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date: 25 August 2019

Abstract and Keywords

This article discusses how environmental problems in the nineteenth century — difficulties in sanitation, water supply, pollution, and waste disposal — created by large-scale city growth helped generate new professional and municipal services, new concepts of social justice, and decisive medical outcomes, including falling mortality rates. Just as environmental issues served to galvanize urban governance in Europe and North America before World War I, it shows that mounting environmental pressures in the fast growth cities of Asia and other developing countries are engendering serious strains but also emerging solutions, often but not invariably borrowed from the West.

Keywords: environmental problems, urban development, cities, social justice, municipal services, sanitation, water supply, pollution, waste disposal

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