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date: 18 September 2019

Index

Index

Index

Bold entries refer to illustrations.

achlis 431
Acosta, Jose de 438
Aelian 17–18, 147
animal communication 226–7
animals in warfare 282, 287, 292
baboons 456–7
cartazonus 425
Characteristics of Animals 156, 182, 226–7, 282, 287
foxes 165
griffins 427
martens 168
martichore 424
monoceros 424
rhinoceros 424–5
Aeneas the Tactician 284, 286
Aeschylus
divination 310
fables 3
insect imagery 185
Prometheus Bound 384, 385, 389, 393, 397–8
Supplices 385, 393, 397, 398
Aesop xvi, 2–3
ascription of fables to 3
‘Crow and the Pitcher’ fable 16–17
death of 20
Life of Aesop 4, 11, 19–20
origins and life of 4
sociopolitical animals in Aesopic tradition 18–20
specific setting of fables 11
Agesilaus II 147
agriculture
animal husbandry 447
animal husbandry’s priority over 139–40
animal markets 144–50
Egypt 447
hierarchy in forms of 139
as proper source of wealth 137–9
Ahenobarbus, Cn Domitius 503
Alcibiades 481, 483
Alciphron 164–5
Alcmaeon of Croton 510–11
Alexander of Myndos 426
Alexander Romance 421, 423, 456
Alexander the Great 47–8, 285, 288, 289, 290–1, 304, 417, 421, 423, 448, 465
Alexandria, library at 418
alfalfa 114
Amathus 110
Amenhotep III 449
Amesinas 464
amphibians 175–6
as pets 277
Amphilochus 114
Anaxagoras of Clazomenae 511–12
Anaximander 240
Anchimolos 252
animal gods 366
animal markets 144–50
Arcadia 149
Athens 144–5, 146, 250
Delphi 147–8
Isthmian Games 148
meat markets 343
panegyreis (market fairs) 148–9
panhellenic festivals 147
Rome 149–50
sacrificial markets 144–5, 147–8, 250, 327, 329–30
sanctuaries 148
Sparta 146–7
animals in antiquity
domestic animals 157
iconography 157
(p. 608) role in reconstructing the past 156
textual sources of information 156
wild animals 157–8
zooarchaeology 157
anthropomorphism, animal fable 1, 10
anthrozoology 558
Antigonus II Gonatus 292–3
Antiochus III 290
Antiochus the Great 291, 501–2
Antiochus VI 505
Antiphanes 146
Antony, Mark 264–5
ants, giant 427
ants, in literature 182
Anyte 184
apes
communicative behaviour 218
as pets 278
Aphthonius 3
Apicius 172, 208, 259
apiculture 188
Apis cult 445
Apollodorus 314
Apollonios 54
Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica 76, 294, 400–2
Apollonius of Tyana 422, 551
Appian 284
Apsyrtos 590, 594, 600
Apuleius, Metamorphoses 406–8
Arachne 181, 184
Ara Pacis Augustae in Rome 50–1
Aratus 537
Arcadia 149
Archelaus 237–8
Archestratos of Gela, Hedypatheia 255–6
Archilochus 557
fables 2, 3, 11
insect imagery 185
arena 356
capturing and transporting animals for 471–2
Christian martyrs 357–8
Arimaspi 427–8
Aristophanes
animal choruses 68
animal sacrifice 68, 336
animals as food items 67–8
animals in plays of 62–3, 68–9
animals in Acharnians 67
animals in the Birds 64–5, 228, 399–400
animals in the Clouds 66–7, 182, 408–9
animals in the Frogs 65
animals in the Knights 67, 182
animals in Lysistrata 67
animals in the Wasps 63–4, 183, 399
animals in Wealth 67
excessive food consumption 256–7
fables 3
insects 183
magic 302–3
mythological animals 68
Aristotle
animal communication 219–21, 225
animal husbandry 110
animals and wealth 137, 145
animal speech 10
biological gradualism (sunechia) 518–19
buffalo 158
chameleon 419
distinguishing factual and fantastic animals 418
divination 320–1
On Divination by Dreams 320
Egypt 420
Eudemian Ethics 320
fables 3, 18
hedgehogs 166
hierarchy of agricultural activity 139
History of Animals 102, 103, 156, 219, 220
horse breeding and training 102
insects 181
intellect of non-human animals 517–18, 519
levels of soul 544
logos 220
martichore 424
meat-eating 544–5
Nicomachean Ethics 544
origins of the gods 233–4
Parts of Animals 16, 18
Politics 220, 544–5
relationship between human and non-human animals 517–19, 521, 544
sheep breeding 103
whales and dolphins 176
wild cattle 158
zoological knowledge 558
zoology 517
Arkadia 252
hybrid gods 377–8
Arnobius 333, 357
Arrian 203, 205, 421
art, animals in xvi, 25–6, 57, 157
animal-bearing motif 40–1
animal behaviour 28
animal friezes 30, 31–2, 35
animal imagery in visual culture 26
animal sacrifice 43, 44
animal style 24–5, 32–3
Ara Pacis Augustae in Rome 50–1
Archaic art 32–5
artists 53–4
Athena Nike, temple of 46
Athenian art 32
birds 31, 34, 37, 46, 174
boars 35, 56
bulls 28, 29, 39–40, 462–3
cats 275
chariot groups 54
Christian iconography 41
Corinthian art 32, 33, 34
cultural ideas about animal behaviour 30
Cycladic art 26–7, 28
decorative use of 31, 37
Dexileos monument 46–7
difficulties in reading animal imagery 30
Dionysian art 38
dogs 271
dolphins 177
doves 55
Egyptian symbolism 453–4, 455, 456
erotic context 43–6
fossils 586–7
funerary images 46–7
Geometric period 30–1
Gigantomachy on the Great Altar at Pergamon 48–9, 50
Greek vase-painting 32–4, 331
hares 34
Heracles 38–9
high esteem of animal imagery 53
horse-head amphorae 33
horses 33, 47, 56
human-animal interaction 31
human control of animal world 37–9, 57
hunting scenes 47, 51–2, 53, 203–4, 208–9
insects 187
Laconian art 34
lions 34–6
Macedonian art 47–8
master/mistress of the animals motif 29, 31, 32, 35, 36, 46
Minoan art 28–9
Mithraic iconography 42
Mycenaean art 28–9
mythological narratives 39–40
naturalism 28, 32, 35, 36, 43, 48, 53, 54–6
Orientalizing Period 31–2
Orpheus 41–2
owls 33, 34
panthers 24, 32, 34, 35
place of animals in ‘Art’ 26
poetics of the image maker 54
potnia therōn imagery 37–8
power communication 46–53
pre-Classical Mediterranean 26–9
reception of animal imagery in histories of art 26
Roman mosaics 37, 51–3, 422
Roman wall-painting 36–7
scholarly neglect of 24
statuary 53–4
status symbols 33
symbolism 29–30, 31
Tierkampf (animal struggle) 32, 35, 36, 37
votive dedications 42–3
Artemis 38
asceticism 359
asses
domestication of 100, 102
wild asses 170
Assos 32
Asterios the Sophist 183
Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria 359–60
Athena Alea, sanctuary of (Tegea) 148
Athenaeus
Deipnosophists 61, 254–5, 256, 257–8, 260, 377, 433
Roman simplicity 260
on vegetarians 252–3
Athena Nike, temple of 46
(p. 610) Athens
animal markets 144–5, 146, 250
cheese market 146
Atticus, Titus Pomponius 138
augurs 313
Augustan History 497
Augustine, St 362, 417, 428
Augustus 433, 470, 585
Aurelian 497
aurochs 158
Ausonius 216
Australasia, natural wonders 437–8
Avianus, fables 3, 17–18
aviaries 276
Ba 369
baboons 456–7
Babrius, fables 3, 5, 14–15, 228
badgers 167
Bakewell, Thomas 112
banquets 257
Petronius’ satire of 265–7
Roman banquets 263–5
basilisk 425
Basil of Caesarea 360–1
Batrachomyomachia 228
bats 169
bears 163
hunting 163, 206
performing bears 466, 474
beavers 169
Beavis, I C 180–1
Beazley Gem 39
beech marten 168
bee-keeping 188
bees
in Classical art 28
communicative behaviour 218
diseases and treatments 602
in literature 182, 183
spiritual associations 186
use in warfare 283, 284
Beneventum, battle of 500
bestiality 371
Bible, animals in 355–6
bio-communication 217
Bird, C D 16
birds 173–5
association with death 370
aviaries 276
in Classical art 31, 34, 37, 46, 174
in comedies 64–5
communicative behaviour 217, 219, 220, 221, 222–3, 224, 225, 226, 230
in divination practices 312–14
hunting 206, 209
hybrid gods 369–70
as pets 276
songbirds 175
in tragedy 86–7, 89–90, 94
use in magic 295–6
utilization of 276
bison 158
black rat 172–3
Blemmyae 428
Blumenbach, Johann 438
Blundell, Susan 237
Boardman, J 24, 29–30, 53
boars 159
animal sacrifice 340, 341
castration 603
in Classical art 35, 56
in epics 93
hunting 159, 206
Boethos 54
Boios 400
Bolus of Mendes 296
Botai 100, 101
Boukephalos 56
Brown, Barnum 586
brown bears 163
Browne, Thomas 438
bubonic plague 286
buffalo 158
bulls
association with fertility 368
bull-leaping 462–3
bull-wrestling 464
castration 602–3
in Classical art 28, 29, 39–40
hybrid gods 368–9
Minotaur 463
Roman triumphs 495–6, 497
in tragedy 89, 94–5
(p. 611) burial practices
dogs 273, 274
horses 274–5
see also funerary art
butterflies 16, 182, 186
Butzbach 111
Bynum, C W 392
Caesar, Julius
banquets 262
elks 431
exotic animals 432, 433
triumph 492, 498, 502, 503, 505
venationes 470
Calpurnius Siculus 431
Calydonian Boar 434, 582–3
Cambyses 288, 447
camels 118–19
Egypt 448
use in warfare 289–90
Camillus 492
Campbell, John 140
capital punishment, condemnatio ad bestias 357–8, 474–5
care of animals
cartazonus 424, 425
Cassiodorus 474
Cato
cattle farming 139
recipes 258–9
Roman culinary simplicity 258
selling animals 144
Cato, Marcus Porcius 590
catoblepas 425, 426
cats 118
in animal fable 12–13
in Classical art 275
dissemination through Mediterranean world 275
Egypt 446–7
lynxes 166
as pets 275
wild cats 166
cattle
breeding of 110–11, 112
domestication of 104
health of 117
illnesses and treatments 597–8
as measure of value 142–3
as status symbol 140
use in warfare 287–8
cavalry 289
Censorinus 240
centaurs xv–xvi, 373, 376
Centaurus, Chiron 591
Ceres, festival of 165
Chaironeia 35
chameleon 418–19
chamois 165
chariot racing
breeding of horses for 485
care of horses 486
celebrity of horses 487
charioteers 482, 485
Christian Church 488
curse tablets 488
fans 487
format of Roman races 483–4
on funerary relief 484
in Greek world 478–9
as military training 479
naming of horses 486–7
Olympic games 479–80
organization of (by factiones) 484–5
Roman circuses 483
in Roman Italy 483–8
selection of horses for 486
strategy in Roman races 484
superstitions 487–8
training of horses 486
see also horse racing
cheese market 146
Cheiron 367, 372, 373, 376, 377, 379, 380
chickens
caponizing of cocks 603
cock-fighting 276, 464–5
illnesses and treatments 601–2
poultry farming 119–21
children, and dogs 273
Chiron 393, 589, 596, 599
Christianity
Acts of the Martyrs 358
allegorical conceptions of animals 360, 363
(p. 612) animal-human distinction 355–6, 364
animal sacrifice 342–3, 346, 357, 362, 363
animals in Classical art 41
animals in the Bible 355–6
animals of the desert 358–60
Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles 359, 364
asceticism 359
Basil of Caesarea 360–1
chariot racing 488
demonization of animals 359–60
Epiphanius, Bishop of Cyprus 361–2
humanization of animals 359
knowledge of animals 360–2
martyrdom 357–8
meat-eating 362
sacrificial language 356–7
use of animals 363–4
vegetarianism 362–3
Chrysippus of Soloi 221–2, 464, 521, 524, 545
cicadas
communicative behaviour 225
in literature 182, 183–4, 185, 556–7
visual representations of 187
Cicero 262, 522
agriculture as source of wealth 137
cattle as measure of value 142
De divinatione 315
divination 313
wondrous animals 422
Cimon 583
Cincinnatus 260
Circus Maximus 450–1, 468, 469, 483, 488
Clark, Stephen R L 539, 545
Claudius 51
Claudius the Neopolitan 551
Cleopatra 264–5
climate, ancient conceptions of 416
Cnossos 462, 463
cock-fighting 276
Greece 464–5
coins, insect images 187
Columbus, Christopher 436
Columella
cattle 104, 150
dogs 272
duck farming 125–6
horse breeding 102, 150
peacocks 128
pig breeding 105
poultry farming 119, 120
veterinary medicine 590, 591, 598, 599, 601
comedy, animals in 61–2, 70
animal choruses 61, 68, 399
animal sacrifice 68, 345
Aristophanes’ Acharnians 67
Aristophanes’ Birds 64–5, 399–400
Aristophanes’ Clouds 66–7
Aristophanes’ Frogs 65
Aristophanes’ Knights 67
Aristophanes’ Lysistrata 67
Aristophanes’ plays 62–3, 68–9
Aristophanes’ Wasps 63–4, 183, 399
Aristophanes’ Wealth 67
fish 61
as food items 67–8
Greek New Comedy 69
insects 183
literature on 62
Menander’s plays 69
metamorphosis 398–400
mythological animals 68
Roman comedy 69
speaking animals 228
Commodus 470–1
communication, animal 216–17, 229–30
Aelian 226–7
apes 218
Aristotle 219–21, 225
bees 218
bio-communication 217
birds 217, 219, 220, 221, 222–3, 224, 225, 226, 230
differences from human communication 218
elephants 223, 226–7
in fable 10–11, 228
fish 226
in Golden Age 228
insects 225
lions 224
modern research on 217–19
Pliny the Elder 223–5, 229–30
sounds made by animals 228–9
(p. 613) Stoic views on 221–3
theories of origin of language 228
zoosemiotics 217
condemnatio ad bestias 357–8, 474–5
cooking
Cato’s recipes 258–9
Roman rotten fish sauce (garum) 263
sophistication of Greek recipes 259
corocotta 423
Corvinus, Messalla 492
Cosmas Indicopleustes 421
Crassus, Marcus Licinius 138
Crates 228, 540
Crete
bull-leaping 462–3
Minotaur myth 463
crickets, in literature 182
crocodiles 450, 452, 456
Croton 111
Crown Games, animal markets 147
crows 175
in animal fable 16–18
Ctesias of Cnidos 420–1, 424, 427, 429
cults
animal markets 144
location of hybrid god cult sites 379–80
regional clusters of hybrid deities 376–8
culture, ancient theories on origin of 216
curse tablets 301, 488
Curtius Rufus 417
Cycladic art, animals in 26–7, 28
Cynocephali 428, 429–30
Cyrus I 290
Damonon the Spartan 482
Dante Alighieri, Inferno 410
Darius the Great 289, 290
Davidson, James 254
Davies, M 180–1
deer
animal sacrifice 340, 341
fallow deer 161
farming of 122, 123–4
hunting 205–6
as pets 278
red deer 160
roe deer 160–1
Delian Apollo 148
Delphi, animal markets 147–8
Demeter Melaina 368, 372, 377, 379
Demetrios Poliorketes 48
Demetrius of Phaleron, fables 2, 3
Democritus xvi, 296
divination by entrails 311
nature and culture 239
demons, animals as 359–60
Demosthenes 254
Dentatus, M Curius 500, 501
Dereivka 100–1
desert, animals of 358–60
Dexileos monument 46–7
Diana 38
Didyma 111
diet
Greek excess 257–8
hankering for simplicity 252
hunting 204, 208
insects 188
Mediterranean diet 248
Plato’s ideal diet 252
Roman simplicity 258, 260
seafood 192
shellfish 197
vegetarianism 252–3
Dio Cassius 503
Diocles, Gaius Appuleius 485
Diocletian 472
Diodorus Siculus 238, 446
Diogenes Laertius 3, 221, 253, 511, 512, 519, 521, 524, 525
Diogenes of Apollonia 512
Diogenes of Babylon 221
Diogenes the Cynic 549
Dionysian art, animal imagery 38, 374
Dionysios of Syracuse 145
Dionysus 374
divination 310
ancient Near East 312, 316, 317
animal behaviour 314
animal livers 316–17, 319–20
animal sacrifice 329
artificial forms of 311
augurs 313
bird-reading by Greeks 312–13
bird-reading by Romans 313–14
extispicy (divination by entrails) 312, 315–18
haruspices 314, 317–18, 329
natural forms of 311
philosophical thought on 318–22
Plato 319–20
snakes 314
Stoics 311, 318–19, 321–2
strange births 314–15
use of animals in 310–11
dogs
animal sacrifice 339–40, 341
breeds of 272
burial of 273, 274
care of 271, 274
children 273
in Classical art 271
consumption of 270
in epics 93–4
hunting dogs 118, 272
illnesses and treatments 601
increase in breed diversity 118
Maltese dogs 272–3
pathological conditions 273–4
as pets 118, 272–4
rabies 601
roles of 270–1, 272
sheepdogs 117–18
sizes of 271–2
social status 273
torture of 467
in tragedy 88–9
use in warfare 286–7
working dogs 271, 272
zooarchaeological data 271–2
dolphins 177, 229–30
as pets 278–9
domestication of animals xvi, 99–100, 105
cattle 104
horses 100–2
pigs 105
sheep and goats 102–3
donkeys
animal sacrifice 339
wild donkeys 170
Donlan, Walter 143
dormice 128, 171–2, 209
doves 174
in Classical art 55
ducks 174
farming of 125–6
eagles, in epics 75
East
ancient conceptions of 419–20
animal wonders of 422–8
Egypt 419–20
Egypt, animals in 441–3
animal sacrifice 446
art 453–4, 455, 456
camels 448
cats 446–7
changes in 441, 442–3
display and exhibition of 450
draught animals 447–8
elephants 448
export of 450–1
as food 451–2
hieroglyphs 452–3
horses 441–2
hunting 448–50
leopards 441
myths and stories 455–7
sacred animals 445
theriomorphic and mixed-form deities 443–5
use in agriculture 447
Egyptian mongoose 170–1
Elagabalus 433
elephants
in Classical art 48
communicative behaviour 223, 226–7
displayed in Rome 469
Egypt 448
in epics 75
performing elephants 473–4
in Roman triumphs 499–503, 504–5
use in warfare 290–2, 448, 499–500, 501–2
(p. 615) elites
animals and wealth 141–3, 150
animals as status symbols 140, 141, 143–4, 150, 433, 478
hunting 205, 206–7, 211
proper sources of wealth 136, 137–8
wondrous animals 422
elks 431
Emery, N J 16
Empedocles
opposition to animal sacrifice 252
origins of life 240–1, 245
substitutes for blood sacrifices 253
vegetarianism 511, 536, 539
Ennius
fables 3
Hedyphagetica 261
entertainment
entrails, divination by
Ephorus 537
epic, animals in 73–4, 81–2
arena settings 79
atmospheric development 76–7
bogus beliefs about 79
characterization 76
eagles 75
elephants 75
functions and meanings of 73–4
insects 80
insights into hunting practices 78
lions 76, 80
meat-eating 248–9
metamorphosis 394–6
realism in depiction of 77–80
relevance to epic setting 75–6
selection of 75
snakes 76
as summarizing tool 80–1
tigers 75, 76
variety of 74–5
warfare 79
Epictetus 524, 545
Epicureans 525–6, 546
Epicurus 228, 417, 525, 526, 546
Epiphanius, Bishop of Cyprus 361–2, 363
equids
animal sacrifice 339
domestication of 100–2
as pets 274–5
roles of 274
use in warfare 288–9
Eritrea 145
eroticism
animals in Classical art 43–6
magic and animals 297
Ethiopia 419, 420, 427
wondrous animals 423
Etruscans, divination 317, 318
Euboulos 248–9
Eudoxus of Cnidus 456
Eumenes II of Pergamon 285
Euphorion 585
Euphranor 54
Euripides 398
Bacchae 396
origins of the gods 234–5
Europa 39, 40
Eusebius 362
executions, condemnatio ad bestias 357–8, 474–5
exotic animals 118–19, 169–70
capture and transport of 471–2
exhibiting of 433
imported to the centre 432–4
as pets 278
profitability of traffic in 472
relics transported to the centre 434
Roman acquisition of 211–12, 432, 469
in Roman games 432–3
in Roman triumphs 497–9
as status symbols 433
as symbols of power 432
in venationes 469–70
extispicy (divination by entrails) 312, 315–18
ancient Near East 316, 317
Greek practices 315–17
haruspices 317–18
‘Humbaba face’ 315
Roman practices 317–18
(p. 616) fable 1
ainos 8–9
allusions to 4–5
animals in fable books 11–15
animal speech 10–11, 228
animal stereotypes 12, 14
anthropomorphism 1, 10
antiquity of 2
ascriptions to Aesop 3
Babrius’ fable of the weasel bride 14–15
boundaries between human and animal 7–11
‘Cat and the Rooster’ 12–13
Collectio Augustana 2, 5, 11–12
‘Crow and the Pitcher’ fable 16–18
as exemplum 11
expression of the oppressed’s point of view 18–19
fable collections 3–4
as flexible category 7
futility of animal speech 11–13
in Greek and Latin literature 3
Hesiod’s fable of the hawk and nightingale 7–8, 9–11
human-animal interaction 13
impossibility of change 14–15
insects 184
Life of Aesop 4, 11, 19–20
links with slavery 19–20
mechanical allegory 13
natural history 15–18
oral tradition 2
recognition of stories as 5
scholarly approaches to 5–7
simple style of 2
sociopolitical animals in Aesopic tradition 18–20
sources for 3–5
specific setting of 11
tension between symbolic and real animals 13
tension within 13
wolf fables 11–12
farming
crop rotation 112, 113
mixed farming 112
Farrington, E I 119
feasting
association with animal sacrifice 249–50
extravagant banquets 257
Greek excess 257–8
obesity 257–8
Petronius’ satire of Roman banquets 265–7
Roman banquets 263–5
Feldherr, A 409
festivals
animal markets 144–5, 147
feasting 250
Festus 313
field mice 172
finches 175
Finley, M I 136
fish 176
animal sacrifice 341–2
in comedies 61
communicative behaviour 226
in Cycladic art 27
in diet 192–3, 197
fishponds 192
gastronomy 254–6
as pets 278
processing plants 193
shellfish 197
in tragedy 90
fish farming 195–7
fishing
capture fisheries 193
gastronomic literature 256
line fishing 194
net fishing 193–4
techniques 193–5
trapping barriers and fences 195
Florus, Lucius Annaeus 497–8, 500, 501
folklore, insects 184–5
Forbes Irving, P M C 86
Fortenbaugh, William 518
Forum Boarium 149–50
Forum Pecuarium 150
Forum Suarium 150
fossils in ancient world
artistic depictions of 586–7
Asia Minor 583–4
Central Asia 580
collection and display of 585, 586
(p. 617) deliberate search for 583
giant bones observed in antiquity 582
Herodotus 581
interest in 580
interpretation and understanding of 587–8
Mediterranean basin 579
modern finds 582
Olympia 583
Pausanias 434, 583–4, 586
Philostratus 584–5
recognition as animal remains 585
reconstruction of extinct creature 585–6
recovery of relics from archaeological sites 586
as remains of giants and heroes 580, 581, 583–5
as remains of giants’ battlefield 585
as remains of mythical animals 582–3, 585
research into accounts of 581
speculation about 580
Troy 584
fowl, poultry farming 119–21
foxes 164–5
in animal fable 14, 15
Frayn, Joan 149–50
frogs 175–6
Frontinus 285, 287
Frontisi-Ducroux, F 388, 394, 402
funerary art
animals in 46–7
chariot racing 484
Egyptian symbolism 454–5, 456
Galen 452, 557
game farming 121–8
dormice 128
duck farming 125–6
fencing 123
geese 126–7
levels of game consumption 123
peacocks 127–8
pheasants 128
productivity 123–4
profitability of 121–2
rabbit farming 124
range of species 122–3
smokehouses 124–5
garum (Roman rotten fish sauce) 263
gastronomy
banquets 257
definition of 267
emergence of 255–6
excessive consumption 256–7
gastronomic literature 256
gluttony 257
Greek excess 257–8
Greek influence on Rome 261–2
hankering for simplicity 252
obesity 257–8
Petronius’ satire of Roman banquets 265–7
relationship with civilization 251–2
Roman banquets 263–5
Roman fine dining 262
Roman indulgence 262–3
Roman rotten fish sauce (garum) 263
Roman simplicity 258, 260
significance of 267
sophistication of Greek recipes 259
vegetarianism 252–3
see also diet
gazelle 171
Geertz, Clifford 464
geese 126–7, 174
use in warfare 288
geography, conceptualizing the East 419–20
gerbils 172
Gigantomachy on the Great Altar at Pergamon 48–9, 50
Gilhus, I S 408
giraffe 433, 450, 498
Glaukos 368, 380
gluttony 257
goats
breeding of 111
domestication of 102–3
ibex 165
illnesses and treatments 598–9
wild goats 158–9
gods
animal gods 366
origins of 233–5
see also hybrid gods
gold 427
(p. 618) Golden Age
animal communication 228
vegetarianism 536–7
Gordian III 497
grasshoppers, in literature 182
Grattius 203, 601
Great Chain of Being 246
Great Mother of the Gods cult 330
Griffin, J 395
griffins 427
Guthrie, W K C 511
Hadrian 51, 206, 422
Hagia Triada 29, 40
Halikarnassos 35
Hamilcar Barca 287
Hannibal 285, 287–8, 291
hares 161–2
in Classical art 34
hunting 162, 205, 208
as pets 278
Harmatelia, defence of 285
haruspices 314, 317–18, 329
Hatra, defence of 284
hawks, in animal fable 7–8
Hearn, Lacfadio 189
Heath, John 513
Hecataeus of Miletus 420
hedgehogs 77, 166
Henderson, J 25, 30
Henrichs, A 90
Heracleides Ponticus 520
Heracles 38, 461
iconography of 38–9
Herakleides 376
Hera Lacinia 148
Herman, Gabriel 143
Hermarchus 525
Hermes, in Classical art 33, 40
Herodian 284
Herodotus 416, 426
animals in warfare 286, 289
Egypt 420, 446, 448
fables 3
fossils 581
gold 427
griffins 427
magic 295
porcupine 167
Herondas 336
herons 174
Hesiod 145
bird-reading 312
fable of the hawk and nightingale 7–8, 9–11
fables 2, 3
origins of humans 235
origins of the gods 234
relationship between human and non-human animals 509
Theogony 234, 345
Works and Days 235, 312, 509, 536
Hesychius 229
hieroglyphs 452–3
Hieron of Syracuse 482
hippocentaur 434
Hippocrates 253, 270, 557
Hippolochos 257
hippopotamus 450
Hölscher, Fernande 29–30
Homer
animals and wealth 141–3
animal similes 508
bird divination 312
cicadas 556–7
divination from animal parts 316
horse racing 478–9
hunting 205
Iliad 73, 77, 78, 80, 95–6, 233
insect imagery 185
magic in 294
meat-eating 248–9, 251
metamorphosis 372, 394–6
Odyssey 74, 75, 76, 80, 81, 251, 294
origins of the gods 233–4
proper sources of wealth 137
relationship between human and non-human animals 508–9
Horace
fables 3
Nasidienus’ banquet 264
hornets, use in warfare 283
horse racing
age categories 480
in Greek world 478–83
(p. 619) in Hellenistic period 480
jockeys 481–2
as marker of class distinction 480–1
as military training 479
Olympic games 479–80
regional/national competitions 482–3
horses
animal sacrifice 339, 341
breeding of 111
burial of 274–5
castration 603
categories of 150
in Classical art 33, 47, 56
domestication of 100–2
in Egypt 441–2
illnesses and treatments 599–600
as pets 274–5
role in human society 478
in Roman triumphs 492–3, 494
Sparta 147
as status symbol 140, 478
use in warfare 288–9
Hortensius 262
house mouse 172–3
human-animal interaction xvi
in Classical art 31
fable 13
hunting 203–4
acquisition of exotic animals 211–12
animals hunted 206, 207–8
bears 163, 206
birds 206, 209
boars 159, 206
in Classical art 47, 51–2, 53, 203–4, 208–9
deer hunting 205–6
Egypt 448–50
elites 205, 206–7, 211
in epics 78
equipment and procedures 205, 208
game preserves and parks 209
in Greek antiquity 204–7
hares 162, 205, 208
hunting dogs 118, 272
killing as principal attraction 468
in literature 203
as metaphor 205
military prowess 204–5, 208
mosaics 204, 208–9
as pest control 204
purposes of 213
as rite of passage 205
Roman Africa 211–12
in Roman antiquity 207–13
Roman Carthage 212
Roman Iberia 210–11
as source of food 204, 208
staged nature of 468
training and pedagogy 205
zooarchaeological data 204, 206–7, 209–10, 211, 212–13
husbandry, animal xvi–xvii
alfalfa 114
animal markets 144–50
care of domestic animals 115–17, 120–1
cats 118
cattle breeding 110–11, 112
convertible husbandry/mixed farming 112
crop rotation 113
deer farming 122, 123–4
dogs 117–18
dormice 128
duck farming 125–6
Egypt 447
elite status 140
exotic animals 118–19
fencing 123
forage crops 112, 113–14
game farming 121–8
geese 126–7
goat breeding 111
grazing management 114–15
Greek origins 109–12
horse breeding 111
housing of livestock 116
hunting dogs 118
improved nutrition 112
levels of game consumption 123
non-farm animals 117–19
pasture fertilization 113
peacocks 127–8
pheasants 128
(p. 620) pig farming 116–17
poultry farming 119–21
priority over agriculture 139
production strategies 145–6
productivity 123–4
rabbit farming 124
range management 113–14
range of fowl and game species 122–3
Roman reliance on Greek writers 110
selective breeding 115
sheep breeding 111
sheepdogs 117–18
sheep shearing 115–16
smokehouses 124–5
snails 128
sophistication of 109
transhuman pastoralism 113
hybrid gods 366–7, 380–1
birds 369–70
bulls 368–9
Dionysus 374
Egypt 443–5
female hybrid monsters 375–6
function of hybridism 375
imagery associated with 367
imported forms 369
location of cult sites 379–80
metamorphosis 372, 375
monstrosity 372–4
number of 366
prophecy 380
regional clusters of cults 376–8
shape-changing water gods 374–6
significance of combination of parts 368, 371–2
significance of species 367–9, 370–1
hyenas 418, 423
use in magic 296–9
Hyginus 455
Iberia, hunting 210–11
ibex 165
Ignatius 357
India 419, 420, 427
wondrous animals 423
insects 180–1
applications of 188
in Aristophanes 183
classical entomology 181–2
classification of 181
in comedies 183
communicative behaviour 225
cross-cultural perspectives 189
cultural entomology 189–90
in epics 80
in epigrams 184
in fable 184
as food items 188
human interaction with 180
literary imagery and symbolism 185–6
in literature 182–6
medical uses of 188
misconceptions about 181
in myth and folklore 184–5
pest control 188–9
in poetry 183–4
products from 188
spiritual associations 186
use in warfare 283–4
visual representations of 187
Isidore of Seville 425, 426, 589
Isthmian Games, animal markets 148
iynx wheels 295–6
James the Just 362–3
Jamieson, Dale 554
Jeppesen, Kristian 35
jerboas 172
Jerome, St 185
John the Baptist 359, 362
Josephus 286, 497
Judaism, creation account in Genesis 355–6
justice 10
Juvenal 262–3, 265, 445
Kabeireion 110
Kallimachos 38
Kallisto 366
Kassope 111, 124
Kathirathamby, J 180–1
Kato Zakro palace 28
Kekrops 379, 380
(p. 621) Kevan, D K McK 189
Khirbet el-Mafjar 37
Kleon 138
Knidos 35
Knossos 28
Koslowsky, Dennis 266
Krateros 47–8
Kroisos 47
Laetus, Pomponius 436
lambs, in animal fable 11–12
language xvii, 216
theories of origin of 228
Lattes 124
Lear, Andrew 44–5
Leoarches 54
leopards 441
Leo VI 284
Lesser Panathenaia festival 145, 147
L’Estrange, Roger 16
leucrocata 423
leucrocota 224
Levi-Strauss, Claude 30, 358, 390
Libanius 301
Liberalis, Antoninus 184, 400
Libya 419
Lion Gate at Mycenae 28
lions
animal sacrifice 340
in Classical art 34–6
communicative behaviour 224
in epics 76, 80
as pets 278
in tragedy 88, 95–6
literature, animals in xvi
hunting 203
insects 182–6
liver, in divination practices 316–17, 319–20
Livy 78, 288
fables 3
triumphs 492
Lloyd, Geoffrey 16, 507
Lockwood, Jeffrey 284
logos 216, 220
Longus, Daphne and Chloe 405–6
Lonsdale, S H 88
Lousoi 111, 124
Lucan
Civil War 73, 75, 79
parody of animal-part magic 299–300
Pharsalia 73, 299–300
Lucian
Council of the Gods 370, 374
craze for horses 487
Ode to a Fly 183
on Pan 370
parody of animal-part magic 299
Philopseudes 299, 303
Lucretius xvi, 228, 526, 546
animals in warfare 282, 292
origins of life 242–3
Lucullus 262, 494
lycanthropy 378
Lyceum 418, 421
Lycophron 380
Alexandra 93, 373
Lykaon 378
lynxes 166
Lysippos 47, 54
Macedonian art, animals in 47–8
McInerney, Jeremy 144
McMenamin, Mark 586
Macrobius 263–4
mageiros 250, 326
mages 296
magic and animals 294
animal-part magic 296–300
animals’ use of magic against humans 304–5
birds 295–6
circus curses 302
curse tablets 301, 488
erotic curses and charms 297
evil eye 297, 298, 302
exorcism spells 302
iynx wheels 295–6
mages 296
magical ingredient lists 300
medical uses of 296–8
parodies of animal-part magic 299–300
(p. 622) pest control 302–4
as sacrificial victims 300
snakes 303–5
transformation of humans into animals 294–5
use of hyena parts 296–9
use of magic against animals 302–4
as voodoo dolls (kolossoi) 301
werewolves 295
witches 294–5
Magna Graecia 111, 112
Mago 590
Malia 28
Malibu 46
Marathon, Battle of 287
Marcellinus, Ammianus 261, 441, 487
Marcellus, Nonius 229, 501
markets
ancient conceptions of 136, 150
Markoe, Glenn 30, 32
marmot 427
martens 168
Martial 75, 471
badgers 167
bears 163
describes an execution 475
hares 208
hunting 210
insect imagery 185
pet dog 273
snakes 277
martichore 418, 421, 423–4
Martinet, André 218
Martyr, Peter 435–7
martyrdom
Acts of the Martyrs 358
Christianity 357–8
Martyrdom of Perpetua and Felicitas 358
Matro of Pitane 254, 255, 256
meat-eating xvii
anxieties over anti-social behaviour 251
association with sacrifice 249–50
Christianity 362
cultural significance of 248
decline in religious connections 250–1
Egypt 451–2
in Homer 248–9
impiety 251
impiety of eating raw meat 253–4
as marker of status 249
meat markets 343
non-sacrificial meat 343–4
rejection of 252–3
sacrificial meat 342
medicine
use of hyena parts 296–8
use of insects 188
Medusa 38
Megalopolis 149, 378, 582, 585
Megara 292–3
Megasthenes 421
Meleager of Gadara 184
Memmius, Lucius 445
Menander 69, 336, 400
Messenia 110
metamorphosis into animals xviii, 367, 371–2, 384, 402
Actaeon 392–3
Apollonius’s Argonautica 400–2
Apuleius’s Metamorphoses 406–8
association with loss 372
into birds 389
characteristics of stories about 384–5
classification of 386–90
in comedy 398–400
divine metamorphosis 387–8
in epics 394–6
as fiction 408–10
final animal form 389–90
gender reversal 386
Greek beliefs about man and animal 386
Hecuba 389, 398
in Hellenistic literature 400–2
hybridism 372, 375, 392, 393
imagery 390–1
individual experience of 385
initiation 388
Iphigenia’s substitution 387
literary representations of 393
(p. 623) in Longus’s Daphne and Chloe 405–6
into mammals 389, 390
metensomatosis 406–7
Moschus’s Europa 402
nature of the protagonists 387
in novels 405–8
Ovid’s Metamorphoses 402–5, 407, 409
psychological implications 385
punishment 389
reversibility 389
shape-changing divinities 388–9
into snakes 390
substitution to avoid human sacrifice 387
theatre 396–400
Tiresias 386
in tragedy 396–8
visual art 391–3
witnesses 396
metaphors 390–1
Metapontum 111, 117
Metellus, L Caecilius 500
metempsychosis
metensomatosis 406–7
mice
field mice 172
house mouse 172–3
use in warfare 286
Miletus 584
Milo of Croton 251
Miltiades 464
Minoan art
animals in 28–9
bull-leaping 462–3
Minos, King 463
Minotaur 463
Mithraism
animal sacrifice 331
in Classical art 42
moles 172
mongoose 170–1
monkeys 118, 428–9
as pets 278
monoceros 424, 425
monstrous races 415, 420, 427–30
Blemmyae 428
Cynocephali 428, 429–30
Sciapods 428
Moore, M 30–1
mosaics
animals in 37, 51–3, 422
fish in 192
hunting scenes 204, 208–9
Moschos 252
Moschus, Europa 402
mosquitoes, in literature 183
mouflon 158–9
Mucianus, C Licinius 223, 422
mules
animal markets 150
domestication of 102
Musaeus 511
Mycenaean art, animals in 28–9
Myrmidons 184, 283
Myron 53
mythology
animals in Classical art 39–40
Egyptian animals in 455–7
insects 184–5
origins of animals 236–7
origins of humans 235–6
origins of the gods 233–5
Nasidienus 264
natural science, wondrous animals 415
nature
ancient attitudes towards 461–2
creativity and inventiveness of 414, 417
Nausikydes 138
Nemesianus 203
Neo-Platonists
relationship between human and non-human animals 514–17
vegetarianism 551–4
Nepos, Cornelius 285
Nereids 430
Nero 433
Neufeld, Edward 283
Newmyer, Stephen 548, 557
New World, natural wonders 435–7
Nicander 182, 400
Theriaca 303
Nicolaus, fable composition 2
(p. 624) nightingales 276
in animal fable 7–8
communicative behaviour 220, 222, 225, 226
Nikias 137–8
Nikosthenes 38
Nile, River 416, 419
Nobilior, Marcus Fulvius 450, 469, 498
Nøjgaard, Morten 13
Nonnos 374
North, wondrous animals of 430–1
novels, metamorphosis in 405–8
Nubia 448
Ober, Josiah 291
obesity 257–8
Ocean 416
Octavian 445, 498
Olympia 583
Olympic games 147
equestrian events 479–80
Onatas 40
opossum 437
Oppian 203
Orata, L Sergius 196, 197
Origen 359
origins of life and species xvii
Anaximander’s theory 240
animals 236–7
creation account in Genesis 355
Empedocles’ theory 240–1, 245
gods 233–5
humans 235–6, 239
humans as animal species 238–9
Lucretius’ theory 242–3
mythological accounts 233–6
Plato’s devolutionary account 239, 243–5, 246
spontaneous generation 237–8
women 243–4
Orpheus, in Classical art 41–2
Orphics, vegetarianism 538
ostriches 175, 418
ovicaprids, domestication of 102–3
Ovid
cattle as measure of value 142
Golden Age 537
magic 294–5, 301
Metamorphoses 73, 74, 75, 76, 78, 79, 235, 236, 372, 402–5, 407, 409
origins of animals 236
origins of humans 235
triumphs 492
vegetarianism 539–40, 546
Oviedo, Fernandez de 436
owls, in Classical art 33, 34
oysters 197
Paestum 327
Palladius 119, 590
Pan 367, 368, 370–1, 373, 374, 378, 379
pan-Hellenic games
chariot racing 482
equestrian events 480
Pannonia 111
panthers, in Classical art 24, 32, 34, 35
paradoxography 418, 421–2, 433
Parthenope 380–1
partridges 174, 276
Pasiphaë 463
Paternus, Tarruntenus 592
Paul, St 355–6
meat-eating 254
Pausanias 54, 377, 378, 416–17, 431
animal markets 148
bison 158
fossils 434, 583–4, 586
horse racing 482
martichore 424
Pausias 55–6
peacocks 127–8
Pelagonius 486
Pelliccia, H 87–8
Pelops 583
Pepperberg, Irene 217
performing animals 466, 473–4
Pergamon, Great Altar at 48–9, 50
Perry, Ben Edwin 6–7
pest control
animal spectacles 467
hunting 204
insects 188–9
magic 302–4
Petrie, Flinders 586
(p. 625) Petronius 172, 229, 257
magic 295
Satyricon 265–7, 410
pets xvii, 269–70, 279
amphibians 277
birds 276
care of 271
cats 118, 275
in Classical art 46
concept of ‘pet’ 269
dogs 118, 270–4
dolphins 278–9
emotional bonds 270
equids 274–5
evidence for 269
exotic animals 278
fish 278
reptiles 277
snakes 277
tamed wildlife 277–8
working animals as 269–70
Phaedrus, fables 3, 4, 6, 19, 228
pheasants 128, 174
Philinos 252
Philip of Thessaloniki 505
philosophy, and animals
Alcmaeon of Croton 510–11
analogy and polarity 507
Anaxagoras of Clazomenae 511–12
Aristotle 517–19, 521
Chrysippus of Soloi 521, 524
Diogenes of Apollonia 512
Empedocles 511
Epictetus 524
Epicureans 525–6
Epicurus 525, 526
Hesiod 509
Homer 508–9
Lucretius 526
Musaeus 511
Plato 515–16, 520
Pliny the Elder 524
Plutarch 527–30
Porphyry 514–15, 530
Posidonius of Apamea 523–4
Presocratic thought 509–13
Pythagoras 512–13
relationship between human and non-human animals 507–8
Socrates 515
Sophists 513–14
Stoics 520–4
Theophrastus 519–20
Xenocrates of Chalcedon 516, 520
Xenophon 514
Philostratus 422
fossils 584–5
Phlegon of Tralles 434, 585
phoenix 418, 422, 426, 434
Physiologus 360
Physiologus 425
Piazza Armerina, mosaics 51–3, 422
pigeons 174
pigs
domestication of 105
Egypt 451–2
illnesses and treatments 600–1
pig farming 116–17
use in warfare 292–3
Pindar 295
pine marten 168
Pinotti, Patrizia 515
Plato 314
animal rationality 516
devolutionary theory of origin of species 243–5, 246
divination 319–20
Epinomis 543–4
fables 3
Gorgias 541–2
hunting 204–5
ideal diet 252
insects 182, 183–4
Laws 543
origins of humans 239, 319
Phaedrus 183–4
Protagoras 10, 239
relationship between human and non-human animals 515–16, 520
Republic 542–3
Timaeus 243–5
transmigration of souls 516
vegetarianism 536–7, 541–4
(p. 626) Plautus 557
Asinaria 69
Curculio 183
Menaechmi 229
Pliny the Elder 54, 75, 416
achlis 431
animal communication 223–5, 229–30
bats 169
bears 163
beavers 169
cartazonus 424
catoblepas 425, 426
chameleon 418–19
crocodiles 456
Cynocephali 429–30
Egypt 420
elephants 500, 503
fables 18
fossils 585
geese 126–7
Greek wine 261–2
horses 487
hyena parts in magic 296–9
ibex 165
insects 182
list of wondrous animals 423
lynxes 166
mages 296
martichore 423–4
monoceros 424, 425
monstrous races 415, 428–30
mouflon 159
Natural History 156, 223–5, 296, 558
nature’s creativity and diversity 414, 417
ostriches 418
phoenix 418, 434
porcupine 167
rabies 601
relationship between human and non-human animals 524
rhinoceros 424
snails 128
war dogs 287
yale 423
zoological knowledge 558
Pliny the Younger, hunting 468
Plotinus 530, 537
vegetarianism 551
Plutarch 77, 414, 435
animal communication 222–3
On the Cleverness of Animals 527–9
On the Eating of Flesh 527, 529–30, 547–50
fossils 585
justice towards animals 529–30
metamorphosis 372
rationality of animals 528–9
relationship between human and non-human animals 527–30
triumphs 494, 495
vegetarianism 529–30, 546–50
Whether Beasts are Rational 527
poetry, insects 183–4
poisoned arrows 284–5
Polanyi, Karl 136
polar bears 163
polecat 168–9
Pollux, Julius 203, 263
Polyaenus 287, 288, 293
Polybius 78, 260–1, 501
hunting 210
Polycarp 357
Polykleitos 54
Polyzalos of Gela 54
Pompeii 111, 343
Pompey 432, 470, 498, 502–3
porcupine 166–7
Porphyry 186, 512–13, 514–15, 519–20, 525
On Abstinence from Animal Flesh 530–1, 551–4
animal rationality 530–1, 552
justice towards animals 531, 552
vegetarianism 530–1, 551–4
Porus, King 291, 292
Poseidonia 111
Poseidonios 260
Posidonius of Apamea 523–4
pottery, animal styles on 25
poultry farming 119–21
illnesses and treatments 601–2
power, communication through animal imagery 46–53
Praxiteles (sculptor) 54
Praxiteles of Mantineia 149
(p. 627) praying mantis 557, 558
Presocratics, and animals 509–13
Alcmaeon of Croton 510–11
Anaxagoras of Clazomenae 511–12
Diogenes of Apollonia 512
Empedocles 511
Musaeus 511
Pythagoras 512–13
Preus, Anthony 517
Prinias 32
Probus 472
Procopius 583
Prometheus 235–6, 315, 345
prophecy
hybrid gods 380
in tragedy 92–3
Protagoras of Abdera 513–14
Proteus 374–5, 380
Prusius of Bithynia 285
Ptolemy I 48, 288, 291
Ptolemy II Philadelphus 432, 443, 445, 448, 450
Ptolemy VIII 257–8
Pyrrhus of Epirus 291, 292, 499
Pythagoras 228, 346
substitutes for blood sacrifices 253
vegetarianism 252, 512–13, 537–41
quails 174, 220
rabbits 162–3
farming of 124
rabies 601
Ramses III 449
Raphia, Battle of 291, 448
rats, black rat 172–3
ravens 175
reincarnation 243–4
reptiles 175–6
as pets 277
rhinoceros 424–5, 450
rodents, use in warfare 286
Rodman, John 539
Roman games, displays of exotic animals 432–3
Rome, animal markets 149–50
Rothwell, K S, Jr 61, 63, 65
Rufus, Marcus Caelius 470
ruling class, defining members of 136
sacrifice, animal xvii
age of victim 334–5
altar and meal bone deposits 338–9
animal markets 144–5, 147–8, 250, 327, 329–30
battlefield rituals 328
boars 340, 341
butchering of victim 326, 329
choice of victim 332–3
Christianity 342–3, 346, 357, 362, 363
in Classical art 43, 44, 331
colour of victim 335
commemorations of 327
communication with divine sphere 324
consecration of victim 325–6, 329
deer 340, 341
divination 329
dogs 339–40, 341
economics of victim choice 335–6
Egypt 446
equids 339
feasting 249–50
fish 341–2
Greek sacrifice 325–8
holocausts 328, 330
horses 339, 341
killing methods 326, 329
lions 340
magic 300
meat distribution 326–7, 329–30
meat-eating 342
in Minoan art 29
number of victims 336–7
oath-takings 327
opposition to 252, 346, 357
origins of 344–5
places of 324–5
pregnant victims 334
as punishment 331, 345
purification rituals 327–8
representations of victims 331
ridicule in comedies 345
Roman sacrifice 328–30
Roman triumphs 494–5, 496–7
(p. 628) sanctuary animals 337–8
sex of victim 333–4
social functions 324
sources for studying 324
species of victim 333
substitutes for blood sacrifices 253
in tragedy 90–1
type of animal sacrificed 330–1
use of sacrificial meat in rituals 327, 330
wild animals 340–1
zooarchaeological data 324, 325, 330, 331, 333, 334, 335, 337, 338–9
Saloninus, Pelagonius 591
Samos 585, 587
sanctuaries
animal markets 148
animals in 337–8
feasting 250
Sarakatsani 140, 142
Sassi, Maria Michela 507
satyrs 429
Scaurus, Marcus 451, 470
Schliemann, Heinrich 586
Sciapods 428
Scipio Africanus 501
Scipio Asiaticus 501–2
scorpions, use in warfare 283, 284
Scylax of Caryanda 420
Scythians 285
seals, in epics 75
Sebeok, Thomas A 217
Sedley, David 241, 243
Semiramis, Queen 289
Semonides 182
Seneca 414, 523
abstention from meat 253, 524, 546
animal behaviour 522
animal communication 222
elephants 500
Severus, Septimus 284, 471, 472
Sextus Empiricus 512
shape-changers 374–6, 388–9
Shaw, George 438
sheep
Athens 146
breeding of 111
care of 115
domestication of 102–3
illnesses and treatments 598–9
shearing of 115–16
use in warfare 288
wild sheep 158–9
shellfish 197
Shelton, Jo-Ann 526
shrews 172
Shumate, N 408
Silentiarius, Paulus 184–5
Silius Italicus, Punica 75, 77–8, 79
silk production 188
simplicity, Rome 258, 260
Simplicius 241
Sirens 369, 373, 380
slavery, fable 19–20
Smindyrides 256
Smith, Sydney 438
snails 128
snakes 175, 176
in divination practices 314
in epics 76
functions of 277
as pets 277
poisoned arrows 284–5
in tragedy 89, 94
use in warfare 284–5
use of magic against 303–4
use of magic against humans 304–5
Socrates 515
relationship between human and non-human animals 540
Solinus 585
Solmsen, Friedrich 518–19
Solon 464
songbirds 175, 276
Sophists 513–14
Sophocles
Ajax 94–6
Antigone 315
Philoctetes 86
Sorabji, Richard 362, 519, 520, 523, 531
Sosos of Pergamon 55
sparrows 175
Sparta
animal markets 146–7
(p. 629) boar fights 465
horses 147
spectacles 461
ancient attitudes towards nature 461–2
boar fights 465
bull-leaping 462–3
bull-wrestling 464
capital punishment 357–8, 474–5
capturing and transporting animals for 471–2
cock-fighting 464–5
Crete 462–3
distribution of carcasses 468–9
Greece 464–6
origins of urban spectacles 467
performing animals 466, 473–4
promotion of Roman values 466
Roman Empire 466–75
rural origins of Roman spectacles 466–7
scale of Roman spectacles 466
spectator participation in urban venationes 468
triumph of civilization over nature 461–2, 466, 467
urban venationes 468
sphinxes 423, 429
Spina 112
spirituality, insects 186
Sredni Stog culture 101
Stabrobates, King 289
Statius
Achilleid 78
Thebaid 76, 77
status 136
animals as symbols of 140, 141, 143–4, 150, 433, 478
dog ownership 273
exotic animals 432
fishponds 192
hunting 205
Steiner, Gary 515, 518
Stephens, William 545
stoats 168–9
Stoics
animal behaviour 522, 523
animal communication 221–3
cosmological cycles 417
cosmos as an organism 321–2
divination 311, 318–19, 321–2
emotions and animals 522–4
impossibility of inter-species justice 521–2, 523
irrationality of animals 522–3
kinship theory oikeiōsis 521, 522
relationship between human and non-human animals 520–4, 545
vegetarianism 545–6
storks 174
Strabo 473
bats 169
crocodiles 456
fish 254
Geography 156
Suetonius 229, 315, 503, 585
Sulla 432, 469–70
sumptuary laws 260
swans 314
in animal fable 13, 18
swine
domestication of 105
see also boars; pigs
Sybarites 433
Symmachus 472, 473
Syros 28
Tauriskos of Tralles 54
Tegea 434, 581–2, 583
Tembrock, Günter 217
Tertullian 364
theatre, metamorphosis 396–400
Themistocles 464
Theocritus 184
magic 295
Theognis 137
Theomnestos 590, 591, 600
Theon, fables 9
Theophrastus 147, 510–11
insects 182
relationship between human and non-human animals 519–20
vegetarianism 535, 545
(p. 630) Theopompos 257
Thera 28
theriomorphism 366
Egyptian deities 443–5
Theseus 39, 463, 583
Thessaly, hybrid gods 376–7
Thetis 375, 376–7, 388
potnia therōn imagery 38
Thevet, Andre 437
thrushes 175, 276
Thucydides 187
Tiberius 585–6
tigers
in epics 76
in Roman epics 75
Tiresias 386
toads 175–6
tortoises 175, 451
toxicology
Greek-coined animal names 564
Latin-coined animal names 568
tradition, power of 415, 421, 435
tragedy, animal imagery in 84, 96–7
aggression and animal imagery 88–9
animal and human sacrifice 90–1
animal imagery and human emotions 88
animalization of human emotion 86, 89
application of animal terms to humans 84–5
birds 86–7, 89–90, 94
bulls 89, 94–5
dogs 88–9
expression of otherness 91
fish 90
horror of animals eating corpses 85–6
lions 88, 95–6
metamorphosis 396–8
middle ground between man and animal 85–7
narratological animals 93–4
prophecy 92–3
representation of humans in crisis 91–2
snakes 89, 94
in Sophocles’ Ajax 94–6
victimization and animal imagery 89–90
yoke image 91–2
Trajan 51, 466
transmigration of souls 245
vegetarianism 346, 512, 516, 538, 550
Triton 430
triumphs, Roman 491–2
animal sacrifice 494–5, 496–7
draught animals 494, 495
elephants in 499–503, 504–5
exotic animals in 497–9
horses in 492–3, 494
as inclusive ritual 491
political significance of 491
processions 491–2
as religious celebration 491
as spectacular events 491
Uffizi boar 56
unicorn 425
urbanization 10
Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 76, 78
value economics xvii, 137–40
Vapheio 29
Varro 102, 229, 259
cattle as measure of value 142
cattle breeding 104
causes of animal illnesses 594
elephants 500
game parks 209
hunting 468
pig breeding 105
rabbits 162
veterinary medicine 590
wool production 138
vegetarianism, philosophical 252–3, 535, 554
ambiguity of 539
arete (virtue) 535, 538, 539, 554
Aristotle 544–5
bodily health 538–9, 542
Christianity 362–3
Empedocles 511, 536, 539
Epicureans 546
equality of interest argument 548
Golden Age 536–7
marginal cases argument 552–4
Neo-Platonists 551–4
Ovid 539–40, 546
(p. 631) perfect life 537
Plotinus 537, 551
Plutarch 529–30, 546–50
Porphyry 530–1, 551–4
psychic health 538–9
Pythagoras 252, 512–13
Pythagorean tradition 537–41
Seneca 253, 524, 546
sentiency argument 539–40, 547–8
Socratic humanism 540
Stoics 545–6
symbol of separatism 254
Theophrastus 535, 545
transmigration of souls 346, 512, 516, 538, 550
see also diet; meat-eating
Vegetius 208, 271, 290, 589–90, 591
venationes 467
capturing and transporting animals for 471–2
celebration of military victory 470
distribution of carcasses 468–9
exotic animals 469–70
impact on wild animal populations 473
imperial sponsorship of 471–2
political usefulness of 467, 469, 470
spectator participation 468
venatores and bestiarii 468, 472–3
Vermeule, E 87
veterinary medicine 589–90
bees 602
birth assistance 603
blood-letting 595
care of domestic animals 115–17, 120–1
castration 602–3
cattle 597–8
causes of disease and sickness 593–4
cauterization 596
diagnosis 594–5
disease prevention 592–3
dogs 273–4, 601
economic and military factors 589
folk medicine 597
horses 486, 599–600
medicines 596–7
mythical foundation of 589
pets 271
pigs 600–1
poultry 601–2
practitioners of 591–2
in Roman army 592
sheep and goats 598–9
surgical instruments 596
treatment 595–7
written sources on 590–1
Virgil
Aeneid 73, 75, 76, 81, 185–6
buffalo 158
Georgics 183
insect imagery 185–6
magic 295
voles 172
Vulso, Manlius 502
Wallace-Hadrill, Andrew 261
Wallace-Hadrill, D S 361
warfare, animals in xvii, 79, 282–3
camels 289–90
cattle 287–8
dogs 286–7
domesticated animals 287–8
geese 288
horses 288–9
insects 283–4
inter-species hostility 289–90
mice 286
pigs 292–3
sheep 288
snakes 284–5
unpredictability of 282, 292
wasps
in literature 182
use in warfare 283, 284
Waywell, Geoffrey 35
wealth
agriculture as proper source of 136, 137–9
ancient ideas on xvii
animal husbandry’s priority over agriculture 139–40
animal markets 144–50
animals as source of 136, 139–40, 141–4, 150
cattle as measure of value 142–3
(p. 632) hierarchy of agricultural activity 139
proper sources of 137, 140
socially acceptable forms of 137–8
weasels 168–9
Weber, Max 136
werewolves 295, 378, 416–17
whales 176
wild animals 157–8
animal sacrifice 340–1
impact of venationes on populations of 473
as pets 277–8
wild beast shows
witchcraft 488
wolves 164
in animal fable 11–12
women
as oracles 311
as second-rate humans 243–4
wonder
expectation of 417–18
objects of 414–15
responses to 414
as response to nature’s inventiveness 414
wondrous animals
achlis 431
Alexander the Great’s expedition 421
Arimaspi 427–8
Australasia 437–8
authenticating devices 421
basilisk 425
cartazonus 424, 425
catoblepas 425, 426
chameleon 418–19
chronology of distant lands 417
climate’s influence on 416
conceptualizing the East 419–20
corocotta 423
Cynocephali 428, 429–30
defining the wondrous 417–19
definition of 415
difficulties in describing 418–19
distinguishing factual from the fantastic 418
of the East 422–8
elite culture 422
exhibiting of 433
expectation of 435
fabrication of 434
fascination with 415, 435
giant ants 427
griffins 427
guardian animals 426–7
hippocentaur 434
imported to the centre 432–4
leucrocata 423
lists of 422–3
martichore 418, 421, 423–4
monoceros 424, 425
monstrous races 415, 420, 427–30
New World 435–7
of the North 430–1
Ocean 416
one-horned creatures 424–5
paradoxography 418, 421–2, 433
phoenix 418, 422, 426, 434
Pliny’s list 423
power of traditional stories 415, 421, 435
relics transported to the centre 434
rhinoceros 424–5
Roman acquisition of 432
in Roman games 432–3
sources for knowledge of 420–2
spatial and temporal location of 416–17
as symbols of power 432
unicorn 425
yale 423
Xanthos 35
Xenocrates of Chalcedon 516, 520, 549
Xenophanes of Colophon 512, 539, 580
Xenophon 138, 146
agriculture 139
Anabasis 340–1
Cynegeticus 203
hunting 203, 205, 206
relationship between human and non-human animals 514
Sparta 147
yale 423
(p. 633) Zama, battle of 75, 501, 502
Zela, Battle of 285
Zeno 521, 553
Zonaras 500
zooarchaeology 157
animal sacrifice 324, 325, 330, 331, 333, 334, 335, 337, 338–9
dogs 271–2
zoological knowledge 556–9
anthropologically-based Greek animal names 564–5
anthropologically-based Latin animal names 568
Aristotle 517, 558
cicadas 556–7
documentation of 558
English animal names 572–4
first-degree animal names 558, 570–1
Greek alternative names for animals 563
Greek animal behaviour names 560–2
Greek animal body names 559–60
Greek animal location names 562–3
Greek animal reproduction names 563
Greek first-degree animal names 559–65
Greek zoological homonyms 563
Homer 556–7
how animal names were created 569–70
Latin animal behaviour names 566
Latin animal body names 566
Latin animal location names 566–7
Latin first-degree animal names 566–8
Pliny the Elder 558
praying mantis 557, 558
scientific animal names 571–2
second-degree animal names 559
toxicologically-based Greek animal names 564
toxicologically-based Latin animal names 568
when animal names were created 569
where animal names were created 569
who coined animal names 569
why anima names were created 570
zoologically-based Greek animal names 559–63
zoologically-based Latin animal names 566–8
zoosemiotics 217