131, 232
Sima, Horia 407, 411
Sinclair de Rochement, Hugues Alexandre 454
Skidelsky, Robert 491, 492
Skorzeny, Otto 593, 597
Slovak Republic 166
Slovakian People's Party (SPP) 167, 169, 177, 181
Slovenia 426
Smit, Adalbert 454, 455
Smyrna 80
Soccorso Rosso (Red Welfare) 232
Social Darwinism 18, 19, 28, 239, 283
social engineering see eugenics
Soffici, Ardengo 123
Solaria 121, 228
Sole 117
Sombart, Werner 41, 45
Somme (the) 45, 46, 47
Sonnino, Sidney 321, 328
Sophie Scholl: The Final Days (2005) 577
Sorel, Georges 16–18, 113, 365, 426, 510
Sorelian syndicalist movement 128
Sotelo, José Calvo 370
Soucy, Robert 513, 516
Soviet Union 2, 80
bureaucratic elite 353
censorship 353–4
collectivisation 350–1
Cultural Revolution 355
Five-Year Plan 346, 350
Glavlit 354
Great Purge 352
Gulags 351, 352
Holmodor 351
industrialization 351, 359
Institute of Cinematography 356
Leningrad Party 352
Ministry of Propaganda 347, 348
New Economic Policy (NEP) 346, 349
NKVD (secret police) 350, 352
pro-natalism 357
Propaganda 354, 356
Red Army 81, 231, 394
Russian Empire 3, 83
Stakhavonite worker 357
Stasi 595
terror 351–3
Union of Writers 354
war 359
Women's Section (Zhenotdel) 358
Spain
Accion Popular, Confederacion de Derechas Autonomas (CEDA) 173, 370–1, 373
(AP) 369
Juventudes de Accion Popular (JAP) 173, 370–4
Africa 274
anti-Republican 368–70, 375
Bloque Nacional 370
Catalan 366, 367
corporatism 178
Falange 86, 169, 183, 234, 362–79
Fascism 86, 234, 362–379
Franco Regime 260, 363, 364, 375, 376, 377, 379, 387, 509
Italian Fascism 365
Madrid 366
Monarchist, Alfonsist 374;
Carlist 367, 371, 373, 374, 376
nationalism 365–6
origins 362, 363, 365
Ortega y Gasset 365
regenerationist literature 365
Second Republic 186, 363, 369, 373
secular 367
totalitarian 368
Union Patriotica (UP) 369
Valladolid 366
war 373, 374
Spanish Civil War 173, 176, 246–7, 320, 327, 347, 363, 372, 373, 376, 378, 379, 477
Spann, Othmar 440, 445, 448
Speer, Albert 23
Spengler, Oswald 307, 365, 402
Spinelli, Giuseppe 231
Spinetti, Gastone Silvano 198
Staat und Wirtschaft (State and Economy; 1938) 439
Stalin, Josef 260, 339, 348, 349–50, 549
Stalingrad 349
Starace, Achille 93, 189, 196, 198, 213, 233, 267, 289, 307, 308, 381
Starhemberg, Ernst Rüdiger 441, 444
Stavisky, Alexandre 514
Steidle, Richard 439, 441
Steigmann-Gall, Richard 179
Steinberg, Jonathan 310
Stepinac, Archbishop Alojzije 167
Sternhell, Zeev 13, 300, 509, 510
(p. 625) Stojadinović, Milan 418–21
Stone, Norman 62
Strasser, Gregor 282
Strasser, Otto 591
Streicher, Julius 304
Sturzo, Luigi 170, 181
Sudermann, Hermann 35
Suffrage 72, 73, 122
Sunday Dispatch 490
Suner, Ramon Serrano 378
Šušak, Gojko 431
Sweden 178
Switzerland, KVP 173
Syria 80
Szâlasi, Ferenc 167, 386, 387, 393, 394
Sztojay, Döme 393
Taine, Hippolyte 27
Taittinger, Pierre 513, 517
Takashi, Ito 542
Takeshi, Ishida 541–2
Tamburini, Tullio 95, 233
Tarchi, Marco 600
Tarde, Gabriel de 18
Taylor, A. J. P. 321, 322
Technological war 63, 64
Tedaldi, Adolfo 274
Teleki, Pâl 392
Tempo 125
Tensfeld, Willi 235, 236
Terra Madre 117
Terragni, Giuseppe 114
Terruzzi, Regina 210
Testoni, Claudia 190
Tetsuo, Furuya 541–2
Thaer, Albrecht von 46
Thatcher, Margaret 161, 580
The Aeroplane 502
The Blackshirt 495
The Brutal Friendship 317
The Great Dictator (1940) 262
The Holy Reich 168
The Jews in Italy 308
The Knife (1982) 429
The Leopard 353
The White Rose 575
Theil, Paul de la Porte du 522
Thiriart, Jean-François 599–600
Thompson, Raven 494
Thoughts for the Times on War and Death 36
Tiparescu, Petru 405
Tismaneanu, Vladimir 412
Tiso, Msgr Joseph 167, 179
Tito, Josep Broz 425, 430, 432
Togliatti, Palmiro 198, 589
Tojo 542
Tollenaere, Reimond 475, 483, 484
Tönnies, Ferdinand 30
Topa, Leon 403
Topdc, Nesad 424
Torgyân, Jôzsef 395
totalitarian 2, 263, 295, 339
post-1945 348
totalitarianism 4, 30, 297, 348, 562
Tranquilli, Secondino see Silone, Ignazio
Transjordan 80
Treaty of Locarno (1925) 243
Treaty of Rapallo 81
Treaty of Saint-Germain 435
Treaty of Versailles 42, 79, 81
Treaty of Westphalia 323
Tresso, Pietro 232
Treviso 33
Trieste 92
Tripartite Pact 420, 542
Troeltsch, Ernst 35
Trotsky, Leon 349, 350, 353
Truman, Harry 59
Tud-man, Franco 429, 430, 431, 432
Tuka, Josef 167
Turati, Augusto 158, 193
Turkey 66
Tuscany 97, 99, 128
Ukraine 82, 181, 351
Ulm Einsatzgruppen trial 573
Union ofItalian Jewish Communities 302
United Nations 2
United States 81, 85, 86, 301, 423, 547–8, 591–7
Ustryalov, Nicolai 347
Vâgo, Pal 392
Vaida-Voevod, Alexandru 399
Valla, ‘Ondina’ 190
Vallat, Xavier 522
Valois, Georges 507, 511, 512, 513, 516, 523
VandeWiele,Jef 486, 487
van Rappard, Ernst Herman ridder 454, 455, 459
Van Severen, Joris Van 473–5, 481
van Tienen, Paul 459, 460
Van Zeeland 477
Vargas, Getulio 548, 564
Vaselli, Giovanni 226
Vatican see Catholic Church
Vaugoin, Karl 448
Vecchi, Eros 231
(p. 626) Vecchi, Ferrucio 92, 93,
Vecchia guardia 117
Verdier, Joseph 179
Verdun 56
Verhoeven, Michael 575
Verri, Ferrucio 91
Victor Emmanuel III, King 281, 282, 326, 552
Vidussoni, Aldo 198
Villafranca 114
Vinciguerra, Vincenzo 598
Vingtième Siècle 472
Visco, Sabato 310
Visconti, Luchino 114, 125
Viscount Lymington 499
Viscountess Downe 502
Vittorini, Elio 115, 126
Vivarelli, Roberto 201, 582
Vojtissak, Bishop Stefan 179
Volk en Staat (People and State) 480
Volpe, Gioacchino 111
Volpi, Albino 223, 224, 225
Volterra 100
Von Einem, Karl (General) 49
Von Hellwald, Friedrich 28
Wallerstein, Immanuel 339
Wastelands of Historical Truth (1989) 430
Waterland, Albert de Joode van 454, 455
Weber, Max 30, 39, 559
Weimar Republic 59, 175, 186, 279, 345
Weygand, Maxime 522
Wilamowitz-Moellendorf, Ulrich von 34
Wilson, Woodrow 67, 78, 86, 323, 531
Winock, Michel 508
Winter, Jay 49, 68
Wiskemann, Elizabeth 260
Witlam, Maria 456
Wohl, Robert 57
Yoshinori, Kobayashi 530
Ypres 33
Yugoslavia 79, 82, 251, 311, 319, 392, 414
and Fascist Italy 416
and Nazi Germany 416, 417, 419, 420
anti-bureaucratic revolution 426, 427
anti-Yugoslav separatism 418
anti-Yugoslav terrorists 418
Association of Fighters of 417
Axis occupation 414
Black Hand 415, 416
Britain 419
collaborationist formations 425
dissolution 251
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 425, 426, 427, 428
foreign policy 418
German occupation 420
Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (VMRO) 418
nationalism 415, 417
Organization of Yugoslav Nationalists (ORJUNA) 415
Salonika Trial (1917) 416
Second World War 330
Slovene People's Party 419
Slovenes 416, 417
Titoist 425, 426
White Hand 416
Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland (Chetniks) 424
Yugoslav Muslim Organization 419
Yugoslav National Movement, Assembly 417
Yugoslav National Party 416, 417
Yugoslav National Workers’ Union 416
Yugoslav People's Party 416
Yugoslav Radical Peasant Democracy 416
Yugoslav Radical Union 418, 419
Zbor (Assembly) 417, 419
Zanella, Alfredo 228
Zangrandi, Ruggero 198
Zay, Jean 523
Zeletin, Stefan 399
Zhirinovsky, Vladimir 429
Zinoviev Letter (1924) 491
Živković, Petar 416
Zog, King 247
Zyklon-B 312