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date: 18 January 2020

(p. 645) Subject index

(p. 645) Subject index

ability, 34, 34n4, 35, 41, 43, 48, 92–93, 96–97, 99–100, 103, 178, 230–231, 234, 245, 248, 250–251, 300, 304, 306–307, 310, 312–313, 320, 336, 339–342, 388, 391, 393–395, 424–425, 484–485, 503, 522, 526
and acquisition, 431–432, 438
and (ir)realis, 82
mental vs physical, 304, 307, 310, 337, 339, 343
in sign language, 453, 455–456, 459–460, 464–465
and time, 104–106
addressee, 37, 75–77, 278–279, 321, 442
adjective, 4, 24, 39, 43, 162, 320
and acquisition, 431, 434
deontic, 91–92, 531
dynamic, 91–92
and diachrony, 92, 419
emotive, 157
epistemic, 118–119, 135, 434, 506–508
evaluative, 157, 531
modal, 413, 431, 459, 496, 499, 537
predicative, 119
admirative. See mirative
admonitive, 75
adverb, 4, 24, 39, 43, 298, 308, 419, 487
and acquisition, 431, 434
deontic, 93, 367
desiderative, 343
and discourse, 501, 510–511
dynamic, 93
evidential, 51, 58, 60
and modal concord, 110, 129, 488–490
negative, 313, 316–322
and scope, 487–489
and stance, 510–511
temporal, 51, 401
volitional, 316–317
and word order, 130–134, 488, 489
adverbial, 162, 487–488. See also clause, adverbial
affix, 260
and acquisition, 431, 442, 445
aspectual, 226
and borrowing, 406, 409, 413–414, 418–419
conditional, 185, 414
contrastive, 228, 255
deontic, 92, 367
desiderative, 343–344
epistemic, 122–123, 127–129, 135
evidential, 123, 128, 198–199, 442
illocutionary, 143, 198–199
interrogative, 151, 185, 198–199
of (ir)realis, 167–169, 178, 184–186, 189, 198, 227, 350
modal, 92, 368, 419, 431
negative, 184–185, 228
possessive, 420
prohibitive, 149, 185
pronominal, 184–185, 226, 252
in sign language, 449–451
temporal, 184–185, 227, 268
agent (semantic function), 34, 41, 226, 234, 247, 370, 372, 403
anaphora, 119–120, 135, 554–555
animacy, 35, 152, 344, 403
answer, 12, 71–73, 141, 150–151, 307, 550. See also question
anthropology, 508
aorist, 211
apprehensive, 178, 180, 207. See also modality, timitive
areality, 362, 371, 376, 406–427
cultural/social factors in, 426–427
argument (grammatical category), first, 34, 34n4, 35, 37, 37n9, 40–41, 230, 234, 245, 389, 526–527. See also subject (grammatical)
article (grammatical category), 125, 363
assertion, 12–13, 15, 17, 69–71, 74–76, 80, 141, 227, 261–265, 271, 292, 322
emphatic, 202–203
and epistemic modality, 126, 138
and indicative vs subjunctive, 83–84, 173–174, 212, 400, 551
and (ir)realis, 84
and time, 70–71
attitude, 39–40, 43–44, 44n17, 46, 50, 52, 54, 56, 61, 64, 77, 237, 346, 549
negative, 111, 173
propositional, 75, 83, 173, 501–502. See also verb, of propositional attitude
See also stance
auxiliary, 4, 19, 25, 52, 475
and acquisition, 433
adjectival, 91–92
of hypotheticality, 268
of (ir)realis, 180, 180n3, 181
negative, 375
semi-, 335, 344–345. See also modal, semi-
temporal, 479, 531
background, conversational, 44, 98, 474, 488, 541–545, 551–552
benefactive (clause type), and modality, 97
bilingualism, 426
blessing, 78, 164
boulomaic (modality), 39, 43, 43n14, 44, 46, 100
definition of, 39, 39n11, 89, 536
scope of, 104, 107
and time, 105–106
cartography (syntax), 102–103, 489. See also scope hierarchy
case marking, and modality, 101
causative (clause type), and modality, 97
cleft, and modality, 97
clitic, 110, 260, 331
conditional, 413–414
epistemic, 122–123
evidential, 123
interrogative, 381
of (ir)realis, 180–183, 188, 353
prohibitive, 149
See also affix
command, 12–13, 15, 17, 27, 75, 111, 141, 143–148, 148n3, 149, 159–162, 279–280, 379
indirect, 153–154, 162
and indicative vs subjunctive, 173, 190
and (ir)realis, 82, 186, 189, 350
See also obligation
commissive, 37, 69, 113
complaint, 111
complement (clause type), 22
and evidentiality, 265–266
and hypothetical, 271
imperative, 153–154, 279, 285, 550
and indicative vs subjunctive, 83–84, 168, 174, 279, 399–400, 550–553, 556–557
infinitival, 22, 96–97, 109, 120, 372, 398, 403, 485–486, 486n10, 487, 529
insubordinate, 156, 158, 530
interrogative, 153–154, 550
and (ir)realis, 167, 171, 227, 229, 232, 260
and modality, 109, 119–120, 135, 138–139, 260, 265–266, 551
nominalized, 109, 337, 339
optative, 282, 286
prohibitive, 289
propositional vs non-propositional, 120–121
and prosody, 239–245
complementation. See complement
complementizer, 261
and acquisition, 446
de dicto, 266, 271, 286
epistemic, 123–125, 127
non-factive, 341
timitive, 346, 348–349
concern (semantic category), 263–264
concessive, 16, 84, 164, 178
and modality, 109
conditional (clause type), 22, 47, 55, 57, 158, 163–164, 377, 414, 518, 520, 532–533, 544, 554–556
and acquisition, 441, 444
apodosis of, 57, 94, 102, 167–168, 177
and conditional (verb form), 177
evaluative, 94, 102
and hypothetical, 270, 456
(p. 648)
and indicative vs subjunctive, 168, 177, 550
insubordinate, 161
and (ir)realis, 82, 167, 171, 182–183, 185–186, 205, 228, 350
and modality, 94, 102, 109, 306, 377, 503, 538, 538n3, 539, 554–556
protasis of, 57, 161, 168, 177, 182, 189, 413, 434, 441, 456, 467, 554–556
in sign language, 448, 454, 456, 467, 467n12
and tense, 205–206, 377, 444
confirmative, 203, 215
conjunction, 15, 18, 418, 518, 538
conjunctive. See indicative vs subjunctive
context, 70, 72–73, 75, 84–85, 159–160, 163, 171–173, 224, 539, 541–543, 549–551
bridging, 393
See also discourse
contingency, 17, 20, 38, 177
conversation. See discourse
copula, 92, 320
epistemic, 123–124, 128
counterfactual, 57, 64–65, 78, 81, 158, 518, 520
and acquisition, 441, 443
and aspect, 211
and indicative vs subjunctive, 168
and (ir)realis, 82–83, 167, 180–183, 186, 228, 350, 356, 401
and modality, 306, 456, 480
in sign language, 456, 467–468
and tense/time, 105, 105n5, 106, 205–206, 443
curse, 78, 147–148, 164
debitive, 73, 97
declarative (illocution), 70
declarative (sentence type), 14, 69–71, 201n3, 279, 467, 491–492, 492n16, 498, 504, 532, 548
and acquisition, 432, 440–442
and aspect, 226
and assertion, 69–71, 141–142
and diachrony, 203
and directive, 69–70, 147, 159–160, 163
and epistemic modality, 126, 136–138
and evidentiality, 143, 202–203
and expressive, 70
and illocution, 69–70, 76, 164, 532
and indicative vs subjunctive, 173, 175, 548
and intonation, 161, 440–441
marking of, 143
meaning of, 69–71
and modality, 108, 143
and negation, 144, 160, 318, 351
and person, 226
and questioning, 71
and tense/time, 70, 143, 160, 279
and tone, 282–283
and truth, 69, 541
and word order, 285
demand, 75, 147
deontic (modality), 3, 26, 34, 36, 38–42, 44–46, 56, 66, 73–74, 331, 502, 544–545
and acquisition, 431–435, 438–439
and aspect, 209, 394
and diachrony, 42, 42n12, 54, 200, 245–256, 388, 391, 393–396, 398–399, 497, 518
and directive, 37, 200
and dynamic modality, 336, 340–343
and epistemic modality, 336, 394–396, 438–439, 518
expression of, 89–114, 122, 334–336, 530
and future (time), 334
implicit expression of, 94–97. See also modality, covert
(p. 649)
and indicative vs subjunctive, 170, 399–400, 540
and (ir)realis, 188, 334
and modal concord, 110
and negation, 314, 482–483
and (non-)factuality, 36n7, 81
participant-external, 300, 302, 395
and participant-external dynamic modality, 40–41, 230, 235–236, 252, 389
and person, 435
and scalarity, 36, 100, 106, 170. See also modality, and gradability
in sign language, 451
and time, 105–106, 391, 398
desirability, 36–37, 75, 78, 346–348, 372–373, 389. See also deontic (modality)
desire, 37, 41, 43, 81, 89, 92, 103, 305, 343–345, 359, 388, 526, 537
and acquisition, 431–432, 435–436, 443–444, 446
and indicative vs subjunctive, 173
and (ir)realis, 186, 192
and sentence type, 78–79, 157–158
diachrony. See language change
directive, 3, 41, 56, 71, 73–77, 93, 113, 149, 203
and acquisition, 441–442
expression of, 159, 162
and future (time), 227, 400
and indicative vs subjunctive, 174, 190
and insubordination, 160–162
and (ir)realis, 167, 180–181, 227, 400
and politeness, 159–161, 227
and potential (verb form), 187
discourse marker, 164, 322, 324, 512
discourse representation theory, 555–556
discourse studies, 2, 52, 113, 508–512
doubt, 117, 261
dubitative, 60, 71, 261, 266–267
and indicative vs subjunctive, 173
durative, 56, 83, 103, 211
dynamic (modality), 3, 36–38, 40–41, 43–46
and acquisition, 431–432, 434–435
and aspect, 56, 389
circumstantial, 89, 95–96, 98
definition of, 34–35, 37n9, 40, 44n16, 56, 89, 230–231, 389, 503, 517, 536
and diachrony, 35n5, 42, 42n12, 56, 245–256, 336, 388, 390–391, 395–396, 518
and discourse, 112–113
and epistemic modality, 396–397, 518
expression of, 89–114, 336–343
implicit expression of, 94–97
and modal concord, 110
and negation, 313–315, 478
participant-imposed, 34, 34n4, 35, 40, 336, 338
(p. 650)
participant-inherent, 34, 34n4, 35, 40, 336, 338–339, 390
and person, 337–342, 389, 435
quantificational, 89, 100
scope of, 48, 102–108, 132–133, 477, 503
and time, 105, 105n4, 106, 391
and voice, 34n4, 95
and word order, 132–133
ellipsis, 159–162, 190, 474
entreaty, 141, 147
epistemic (modality), 3, 26, 35, 39–41, 44–47, 51, 56, 81, 365, 372
and acquisition, 431–439, 443, 445
and aspect, 209, 372, 391–394, 481–483
constructional expression of, 123–124
definition of, 38, 53, 117, 230–232, 389, 498–499, 503–504, 516, 542
expression of, 93, 98, 117–140, 331–333, 445, 500
and future (time), 53–55, 58, 123, 127–128, 206, 303, 456, 461–463, 505
grammatical expression of, 122–126, 135
and illocution, 126, 131, 134
implicit expression of, 126. See also modality, covert
and indicative vs subjunctive, 169–170, 173, 400
and (ir)realis, 201, 351, 355, 505
lexical expression of, 118–122
metapragmatic awareness of, 438, 444
and modal concord, 128–129
and negation, 396, 437, 456–457, 480, 483, 499, 501
and person, 333, 435
and scalarity, 38, 117, 170. See also modality, and gradability
in sign language, 451, 453, 456–458
in subordinate clause, 138–139
and timitive modality, 346
and word order, 130–134
evidentiality, 3–4, 31, 43, 89, 260, 502, 508
and acquisition, 442–445
and aspect, 57
and conjunct-disjunct person marking, 217–218
definition of, 58, 61
and diachrony, 202
direct vs indirect, 58–60, 442–444
(p. 651)
and epistemic modality, 39–40, 60–64, 231, 236–237, 265–266, 504
and indicative vs subjunctive, 169
lexical vs grammatical expression of, 58–62
and mirative, 60
and modal concord, 129
and modality, 39–41, 50–51, 57–64, 133–134, 477
and nominalization, 266, 333
and past (time), 202–203
and politeness, 163
scope of, 102–104, 107, 132–134
and tense/time, 202–203, 208, 444
and word order, 132–134
exclamative, 77–80, 141, 323, 492n16, 531–532
and acquisition, 440–441
and assertion, 79–80
and declarative, 155
and expressive, 69, 77
grammatical properties of, 154–157, 157n9, 158
and interrogative, 155–157, 157n9, 158
and intonation, 154–157
and mirative, 157n10
and negation, 157
and question, 79
semantics of, 79, 157, 157n10, 158
and tense-aspect-mood marking, 154
and word order, 155–157
experiencer (semantic role), 372
experiential, 58–59, 202, 504
and acquisition, 442–443
auditory, 59
and diachrony, 203
and modality, 61, 133, 236
visual, 59–60, 202
factivity. See factuality
focus, 47, 48n21, 72, 507. See also information structure
force dynamics, 44, 393, 515–518, 520, 525–527
foregrounding vs backgrounding, 56–57, 174. See also information structure
future (tense), 51, 54, 187, 268, 479, 531
and acquisition, 434, 442–443
and conditional (verb form), 421
and diachrony, 177, 208, 400, 402
and indicative vs subjunctive, 175–177
and (ir)realis, 192, 206–207
and modality, 53–54, 64, 206, 443
future (time), 4, 37, 56, 92, 178, 189, 227, 433
and acquisition, 438
and diachrony, 250, 301, 350, 390–391, 400–402, 461–463
and (im)perfective, 56
and indicative vs subjunctive, 168
and modality, 104, 306, 311, 389, 389n2, 389n3, 390–392, 402n5
near, 168, 179, 204, 305, 308, 354
(p. 652)
and negation, 228, 355
and potential (verb form), 187
and present (tense), 53–54, 528
remote, 76, 123, 179, 204, 355
in sign language, 457–458, 461–463
future in the past, 52, 54–55, 57, 389n2
and modality, 54–55
gender, 11, 152, 188
generic, 56, 389, 389n3, 390–392, 394, 443, 528
gesture, 458–464
government and binding theory, 473–476, 492, 492n17
grammar
cognitive, 520–528, 528n10
construction, 79, 515, 528–533
functional, 102–103, 133, 495, 502–505
functional discourse, 102–103, 133, 505
functional procedural, 506–507
generative, 26, 102–103, 133, 387, 473–493, 532
head-driven phrase structure, 473, 475, 532
lexical functional, 473, 475–476
role and reference, 133, 495, 503, 505–506
speculative, 16
systemic functional, 495, 497–502
tree adjoining, 473, 475
grammaticalization, 51, 54, 202, 322, 387, 397, 400–401, 403n6, 407, 422–423, 462
contact induced, 373, 408, 415–418
loss of verbal inflection in, 238, 240–242, 397
in modal expressions, 90, 92, 112, 114, 118, 224, 238–245, 423–424, 497, 505, 511–512
phonological reduction in, 238, 240–242, 244
prosodic reduction in, 238–240, 242–244
semantic change in, 397–402, 404. See also subjectification
in sign language, 448–449, 458–467
syntactic change in, 238, 242–245, 250–251, 398–399
unidirectionality of, 396–397
and word order, 397–399
gram(meme)/grammatical expression vs lexical expression, 4–5, 51–52, 197, 505–508. See also evidentiality, lexical vs grammatical expression of
greeting, 141, 164
ground, common, 46, 69, 73, 75, 84, 501, 510, 520n3
grounding, 51–52, 520–528
habitual, 56–57, 189, 204, 226–227, 537
and indicative vs subjunctive, 177
and (ir)realis, 82, 228, 350–351, 354, 356–358
and modality, 96, 103, 389, 391–392
and negation, 320
hearsay, 40, 43, 44n17, 57, 59–60, 322, 504
and acquisition, 442–443
and diachrony, 62, 203
and epistemic modality, 63, 133–134
(p. 653)
grammatical expression of, 123
and indicative vs subjunctive, 61–63, 104, 237, 536, 536n1
and past (tense), 203
hedging. See mitigation
hortative, 15–16, 74, 76–78, 90, 144, 178, 203, 226, 322, 334, 343, 350, 352, 407, 419, 553
and aspect, 227
and imperative (sentence type), 227
and indicative vs subjunctive, 168, 174–175, 190
and (ir)realis, 179–180, 356
and modality, 94–95
and past (tense), 419
and person, 76–77, 95, 227
and time, 78, 106
humor, 442
iconicity, 102, 105, 108, 451
ideophone, modal, 261, 291–292
idiom, 147–148
imperative (sentence type), 3, 14, 41, 73–77, 143–150, 290, 335, 467, 491, 491n15, 492, 492n16, 498, 525, 525n7, 532, 548
and acquisition, 432, 440–442
and aspect/aktionsart, 154, 199, 208–211, 226–227
canonical vs non-canonical, 144, 377, 379–381
and control, 146, 154
and declarative (sentence type), 144–150, 163
and deontic modality, 200, 334
and diachrony, 353, 400
and directive, 69, 73, 141, 143, 147, 163, 532, 549
and discourse, 74, 154, 281
and epistemic modality, 136–138, 197
formulaic, 148, 164
and future (tense), 204–205, 216, 400
and illocution, 75, 141, 142n1, 147, 147n2, 148, 148n4, 149, 163–164, 276, 532–533
and (im)perfective, 208–209, 209n4, 210–211, 226
and indicative vs subjunctive, 84, 161n13
and intonation, 146, 149–150, 161, 317, 440–441
(p. 654)
marking of distance in space/time in, 146, 204, 216
meaning of, 73–77, 159
and mirative, 273
and modality, 73, 94–95, 108–109, 146, 550
and negation, 74, 144, 149, 209–214, 276, 316–321, 352, 373–376, 553. See also prohibitive
and (non-)factuality, 262
and number, 146, 276–277, 281, 283, 289, 379–381
and past (tense), 204–205, 211
and permission, 147–148, 287–288
and politeness, 144, 146, 149, 159, 162–164, 202, 204, 280–281
and tense-aspect-mood marking, 144, 146, 198–199, 203, 277
and tense/time, 146, 198–199, 203–205, 211, 352–353
tone marking of, 145, 277–279
and transitivity, 146, 276, 279
and word order, 149–150, 276, 281, 285
imperfect, 55–57, 418
imperfective. See perfective vs imperfective
impersonal (clause type), 92, 101, 336–340, 370, 529, 537, 550. See also subject, impersonal
impersonal (verb form), 16. See also modal (auxiliary/verb), impersonal
indicative vs subjunctive, 2, 4, 10, 12–20, 22, 25, 27, 69, 79, 90, 93, 141, 166–178, 197n2, 202–203, 261, 270, 273, 276–288, 292, 377–378, 399, 407, 490n13, 498, 502, 504–505, 523, 548–553
and acquisition, 441, 444
definition of, 171
and diachrony, 176–177, 189–192, 203, 399, 490–491
and discourse, 171–173
and infinitive, 176–177
and information structure, 173
in insubordinate clause, 174–175, 190
in main clause, 84, 175, 190, 551, 553
and markedness, 84, 175–176, 190
marking of, 176, 227, 260–261
and modal concord, 110, 213
as (non-)binary system, 177–178
and (non-)factuality, 169–177, 190, 399–400
and person, 175–176
in subordinate clause, 169–171, 173–177
typological variation in use of, 83, 189
See also aspect, and indicative vs subjunctive; assertion, and indicative vs subjunctive; command, and indicative vs subjunctive; complement (clause type), and indicative vs subjunctive; conditional (clause type), and indicative vs subjunctive; conditional (verb form), and subjunctive; counterfactual, and indicative vs subjunctive; declarative (sentence type), and indicative vs subjunctive; deontic (modality), and indicative vs subjunctive; desire, and indicative vs subjunctive; directive, and indicative vs subjunctive; dubitative, and indicative vs subjunctive; epistemic (modality), and indicative vs subjunctive; evidentiality, and indicative vs subjunctive; future (tense), and indicative vs subjunctive; future (time), and indicative vs subjunctive; habitual, and indicative vs subjunctive; hearsay, and (p. 655) indicative vs subjunctive; hortative, and indicative vs subjunctive; hypothetical, and indicative vs subjunctive; imperative (sentence type), and indicative vs subjunctive; intention (semantic category), and indicative vs subjunctive; interrogative (sentence type), and indicative vs subjunctive; mirative, and indicative vs subjunctive; modal (auxiliary/verb), and indicative vs subjunctive; modality, and indicative vs subjunctive; negation, and indicative vs subjunctive; optative (sentence type), and indicative vs subjunctive; potential, and indicative vs subjunctive; present (tense), and indicative vs subjunctive; prohibitive, and indicative vs subjunctive; question, and indicative vs subjunctive; realis vs irrealis; realis vs irrealis, and indicative vs subjunctive; request, and indicative vs subjunctive; tense, and indicative vs subjunctive; time, and indicative vs subjunctive; wish, and indicative vs subjunctive
inducement, 76–77
inference, pragmatic. See implicature
inferential, 40, 43–44, 46, 57, 59–60, 504
and acquisition, 442–443
and epistemic modality, 61–62, 133, 231, 237, 391
type of information source for, 59, 63–64, 333
infinitive, 12–19, 84, 162, 374, 421, 433, 521, 553
non-morphological expression of, 18
semantics of, 15
inflection. See affix; verb, inflection of
instruction (illocution), 147, 188
intention (mental state), 75, 192, 335
intention (semantic category), 37, 43, 53–54, 81, 89, 103, 304, 326, 348
and acquisition, 431–433, 435, 438, 441, 443
and diachrony, 54, 301, 389, 400, 463
and indicative vs subjunctive, 173, 190
and (ir)realis, 83, 357
and negation, 320
and person, 435
in sign language, 463
and tense/time, 207, 443, 456
interdiction, 36, 36n8, 158, 431
interjection, 154, 157, 274, 441
interrogative (sentence type), 3, 14, 150, 150n6, 151–154, 197n2, 201n3, 322, 491–492, 498, 532, 548–550
and acquisition, 440–442
and aspect, 226
content, 150–151
and diachrony, 200, 215
and directive, 159, 163
and discourse, 154, 157
and epistemic modality, 71, 126, 136, 138, 197, 200
and evidentiality, 136, 203, 217
and hypothetical, 203
and illocution, 71–73, 153, 532
and indicative vs subjunctive, 548
and intonation, 150–151, 153, 159, 163, 261, 276, 381, 440–441
and (ir)realis, 81, 185, 351
marking of, 143, 150–151, 441, 548
meaning of, 71–73, 150, 317
and modality, 108, 274
and negation, 214–215, 316, 326, 351
and person, 217, 226
polar, 72, 150–151, 214
and politeness, 154, 162–163
and questioning, 69, 71, 141, 143, 549
speaker presupposition and, 151, 274, 317, 322
and tense, 207–208
(p. 656)
and word order, 150–152, 381
interrogative (verb form), 12–13, 16, 20, 71, 150, 178, 197, 381, 548. See also affix, interrogative; clitic, interrogative
intersubjectivity, 323. See also subjectivity vs intersubjectivity
invitation (illocution), 147–149, 159–160
irony, 442
jussive, 76, 78, 144, 212, 227, 261, 553
knowledge, 38, 70, 117–118, 446
language acquisition, 430–447
analysis of modality and mood in research on, 444–446
and cognitive development, 433, 435–436, 444–446
and input language, 436, 440, 445
and syntactic complexity, 435, 446
See also ability, and acquisition; adjective, and acquisition; adverb, and acquisition; affix, and acquisition; aspect, and acquisition; auxiliary, and acquisition; certainty, and acquisition; complementizer, and acquisition; conditional (clause type), and acquisition; counterfactual, and acquisition; declarative (sentence type), and acquisition; deontic (modality), and acquisition; desire, and acquisition; directive, and acquisition; dynamic (modality), and acquisition; epistemic (modality), and acquisition; evidentiality, and acquisition; exclamative, and acquisition; experiential, and acquisition; factuality vs non-factuality, and acquisition; future (tense), and acquisition; future (time), and acquisition; hearsay, and acquisition; hypothetical, and acquisition; illocution, and acquisition; imperative (sentence type), and acquisition; imperative (verb form), and acquisition; indicative vs subjunctive, and acquisition; inferential, and acquisition; intention (semantic category), and acquisition; interrogative (sentence type), and acquisition; modal (auxiliary/verb), and acquisition; modality, and acquisition; necessity, and acquisition; noun, and acquisition; obligation, and acquisition; particle, and acquisition; past (tense), and acquisition; permission, and acquisition; possibility, and acquisition; probability, and acquisition; realis vs irrealis, and acquisition; request, and acquisition; sentence type, and acquisition; tense, and acquisition; verb, and acquisition; volition, and acquisition; wish, and acquisition
language universal, 19, 122
lexicalization, 99
linguistics
cognitive, 52, 506, 514–533
cognitive-functional, 506–508
comparative, 2, 18, 387–388, 400–401, 446
diachronic, 2, 387–388, 497
functional, 38, 42, 495–512
systemic, 2
logic, 2, 10–11, 16–17, 21, 24–26, 33, 36, 544
modal, 26, 38
maxim, Gricean, 21n4
mental space theory, 468, 518–520
mental state, 10, 14–15, 19, 77. See also verb, of mental state
metonymy, 393. See also language change, metonymic
minimalism, 473, 475–476, 492n17
modal (auxiliary/verb), 18, 20–22, 26, 36n6, 39, 42–43, 45, 51, 57, 90, 157, 196, 224, 238, 256, 260–261, 407, 496, 499, 501, 503, 516–517, 520–526, 530, 537
of acquire-type, 327, 423–425, 427. See also verb, of getting/acquiring
and acquisition, 431–433, 435–436, 438–439, 442
and borrowing, 406, 409–413, 415–419, 423, 426
boulomaic, 299
and directive, 73, 146
and discourse, 112–113, 451, 509–511, 554–556
double/multiple, 107, 479, 483, 486, 486n11, 487
evidential, 299
and future (tense/time), 206, 457, 461–463, 503, 527–528
geographical distribution of, 368–371
of hearsay, 63, 416
and illocution, 111–113, 517–518, 540n6
and (im)perfective, 209–210
(p. 658)
impersonal, 370–371, 433
and indicative vs subjunctive, 83, 490–491, 523
inferential, 63, 333
inflection of, 370, 412, 420–421, 475–476, 522–523
and information structure, 451, 451n3, 452, 454, 456–458
intentional, 332
and (ir)realis, 207
lexical source of, 91, 299–301, 419, 423, 458
and mitigation, 111–112, 112n6, 113
in modal concord, 110, 129, 488–490
of necessity, 301, 365–367, 395, 409, 411, 413, 416, 426, 483, 536, 540, 546–547, 551
past tense of, 392, 481, 481n4, 540n6
of possibility, 300–301, 365–367, 395, 410, 426, 536
prohibitive, 289
properties of complement of, 91, 298–301, 389, 413, 485–487, 526
and prosody, 451, 474
and raising vs control, 477, 483–485, 486n10
of root modality, 365–367, 369, 453–454, 476, 478, 481–485, 487–489, 503, 505, 517
and sentence type, 108
in sign language, 449–467
syntactic status of, 474–479, 487
modality
and acquisition, 43, 43n13, 245, 430–439
agent-oriented vs speaker-oriented, 41–42, 431, 453–456, 525–527
alethic, 26, 38, 89, 299, 451, 480
bouletic, 39n11, 89, 477, 536–537, 542, 547. See also necessity, bouletic
circumstantial, 477, 536n1, 543–544
constructional expression of, 93–94, 97, 128, 368–369
and diachrony, 35n5, 42, 42n12, 43, 43n13, 245–256, 359, 367, 370, 387–399, 402
and discourse, 56, 113, 225, 496, 500–502, 505, 507–512, 553
event vs propositional, 40, 41, 61, 231, 365
expression of, 2, 4, 31n2, 90, 97–99, 496
facultative. See dynamic (modality)
grammatical expression of, 2–4, 31n2, 42, 73, 98, 197, 474, 499
history of, 1, 9–11, 14, 17, 21–27, 388–389
and indicative vs subjunctive, 84, 550–553
inherent. See dynamic (modality)
and (ir)realis, 95, 229, 306, 311
and nominalization, 93, 109, 337, 339, 420
normative, 290–291. See also deontic modality
polysemy in expressions of, 52–53, 98–99, 120, 330, 336, 339, 365–366, 398
prioritizing, 537, 550
and prosody, 224
(p. 659)
in sign language, 450–467
situational, 35, 35n5, 36–38, 40, 42–44, 365. See also necessity, situational
subjective vs objective, 38, 45–46, 54, 102–103, 133, 300–301, 499, 503–504
and subjectivity, 401–404
in subordinate clause, 42, 108–109, 138–139
teleological, 89, 105, 536–537, 539n5, 540, 540n6. See also necessity, teleological
and word order, 97, 101–108, 130–134
necessity, 10–11, 17, 20–24, 33–38, 40, 43, 43n14, 50, 52, 56, 65, 74, 93–94, 98–100, 109, 197, 223, 230, 299, 301, 366–367, 395, 407, 459, 466, 474, 483, 503, 540
and acquisition, 432–434, 437–438, 444
and borrowing, 409–411, 415–419, 426
bouletic, 98
boulomaic, 98, 100
epistemic, 38, 54, 117, 232, 234, 299, 301, 303,