Abstract and Keywords
Europe's cities experienced a population explosion in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, as the dual pressures of industrialization and state development encouraged migration from the countryside to towns and from smaller towns to larger ones. Urban growth in Europe occurred within the framework of a distinctive urban heritage: long-term continuity of sites and central plans, relatively stable urban hierarchies, traditions of effective local governance, and well developed civic identities. Urbanization in Europe over the last 200 years has been marked both by innovation and respect for tradition. This article follows its trajectory by focusing on the impact of technological change, the emergence of environmental and social problems, and both voluntary and governmental efforts to cope with them.
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