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date: 05 May 2021

Abstract and Keywords

This article begins with a description of the North American cities of the pre-industrial era. It then discusses nineteenth-century economic expansion, the internal social dynamics of growing industrial and commercial centres, and changing growth patterns with the rise of the automobile. The last section examines the new urbanization dynamics that have led to the twenty-first century metropolis.

Keywords: Canada, United States, urbanization, economic expansion, automobiles, urban development, urban system

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