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date: 23 August 2019

Abstract and Keywords

This article focuses on the major ports of South East Asia such as Melaka (later Portuguese Malacca), Spanish Manila, and Dutch Batavia, which provided from the end of the fifteenth century a crucial pivot for that vibrant commerce in manufactures, processed goods, and raw materials between China, India, Latin America, the Middle East, and Europe. Complex multicultural communities shaped by power (and increasingly Western colonialism), the ports were vital for the dissemination of religious ideas, representations, and institutions.

Keywords: ports, commerce, international trade, South East Asia, early modern cities

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