Abstract and Keywords
This article discusses the key aspects of Mesopotamian cities, including the earliest ‘organic’ examples in late pre-history (c.3850 bce, Late Chalcolithic Period) and the artificial cities of the first millennium bce (Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian empires). It explores the definition and origins of Mesopotamian cities and aspects of their cityscapes, addresses positive and negative aspects of urban life, considers Mesopotamian emic thinking about the city, and sketches diachronic trends in urbanization and deurbanization. It also examines the relationship of the city's inhabitants to their sustaining area and the idea of the ‘city-state’. It shows that Mesopotamian cities contained planned temple and palace complexes but unplanned neighbourhoods and areas of industry. Many cities were organic developments, with water supply, transport routes, hinterland links, and immigration critical to development. Fewer were planted political cities, associated with regional states. Mesopotamian cities also experienced cycles of growth and decline.
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