- List of Contributors
- The Ideological Origins of Fascism before 1914
- The First World War as Cultural Trauma
- The First World War as Totality
- The Aftermath of War
- Culture and Intellectuals
- The Peasant Experience under Italian Fascism
- Corporatism and the Economic Order
- Fascism and Catholicism
- Propaganda and Youth
- Women in Mussolini's Italy, 1922–1945
- Crime and Repression
- Fascism and War
- Dictators Strong or Weak?: The Model Of Benito Mussolini
- State and Society: Italy and Germany Compared
- Diplomacy and World War: The (First) Axis of Evil
- Communism: Fascism's ‘Other’?
- Yugoslavia and its Successor States
- The Netherlands
- Britain and its Empire
- Comparisons and Definitions
- Memory and Representations of Fascism in Germany and Italy
Abstract and Keywords
After the defeat and deaths of Hitler and Mussolini in 1945, and the demise of Stalin in his bed in 1953, dictators became less omnipresent in Europe, although Portugal's Antonio de Oliveira Salazar, unusual in his trade as tyrant in being originally a pious professor of economics, did not die until 1970, and Franco lasted until 1975, while various communist and post-communist leaders continued to shore up their power, pursuing paths where Stalin once had led. Dictators have had a bad press in those countries that have remained tied to liberal democracy and have endorsed the values and hopes of the Enlightenment. Yet, in much of the rest of society, and notably in the celebrated fields of business and sport, ‘leadership’ is an ever-more-lauded quality or attainment.
R.J.B. Bosworth, Winthrop Professor of History, University of Western Australia and Professor of History, University of Reading.
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