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date: 20 August 2019

Abstract and Keywords

This article examines the landscape of Ottoman cities, the pressures and problems cities faced, urban governance, city relations with the sultan and imperial government. In the sixteenth century Ottoman cities in general experienced a period of rapid growth, as the empire expanded territorially, trade and commercial prosperity increased, and the overall population rose. Things change in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries as the impact of the world beyond the Ottoman frontier became more intrusive. In addition to growing European military pressure and the rise of the oceanic long-distance trade routes, there was increased penetration by western European merchants of regional markets and mounting international competition for Ottoman urban industries. Yet Ottoman cities in general, led by Istanbul, continued to enjoy modest prosperity and growth until the last decades of the century.

Keywords: Ottoman cities, urbanization, urban governance, sultan, imperial government, Istanbul, early modern cities

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