- List of Contributors
- The Ideological Origins of Fascism before 1914
- The First World War as Cultural Trauma
- The First World War as Totality
- The Aftermath of War
- Culture and Intellectuals
- The Peasant Experience under Italian Fascism
- Corporatism and the Economic Order
- Fascism and Catholicism
- Propaganda and Youth
- Women in Mussolini's Italy, 1922–1945
- Crime and Repression
- Fascism and War
- Dictators Strong or Weak?: The Model Of Benito Mussolini
- State and Society: Italy and Germany Compared
- Diplomacy and World War: The (First) Axis of Evil
- Communism: Fascism's ‘Other’?
- Yugoslavia and its Successor States
- The Netherlands
- Britain and its Empire
- Comparisons and Definitions
- Memory and Representations of Fascism in Germany and Italy
Abstract and Keywords
Historical interpretation of Hungarian fascism has been shaped by the political divisions that followed its fall in 1945. Almost from the moment of the war's end, Hungary's left-wing political parties used their anti-fascist credentials to legitimize their political project for Hungary's future. From the end of the Second World War, through most of the socialist era, ‘Horthy fascism’ was described as the pursuit of territorial revision, and institutionalized anti-Semitism was held responsible for the tragedies of Hungary's painful entanglement in the Second World War and the murder of the majority of the country's Jewish population. The roots of both Hungarian fascism and the dominant neo-conservative ideology of the inter-war years lay in a polarization of politics that began in the 1890s, when conservative intellectuals responded to the growing mobilization of the left in the country's industrial centres and a greater assertiveness from non-Magyar speakers, who composed half of pre-war Hungary's population.
Mark Pittaway was Senior Lecturer in European Studies in the History Department at the Open University. His publications included Eastern Europe, 1939–2000 (2004). He passed away in 2010, during the preparation of this volume.
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