- List of Contributors
- The Ideological Origins of Fascism before 1914
- The First World War as Cultural Trauma
- The First World War as Totality
- The Aftermath of War
- Culture and Intellectuals
- The Peasant Experience under Italian Fascism
- Corporatism and the Economic Order
- Fascism and Catholicism
- Propaganda and Youth
- Women in Mussolini's Italy, 1922–1945
- Crime and Repression
- Fascism and War
- Dictators Strong or Weak?: The Model Of Benito Mussolini
- State and Society: Italy and Germany Compared
- Diplomacy and World War: The (First) Axis of Evil
- Communism: Fascism's ‘Other’?
- Yugoslavia and its Successor States
- The Netherlands
- Britain and its Empire
- Comparisons and Definitions
- Memory and Representations of Fascism in Germany and Italy
Abstract and Keywords
The modern Romanian state was born in the nineteenth century, as a result of the struggle for the independence and unity of its intellectual and political elites in a fragile and shifting equilibrium between the Great Powers. Its political functioning remained troubled. Between the two world wars, governmental majorities never cooperated with the opposition, even though their programmes were not very different. Electoral fraud and electoral premiums characterized the inter-war Romanian electoral process. Romanian fascism proclaimed itself to be the spiritual heir of the nineteenth- and early twentieth-century native strains of conservatism and xenophobia. The most powerful component of this xenophobia was anti-Semitism, which from the nineteenth century expressed itself in economic, social, religious, and political models. Basically, most of the founding fathers of the Romanian modern state who took on any major role in politics, economics, social sciences, philosophy, or literature, were anti-Semites.
Radu Ioanid is the director of the International Archival Programs Division, US Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC. His publications include The Holocaust in Romania: The Destruction of Jews and Gypsies under the Antonescu Regime, 1940–1944 (Chicago, 2000), The Ransom of the Jews: The Story of the Extraordinary Secret Bargain between Romania and Israel (Chicago, 2005), and The Sword of the Archangel: Fascist Ideology in Romania (Boulder, CO, 1990).
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