- List of Contributors
- The Ideological Origins of Fascism before 1914
- The First World War as Cultural Trauma
- The First World War as Totality
- The Aftermath of War
- Culture and Intellectuals
- The Peasant Experience under Italian Fascism
- Corporatism and the Economic Order
- Fascism and Catholicism
- Propaganda and Youth
- Women in Mussolini's Italy, 1922–1945
- Crime and Repression
- Fascism and War
- Dictators Strong or Weak?: The Model Of Benito Mussolini
- State and Society: Italy and Germany Compared
- Diplomacy and World War: The (First) Axis of Evil
- Communism: Fascism's ‘Other’?
- Yugoslavia and its Successor States
- The Netherlands
- Britain and its Empire
- Comparisons and Definitions
- Memory and Representations of Fascism in Germany and Italy
Abstract and Keywords
French scholars have been remarkably resistant to the idea that fascism ever had much purchase as a political force in France. Yet, this article argues that, whatever the authentic ‘fascist’ credentials of the various French movements that have begged classification by scholars of fascism, it was a configuration of contextual factors which kept them out of power rather than the intrinsic ideological weakness of fascism as a political force. The question is how far any of them were fascist and why their advocates failed to seize power. This article reconstructs some of the conversations in which historians and other scholars have been engaged, convey the variety of illiberal populist positions that sought to mobilize support in this period, and articulate the nature of the inter-war crisis in French democracy which made the radical right so appealing to many.
Joan Tumblety is lecturer in modern French history in the University of Southampton. Her publications include ‘The Football World Cup of 1938: Politics, Spectacles and la culture physique in Inter-war France’, French Historical Studies, 31/1 (2008), ‘Responses to Women's Enfranchisement in France, 1944–1945’, Women's Studies International Forum, 26/5 (2003); ‘“Civil Wars of the Mind”: The Commemoration of the 1789 Revolution in the Parisian Press of the Radical Right, 1939’, European History Quarterly, 30/3 (2000).
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