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date: 26 February 2020

(p. 901) Index

(p. 901) Index

Note: Bold entries refer to figures, tables or boxes.

Abu Ghraib 455, 571
academic world, and diplomats’ engagement with 235–6
accountability:
and demand for 61
and sovereignty 767
and subordination of 47
and summit diplomacy 305
Accra Agenda (2008) 130
Aceh peace process 342
and involvement of regional actors 347
and issues on negotiation agenda 347–8
and mandate for 343
Acheson, Dean 408
Adenauer, Konrad 834
advocacy groups 177
Afghanistan:
and Al-Jazeera's coverage of 217
and American policy debate over 70
and balancing interests in 82–3
and Geneva Accords (1988) 781–2
and peacekeeping operations 785–8
and state-building 612, 615
Africa:
and China 551, 555
and food security and infrastructure 736
and G20 731–2
and government-business relations 404, 411–12
African Development Bank 731, 736
African National Congress (ANC) 19, 77, 204
African Union (AU) 10, 18, 306, 779
and Economic, Social and Cultural Council 412
and International Criminal Court 757
and mediation 339
and peacekeeping operations 780
African Union Commission 731
agency, and negotiation 330
agenda-setting:
and civil society groups 179–82
and intergovernmental organizations 147
and non-governmental organizations 11
and soft power 551
and summit diplomacy 312–13
Aguayo, Sergio 676
Aid for Trade 862
Al-Bashir, Omar 363, 751, 757, 773
Al-Hurra 425, 571
Al-Jazeera 44, 201, 213–21, 425, 548
and Afghanistan coverage 217
and American hostility towards 217–19
and Arab criticism of 216–17
and Arab Spring 219, 221–2
and credibility with Arab audiences 215–16
and democratic impact of 215
and diplomacy of (1998–2009) 218
and diplomatic role of 221
and diplomatic significance of 213
and establishment of 214
and financial boycott of 216
and idealized Arab public sphere 221
and impact of 215
and impact on Qatar's diplomacy 219–20
and information and communications technology 220
and Iraq War 217–19, 564
and Kuwait, criticism by 216
and motives for establishing 214
and Qatar's reputation 213
and satellite network 220–1
and Saudi Arabia:
critical coverage of 215
criticism by 216
(p. 902)
and success of 219
and Western audience's introduction to 217
Al-Qaeda 201, 588–9
and utilization of information technology 211
Al-Qasim, Faisal 216, 217
Al Thani, Amir Hamad bin Khalifa 214
Albright, Madeleine 95, 96–7, 104, 805
Algeria, and criticism of Al-Jazeera 217
Alliance and Friendship, Treaty of (1815) 264
Alliance for Food Aid 650
Alliance française 426, 447
Alliance of Small Island States 39, 120, 844
alliances, and security 580–1
Allison, Lincoln 708
ambassadors:
and accreditation of 511
and definition of 3
and early history of 3–4
and non-diplomat appointments 40
and non-resident 134
and qualities of a successful envoy 136–7
and valedictory dispatches 17 see also diplomatic missions
American Service-Members Protection Act (2002) 748
Americans for Technology Leadership 198
Amnesty International 11, 73, 668, 669
and Côte d’Ivoire 785
and International Criminal Court 754, 755
Amorim, Celso 885
Andean Community 630
Angola 323
Annan, Kofi 132, 153–4, 260, 278, 789
and democratic deficit in global governance 179
and Global Compact 12, 287
and human rights 13, 767
and humanitarian intervention 768
and inclusive government 406
and Indian Ocean tsunami (2004) 357, 358, 616
and individual sovereignty 767
and Iraq War 254
and Kosovo peace negotiations 344
and In Larger Freedom 770
and multilateral diplomacy 248
and non-governmental organizations 11
and Ottawa Process 804, 806
and Responsibility to Protect (R2P) 770
and Somalia 620
and sovereignty 767
and sports diplomacy 719
Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty (1972) 596
Anti-Slavery International 668
Anti-Slavery Society 668
Antigua, and outsourcing of diplomacy 42
Appiah, Kwame Anthony 621
Arab Human Development Report (UN, 2002) 432
Arab League 18, 306
Arab Spring 92
and Al-Jazeera's coverage of 219, 221–2
and impact on Al-Qaeda 588
and public diplomacy 439
Arbatov, Georgi 288
Arctic Council 103, 807
Arendt, Hannah 677–8
Argentina:
and human rights 664–5
and United Kingdom 476–7, 527n15
armed forces:
and defence diplomacy 375
and educational exchanges 378–9
and hard power 373
arms control, and Cold War 593
arms sales, and competing interests 73–4
Arndt, Richard 426
Aron, Raymond 6–7
Arquilla, John 460–1
Artavia, Roberto 414
Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) 253
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) 10, 18, 306, 313, 314
Asian Development Bank 314
Asian financial crisis 730–1
Assange, Julian 71, 455, 464
Assembly of States Parties (ASP), see International Criminal Court (ICC)
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) 10, 306, 629
and ASEAN Regional Forum 18
(p. 903)
and Asian Free Trade Area 629
and mediation 339
and regional trade diplomacy 629
and success of 252–3
Atlanta Olympic Games (1996) 717
ATTAC (Association for the Taxation of financial Transactions and Aid to Citizens) 170
Attlee, Clement 5
Augsburg, Peace of (1555) 332n2
Austin, John 495
Australia:
and amalgamation of trade and foreign affairs departments 407–8, 626
and Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, criticism of 16
and landmines campaign 804–5
and refugee policy 682, 684–5
and trade diplomacy 408
Australia New Zealand Closer Economic Agreement 628
Austria, and Afghanistan 787
Axworthy, Lloyd 467n17, 768, 802, 803–4, 805, 806, 807
Aziz, Maged Abdel 822–3
Bahrain, and criticism of Al-Jazeera 217
Baker, James 210
balance of interests 21, 58, 71, 82–3
and American policy in Afghanistan 70
and dealing with multiple interests 79
and examples of
Afghanistan 82
climate change 84
foreign aid 83
free trade 83
Pakistan 82–3
sanctions 83
use of the term 80–1
and Indian foreign policy 70–1
and non-state actors 80
as superior guide to policy 84
and WikiLeaks 71
Baldwin, Richard E 859–60
Bali Process 687
Bali Roadmap 847
Ball, George 309
Baltic states 59
Ban Ki-moon 774, 787
and Responsibility to Protect (R2P) 771
Bandung Conference (1955) 551
Bank for International Settlements (BIS) 161, 163, 167
Bank of Canada 737
banking regulation 398
and global coordination of 737–9
and multilateral diplomacy 251
Barnett, M 146, 151, 154, 182
Barston, R P 41
Bartlett, Charles 833
Baruch Plan (1946) 598
Basel Accords 168
Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) 168, 170, 251, 398
Basel Concordat (1975) 168
BASIC countries (Brazil, South Africa, India and China) 399
Bay of Pigs invasion (1961) 827
Bazerman, Max 865
BBC 200, 201, 202, 564
and soft power 548
Beard, Charles 72
Beers, Charlotte 428
Beijing Consensus 567
Benenson, Peter 74
Benn, Hilary 365
Bensouda, Fatou 751
Benz, Sophia 687
Bercovitch, Jacob 325
Berger, Maurits 422, 428
Berlin Mandate 845
Berlin Olympic Games (1936) 711, 714
Berman, Ari 211
Berridge, G R 126
Berruga, Enrique 137
best alternative to a negotiated agreement (BATNA) 639, 859
Betts, Alexander 676, 684
Bhagwati, Jagdish 866, 867
Bhopal disaster (1984) 206–7
BICs (Brazil, India and China), and World Trade Organization 860–2
presence in all small group meetings 861–2
rising trade shares 861
use of Dispute Settlement Mechanism 861
(p. 904) Big Business Working Group (South Africa) 411
bilateral diplomacy 229
and budgetary limitations 240
and changed role of diplomats 231–2
and cultural diplomacy 234–5
and desk officers’ functions 239–40
and diaspora communities 236
and diplomatic infrastructure 236–7
and effective communication 234
and engagement with academic world 235–6
and functional/thematic approaches to 239
and geographic approaches to 238–9
and intergovernmental organizations 143, 150
and multilateral summits 309
and negotiation 233
and policy development 237
and promotion of one's country 230, 231, 232–3
and public diplomacy 231
and public policy 244–5
and reasons for 229
and security 580–1
and services to nationals abroad 230
and trade diplomacy 232, 233–4
and traditional bilateral diplomacy 231
and training of diplomats 240–1
continuing education 242
multidisciplinary education 241
sabbatical leaves 243
savoir faire 241
secondments 242
writing skills 241
and uses of 230
bilateral immunity agreements (BIAs) 748
bilateral investment treaties (BITs) 393
Bilderberg group 12
Bildt, Carl 65
bin Laden, Osama 259, 588
Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (1972) (BWC) 595, 599, 811
Bismarck, Otto von 3
Blair, Tony 38, 104, 202, 300n3, 395, 446, 717, 805
Blix, Hans 292
Blix Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission (1986) 289, 292, 293, 295–6
blogosphere 458, 470n44
blogs and blogging 454–5
Bollywood 127, 424
Bolshakov, Georgi 828, 833
Bolshevik Revolution (1917) 677
Bolton, John 63, 495, 505, 571, 748, 821
Bonaparte, Napoleon 9, 369–70, 544
Bono 43, 170, 568, 700
border disputes, and Persian Gulf 223n23
Borio, C 164
Bosch, Miguel Marin 817
Bosnia 611, 612, 615, 616, 617, 620, 772
Boutros-Ghali, Boutros 291, 611, 613, 804
and Agenda for Peace 376
Supplement to 611
BP plc 199
Brahimi, Lakhdar 140n25, 287, 293, 765
Brahimi Panel on United Nations Peace Operations (2000) 287, 613, 616, 618, 765, 782–4
Brandt Commission (1980) 278, 279, 294, 298, 764
and impact of 288, 289
Brandt, Willy 278, 764, 834
Braudel, Fernand 544
Brazil:
and achievements of 884–5
and diplomatic capacity 111
and diplomatic culture 884–7
and diplomatic tours by leaders 39
and expansion of diplomatic missions 134
and global financial crisis 891
and growing power of 8
and increasing importance of 103, 110
and regional diplomacy 886
and World Trade Organization 860–2
presence in all small group meetings 861–2
rising trade shares 861
use of Dispute Settlement Mechanism 861 see also BRICs
Brazilian Agricultural Research Centre 885
(p. 905) Brazilian national development bank (BNDES) 885
Bretton Woods system 163, 164–5
and collapse of 167
and finance diplomacy 164–7
and ineffectiveness of 883
BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India and China) 881
and commonalities in diplomacy of 884
and complementary diplomacy 891–5, 896
and contrasting diplomatic cultures:
Brazil 884–7
China 887–91
and diplomatic tours by leaders 39
and future role of 896
and G20 891, 892–4, 895
and global financial crisis 883–4, 891–2
and increasing activism of 884
and increasing importance of 103
and limits on power of 896–7
and monetary diplomacy 894–5
and mutual learning 894
and mutual socialization 896
and reform of Bretton Woods institutions 892, 894, 895, 896
and rising powers concept 882–3
and shared global concerns 883–4
and shared historical experiences 884
and summit meetings 882, 894
Brinkman, H-J 155
British Council 426, 440, 447
broadcasting:
and cultural diplomacy 424–5
and soft power 548 see also Al-Jazeera; media
Brookings Institution 21, 733, 883
Brown, Gordon 731, 734, 893
Brownlie, Ian 499
Bruce Committee (1939) 266
Brundtland Commission (1987) 13, 150, 278, 294, 765
and impact of 279–87, 288, 289, 298
Brundtland, Gro Harlem 278, 296, 298, 765
Brussels Financial Conference (1920) 161, 163–4, 265
Brysk, Alison 180
Buenos Aires Plan of Action 845
Bull, Hedley 41
Bunche, Ralph 782
Burkina Faso 797
Burney, Derek 138
Burnham, Christopher B 19
Burundi 619
Bush, George H W 594, 799
and New World Order 94
Bush, George W 594, 612, 746, 807
and Afghanistan 615–16
and Al-Jazeera 219
and foreign policy 95–6
and G20 39, 733
and Global War on Terror 779
and Indian Ocean tsunami (2004) 356
business, and government:
Africa 411–12
developing human capital 410
information sharing 409–10
policy planning and advice 410
promoting civil society 410
relations between 404, 409
sharing expertise and experience 409 see also multinational corporations
Business Unity South Africa (BUSA) 411
Butler, General Lee 297
Cable News Network (CNN) 54
Cablegate, see WikiLeaks
Callieres, Francois de 61, 63
Cambodia 323, 612
Cambodia Trust 803
Camdessus, Michael 14
Cameron, David 202, 717
and China 79
and sports diplomacy 38
and trade diplomacy 38–9
Canada:
and Afghanistan 787
and amalgamation of trade and foreign affairs departments 407, 626
and change in diplomatic strategy 91–2
and China 98
and digital diplomacy 457
and food aid 643
and Foreign Affairs department 98
downgrading of 97
(p. 906) and foreign policy:
foreign minister's role in 98
prime minister's role in 97–8
and government-business relations 409
and Human Security initiative 91
and International Commission on State Sovereignty and Intervention 767–8
and landmines campaign 802–3
and Ottawa Process 100–1, 802–4, 804
and Responsibility to Protect (R2P) 768
and restrictions of Mexicans entering 79
and soft power 93
and trade diplomacy 408
Canadian Foodgrains bank 648
Canberra Commission on the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons (1996) 288–9, 292, 293, 296, 297
Cancún Agreements (2010) 847
Cancún meeting of the WTO (2003) 628
Capstone Doctrine 783
Carayannis, T 155
Cardoso, Fernando Henrique 278, 293, 300n3, 885
Cardoso Panel on UN-Civil Society Relations (2004) 11, 287
CARE 43, 648
Carlsson, Ingvar 765
Carlsson-Ramphal Commission on Global Governance (1995) 287, 292, 295, 296, 765
and impact of 288, 290
Carnegie Commission on the Prevention of Deadly Conflict (1997) 288, 289, 291, 293, 295, 296, 765
Carnegie Endowment 817
Carpenter, Charli 182
Carson, Rachel 180, 268
Cartagena Declaration on Refugees (1984) 676
Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (2001) 630, 649
Carter, Jimmy 551
Castañeda, Jorge G 244, 247n18, 883
Castells, Manuel 56, 59
Castlereagh, Lord 264
Castro, Fidel 257, 826–7, 829–30
and Cuban missile crisis 835–6
Catalonia 448
Catholic Church 78
Cavaliero, R E 419
CCTV International Channel 548
celebrity diplomacy 19–20, 43, 65, 170
and health diplomacy 700
and landmines campaign 805
and soft power 568
and summits 304
Center for International and Strategic Studies 882
Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) 437
Center on International Cooperation 21
Central African Republic 619
central banks:
and creation of 162
and finance diplomacy 161, 166–7, 169
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) 827
Centre for Defence Studies 801
Centre for Global Studies 733
Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue 343
Centre for International Governance Innovation 733
Cervantes Institute 426, 447
Chambers of Commerce 411
Channick, J 427
charm, and multilateral diplomacy 254–5
Chasek, Pamela 183
Chavez, Hugo 310
Chemical Weapons Convention (1993) 600, 811
Chiang Mai Initiative 170
Chile:
and armed forces 379
and defence diplomacy 377–8
and diplomatic budget 61
and diplomatic success of 39
and participation in Multinational Interim Force for Haiti (MIFH) 377–8
and raised diplomatic profile 377
and trade diplomacy 626
China:
and Africa 551, 555
and diplomatic culture 887–91
behavioural guidelines 890–1
cool-headedness 888
duality of outcomes 889
evolution of 896
formalistic style 888–9
underperformance 890
and diplomatic tours by leaders 39
and foreign policy principles 887–8
and G20 892, 893
and Google 205–6
and growing power of 8
and health diplomacy 46
and HSBC 204–5
and increasing importance of 103, 110
and Internet monitoring 211
and Japan 73
and overseas presence 111
and public diplomacy 442, 443
and regional trade diplomacy 629
and Responsibility to Protect (R2P) 770
and SARS episode (2003) 46
and soft power 544, 551–2, 555, 556–7, 565, 567
and Warring States period (403–221 BC) 581
and World Trade Organization 860–2
presence in all small group meetings 861–2
rising trade shares 861
use of Dispute Settlement Mechanism 861 see also BRICs
China-ASEAN Free Trade Area (CAFTA) 889–90
Chirac, Jacques 446, 717
and sports diplomacy 38
Choubaki, Amr 220
Chrétien, Jean 97, 98, 768, 806
and Ottawa Process 100
Churchill, Winston 5
cities, and public diplomacy 447
civil society groups:
and agenda-setting 179–82
and assisting development of 410
and associations 177–8
and conference diplomacy 266
in conflict situations 187
and definition of 176–8
as diplomatic actors 10–12, 42, 99–101
and disarmament diplomacy 595, 600, 602, 603
and finance diplomacy 170
and growth in number of actors 10
and historical emergence in diplomacy 178–9
and implementation of diplomatic agreements 186–8
creation of institutions 186–7
domestic legislation 187
monitoring 187
and influence on diplomatic negotiations 183–6
coordination among 184
exclusion from 184–5
insider/outsider strategies 185
as observers 184
participation in 183
and lobbying by 181
and meaning of 10
and multilateralism 10–11
and multinational corporations, diplomacy between 203
and networks 178
and normative commitments 177
and number of international organizations 178
and Ottawa Process, role in 99–101
and participation in conferences 178–9, 184–5
exclusion from 184–5
government responses to 178–9, 184
and principled character of 177
and roles of 10–11, 179
and trade diplomacy, influence on 631–3 see also non-governmental organizations (NGOs); non-state actors
civil wars 585
and third-party mediation 321–3
Clark, Joe 98
Clarke, Arthur C 210
Claude, Inis 152
Clausewitz, Karl von 17, 578, 774
Clemenceau, Georges 5
climate change 259
and balancing interests 84
as diplomatic issue 13
(p. 908) climate diplomacy 840
and Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action 847
and architecture of climate change negotiations 840–1
and Bali Roadmap 847
and Cancún Agreements (2010) 847
and club diplomacy 843, 850
and Copenhagen Accord (2009) 847, 850–1, 852
and dual track process 847
and dysfunctional nature of 848
diplomatic leadership 849–50
framing climate diplomacy 850–1
institutional framework 848–9
UN model of inclusive multilateralism 851–2
and early phases of 842–3
and effectiveness of diplomacy 841
and impasse over processes of 846
and Kyoto Protocol (1997) 845–6
Buenos Aires Plan of Action 845
entry into force of (2004) 846
Marrakesh Accords (2001) 846
and leaders’ role in 37–8
and multilevel nature of 841–2
and non-governmental organizations 842
and soft power 842
and United Nations 840
calls for convention on climate change 842–3
Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee 841, 843–4
and United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 840, 841
adoption of 844
Berlin Mandate 845
disputes over implementation 844–5
negotiation of 844
origins of 842–4
provisions of 844
Clinton, Bill 307
and International Criminal Court 94, 95
and Ottawa Process 100, 805, 806
Clinton Global Initiative 12
Clinton, Hillary 73, 104, 210
and China and Google 206
and civilian power 102
and digital diplomacy 457
and enhanced role of diplomacy 64–5
and real-politik 43
and smart power 572
Clooney, George 43
club diplomacy 22, 23–5, 429, 430, 638, 686
as anachronism 23
and climate diplomacy 843, 850
and commission diplomacy 299
and G20 37
and opposition to 23–4
and refugee diplomacy 686–7
and resilience of 59–62
and security 590
and sports diplomacy 721
international sports organizations 710–11
use of sport by states 711–14
and summit diplomacy 36
and trade diplomacy 637
Club of Rome 765
cluster munitions 603
Cluster Munitions Convention (CMC) (2008) 595, 596
CNN 425, 564
and CNN effect 211
and soft power 548
Coalition for the International Criminal Court (CICC) 101, 753, 754
coalitions:
and coalition behaviour 325
and intergovernmental organizations 147–8
in World Trade Organization 632–7, 863–5, 870–7
Cobden, Richard 625
Cohen, Elliot 836
Cohen, Raymond 274
Cohen, Roberta 766–7
Cold War 94
and arms control 593
and defence diplomacy 370
and disarmament diplomacy 598–600
Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty (1972) 599
(p. 909) Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (1972) (BWC) 599
Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty (1987) 600
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) 598–9
Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT) (1963) 598
peace movement 599, 600
Salt I Interim Agreement (1972) 599
Salt II (1979) 599
and end of 7
and human rights 662
and mutually assured destruction 580
and proxy wars 323
and sports diplomacy 711–12
and summit diplomacy 303 see also Cuban missile crisis (1962)
collaborative governance 103
collective security, and League of Nations 582
Colvin, Richard 17
commercial attachés 476
commercialization, and diplomacy 42
commission diplomacy 20, 278
and characteristics of commissions 278
and club diplomacy 299
and determinants of success 289–90
advocacy and follow-up 296–7
branding and packaging 296
clarity of objectives 290–1
consultation 294–5
leadership 291–2
membership 292–4
ownership 297–8
recommendations 295–6
staffing and resources 294
timing 298
and functions of commissions 765
and future of 298–9
learning from experience 299
motives for creating commissions 299
and impact of 279
adding to store of knowledge 289
normative impact 287–9
operational impact 279–87
raising profile of issues 289
and impact of commissions 278–9
and international policy commissions and panels (1960–2010) 280–6
and network diplomacy 299
and short history of independent commissions 764–5
Commission for Africa (2005, 2010)300n3
Committee on Payment and Settlement Systems 169
Commonwealth Games 719–20
Commonwealth of Nations 10, 18
communicable diseases, and health diplomacy 694–6
communication skills:
and modern diplomacy 234
and necessity of 63
Community of Sant’Egidio 322
complexity management:
and multilateral diplomacy 144
and nature of modern diplomacy 23
and network diplomacy 6
Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) (1996) 600–1, 811, 815, 816, 817
Concert of Europe 5, 9, 144, 581–2
conference diplomacy 20, 263
and civil society groups 266
and defence diplomacy 379–80
and definition of 266
and global conferences 267–9, 274–5
assessment of 275–6
environmental issues 268
identifying new issue areas 268
implementation 268
norm creation 268
outcomes of 269, 272
periods of 275
purpose of 268
responding to new developments 268
review conferences 268, 272
and global problems 266–7, 274
nature of 267
in the long 19th century 263–6
(p. 910) and negotiations
defining problem 272
finding a solution 272
process of 273–4
selling solution to principals 272–3
and non-governmental organizations 271, 275
and process of 269–72
calling a conference 269
chair 270
consensus 270, 274–5
delegations to 270–1
Friends of the Chair 270
meetings 271
non-governmental organizations (NGOs) 271
outcomes of 272
preparatory committee (PrepCom) 269–70
secretary-general 270
as systemic international factor 275 see also summit diplomacy
Conference of American Armies 379
Conference of Central American Armed Forces (CFAC) 379
Conference of Defence Ministers of the Americas 379
Conference on Disarmament (CD) 595
confidentiality 109, 114
and threats to secure communication 523–4
conflict, and causes of 338
conflict resolution:
and multilateral diplomacy 118–19, 250
and transitional justice 348–9 see also mediation; negotiation
conflict situations, and role of civil society groups 187
Confucian Institutes 426
Confucianism, and soft power 545
Congress of South African Trades Unions (COSATU) 204
conquest, and renunciation of 581–2
consensus:
and conference diplomacy 270, 274–5
and decision-making in IGOs 145
consular affairs 48
and administrative and legal functions 516
and ambiguity of 477–8
and assistance and protection function 111–12, 130–1, 478–80, 514–16
travellers’ moral hazard 481
and challenge facing 487–8
and changing role of the state 486–8
and commercial assistance 478–80, 481
motives for 485
and consular governance 487–8
and consular relations without diplomatic relations 476–7
and cost-effectiveness of consulates 484
and diplomacy:
blurring of distinction 488
conditions for exercising diplomatic functions 514
consular diplomacy 482–3
consular functions 483
economic diplomacy 484
narrowing gap between 486
political diplomacy 484
public diplomacy 484
relationship between 482–4
visa diplomacy 483
and diplomatic character of 473
and expansion of sites of consular activity 481
and goals of consular activities 485
and historical overview of development of consular institution 475–7
and honorary consuls 131, 480
and international crisis assistance 479
and international law, Humberto Leal Garcia case 477
and lack of international legal framework 476
and network diplomacy 486
and political agenda-setting 487
and practical nature of 473
and provision on behalf of another state 477
and public and political pressure for provision of 480–1
and rise in attention to and status of 473–4
(p. 911) and scope of consular functions 474, 475, 480, 513–14
distinction from diplomatic functions 516–17
and state's monopoly over 476
and tension between national and individual interests 474, 481–2, 486–7, 488 see also diplomatic missions; Vienna Convention on Consular Relations (1963)
consultation, and commission diplomacy 294–5
Consumer Project on Technology 632
Contact Group 344
Convention against Torture and Cruel, Inhumane and Degrading Treatment 669
Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW) 595, 800, 802
Convention on Cluster Munitions (2008) 806
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) 183
Convention on the Law of the Sea 249–50, 252
Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (1948) 763
Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations (1946) 5
Convention on the Prohibition on the Use, Stockpiling, Production, and Transfer of Anti-Personnel
Mines, see Ottawa Treaty
Convention on the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa 676
Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees 675–6
and non-refoulement 680
Copenhagen Climate Change Conference (2009) 37, 46, 120, 840
and Copenhagen Accord 847, 850–1, 852
and failure of 252, 257–8
Cordier, Andrew 833
Cordovez, Diego 781
corporate social responsibility (CSR) 203
Costa Rica, and economic development 413–15
Costa Rican Investment Promotion Agency (CINDE) 414–15
Côte d’Ivoire 772–3, 780
and gender-based violence 785
and peacekeeping operations 789–93
interaction with donors 791
interaction with national actors 791
interaction with regional actors 791
mandate for 789–93
multiple external actors 791
political deadlock 792
use of force 792–3
and post-election fragility of 794
Côté-Harper, Giséle 768
cotton, and trade diplomacy 631–2
Coubertin, Pierre de 709, 710
Council of Europe 514
Council on Foreign Relations 883
counter-terrorism, and intelligence co-ordination 115
Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) 719
Cox, Robert 146, 153
credibility, and soft power 568, 569, 570, 571
Crisis Management Initiative (CMI) 343
Croatia 611
Cruyff, Johan 714
Cuba, and United States 421
Cuban missile crisis (1962) 303, 580
and Castro 826–7, 829–30, 835–6
and diplomatic channels 831–4
back-channel diplomacy 832–3
broadcast diplomacy 831–2
freelance diplomacy 833–4
private diplomacy 832
and diplomatic phases:
pre-discovery phase 828
private week 828–9
public week 829–30
November crisis 830
clean-up phase 830–1
and faulty relationship management 826
and improved US-Soviet communications 831
and lessons for diplomacy 836–7
clear communication 836
cultivating empathy 836
importance of time 837
trust 836–7
and NATO 834
(p. 912) and neglect of role of diplomacy in 826
and Organization of American States 835
and outline of 826–7
and quarantine of Cuba 505, 827
and successful crisis management 826
and unfinished business of 831
and United Nations 834–5
and withdrawal of missiles from Turkey 827, 830, 832, 833, 834
Cull, Nicholas 246n5
cultural diplomacy 65, 126–7, 234–5
and broadcasting 424–5
and Cold War 421
and context of 422–5
and cultural exchanges 421, 571
and definition of 420, 426
and diverse approaches to 419
and globalization 422–3
and government's role in 425–9
debate over 427
impact on credibility 427–8
official/unofficial activities 427
and humanizing role of 421
as insurance policy 431–2
and language instruction 432
and limits of 432–3
difficulty in measuring success of 433
long-term nature of 432
and media coverage 425
and multilateral dimension 425
and mutual understanding 421, 422, 433
and network diplomacy 429–30
and popular culture 424
and practice of 430
connection 430–1
consistency 431–2
innovation 432
and premises of 419–20
and private philanthropists 427
and public diplomacy 420
relationship between 421–2
and role of 419, 421–2
and soft power 235, 420
and sports diplomacy 712–13
and translation 432
culture:
and definition of 573n17
and negotiation 330
as power resource 567
Cummings, Milton 420, 433
cyber diplomacy 48
cyber security 48
Dahl, Robert 545
Dai Bingguo 895
d’Aragon, Charles Henri 137
Darfur 363, 748, 751, 757, 773
and policy paralysis over 9
DATA (Debt, AIDS, Trade, Africa) 170
Dauth, John 138
Davis, Raymond 43
Davutoglu, Ahmet 41
Dayton Peace Agreement 611
de Gaulle, Charles 38, 834
debt relief:
and economic diplomacy 395–6
and strategic framing by civil society groups 181
Decembrist revolt 545
decision processes, and intergovernmental organizations 145
decisional analysis, and negotiations 326–8
game theory 326–7
problems with 327–8
decolonization 7, 405
defence diplomacy:
and business and logistics 380
and Chile 377–8
and Cold War 370
and definition of 369
and educational exchanges 378–9
and goals of 374
and historical origins of 369–70, 374
and international conferences 379–80
and Latin America 371
and military attachés 131, 370, 375–6
growth in numbers of 376
roles of 374, 376
and network diplomacy 373, 381
and new conception of 374–5
and organization of armed forces 375
and peacekeeping operations 376–8
(p. 913) and public diplomacy 373, 374
and United States 370–1
defence ministries, and hard power 373
Dembinski, Ludwig 123
democracy, and peace 321
Democratic People's Republic of Korea 431, 811, 812, 813, 821, 822, 823
democratization, and impact on modern diplomacy 61
Deng, Francis M 766–7, 771
Deng Xiaoping 887, 889
Denza, E 516
D’Escoto Brockmann, Miguel 772
Desert Storm, Operation 800–1
deterrence 580
developing countries. and trade diplomacy 627
coalitions 633–7, 863–5
development, and growing prominence in World Trade Organization 862
Dewey Ballantine 42
Dhanapala, Jayantha 817–18
Diana, Princess of Wales 100, 104, 805
diasporas 14–15
and bilateral diplomacy 236
and conflict resolution 346
Diefenbaker, John 834
digital diplomacy 453
and adapting to use of new media 456–7
and adoption of 453–4
and benefits of 458
and blogs 454–5
and challenge of 453
and impact of the Internet 454–5
and leaders in 457
and necessity of mastering techniques of 454
and the noosphere 460–1
and overcoming resistance to 459
and potential of 459
inward focused applications 460
outward focused applications 459
and suspicion of the new media 458–9
and United Kingdom 457
and United States 457
Dimitrov, Radoslav S 850–1
diplomacy 881
and actors involved in 6–7
civil society 10–12, 42, 99–101
expansion of 55, 57
international organizations 8–10
multinational corporations 12
states 7–8
and apparatus of 15–18
domestic/foreign policy boundaries 17–18
foreign ministries 15–16
non-foreign ministries 16, 40, 61
resident missions abroad 16–17
and balance of interests 21, 58
and centralization 36, 37
and changes in 5–6, 405–7, 416, 528n40
apparatus and machinery 15–18
challenges posed by 24–5
issues 12–15
level of diplomatic activity 15
modes, types and techniques 18–20
number and types of actors 6–12
qualitative nature of 57
and changing nature of power 120
and club diplomacy 22, 23–5
resilience of 59–62
and complexity of 36, 57
and confidentiality 109, 114
and critical importance of 22
and definition of 2, 3, 106, 386, 426, 813
broader conception of 41–3
and domestic client base 47–8
and duality of 35, 40, 49
and early history of 3–5
and features of 404
and foreign policy:
distinction between 2
instrument of 881
and global governance 24, 44–7
challenge of 57–9
and globalization 15, 54–6, 407
and integrative approaches to 601–2
and international law 505–6
(p. 914) and interwar (1918–39) innovations 5
and issues addressed by:
changes in 12–15, 406
economic and financial 14
environmental issues 13
expansion of 25–6
health 14
human rights 13
internal conflict 12–13
migration and population movement 14–15
and leader-centred 36, 37–9
as learning process 881
and modes of:
celebrity diplomacy 19–20
commissions 20
conference diplomacy 20
multilateral diplomacy 19
nuclear diplomacy 19
paradiplomacy 19
public diplomacy 20
shuttle diplomacy 18
summits 18
Track Two diplomacy 18–19
and ‘mystery’ of 44–5
and national interest 21
and nature of traditional 455–6
and need for 25
and network diplomacy 23, 24–5, 62–3
central task of 65
failure to adapt to 62
and new model of 67
and origins of word 3
and purposes of 20–1, 493–4
expanded conception of 43–7
global governance 44–7
new model of 67
state-centric objectives 43–4
and reinvention 37
and relevance of diplomatic skills 108
and separatist (pluralist) view of 670–1
and service orientation of 47–8
and skills required for 2, 63, 135, 232–3
qualities of a successful envoy 136–7
and solidarist view of 671–2
as whole-of-government enterprise 26, 115
diplomatic body 3
diplomatic immunity 4, 43, 519–20
and origins of 122
and possible limitations on 522
and waiving of 522
diplomatic missions:
and accreditation of diplomatic agents 511
and changing role of 135
and consular diplomacy 48
and consulates 123
honorary consuls 131
migration and visas 130
role and functions 124
services to nationals abroad 111–12, 130–1
and establishment of 511
and functions of 512
changes in 512–13
distinction from consular functions 516–17
and future of 137–8
and intelligence services 115, 131–2
of international organizations 124
to international organizations 124, 132
and ‘localitis’ 16–17
and origins of 4, 55, 122–3
and policy formulation 237
and prestige 134
and proliferation of 133
and promotion of one's country 230
and qualities of a successful envoy 136–7
and rationalization of 133
and role of 16–17
and services to nationals abroad 111–12, 130–1, 230
and summit diplomacy 123 see also bilateral diplomacy; consular affairs; embassies; foreign service; Vienna Convention on
Diplomatic Relations (1961)
diplomatic relations, and establishment of 511
disarmament diplomacy 606–7
and advances in networked communications 595–6
and advances in weapons technologies 595–6, 597
(p. 915) and broad range of approaches to 594
and changes in public attitudes 595, 597
and changing contexts of 597
and civil society networks 595, 600, 602, 603
and Cold War 598–600
Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty (1972) 599
Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (1972) (BWC) 599
Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty (1987) 600
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) 598–9
Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT) (1963) 598
peace movement 599, 600
Salt I Interim Agreement (1972) 599
Salt II (1979) 599
and determinants of 597
and feminist and anti-militarist perspectives 597, 599
and goals of 811
and Hague Peace Conferences (1899, 1907) 597
and humanitarian-centred disarmament 596–7, 602–3
and influences on states’ behaviour 597
and integrative diplomacy 601–2
and meaning of 593
and non-proliferation 593, 594
and Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty 593–4
and post-cold-war initiatives 595
and post-Cold War period 600–1
Chemical Weapons Convention (1993) 600
Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) 600–1
and post-First World War period 597–8
and Presidential Nuclear Initiatives (1990–91) 594–5
and review process negotiations 595
and tactics 603–4
bridging and trading 605
bypassing obstacles 605–6
cognitive 605
concealment 604
defection and linkage 604–5
delaying 604
distributive 604
integrative 603–4
and transnational criminals 595, 602
discretion, and impact of communication technology 5
Dobrynin, Anatoly 829, 832
Doctors Without Borders 151
Doha development agenda (DDA) 127, 250, 399, 626, 632, 857–8
and ambitious nature of 868
and centrality of development 862
and changes in internal working of World Trade Organization 860–2
and coalition diplomacy of developing countries 863–5
difficulty in making concessions 864
improved influence of 864
and deadlock in 857, 858
coalition diplomacy 863–5
disengagement of developed world 866–7
encouraging protectionism 859–60
normative framing 865
persistence of 858–9
reasons for 868–9
turn to regional agreements 859
and diplomatic solutions to deadlock 869
and disengagement of developed world 866–7
and impact of global financial crisis867–8
and narrowing agenda of 866
and normative framing 865
and United States 866, 867 see also World Trade Organization (WTO)
Domínguez, Jorge 831
Dorfman, Ariel 430
Dowding, Keith 572n5
Drummond, Eric 664
Dunant, Henri 74, 354
Dunn, Lewis 816
Durrell, Lawrence 140n21
Dyilo, Thomas Lubanga 751, 756
Dyke, Greg 202
(p. 916) e-diplomacy,see digital diplomacy
East Asia:
and public diplomacy 442, 443, 445
and regional trade diplomacy 629
East Asia Summit 306
East Timor 611, 612, 614, 618, 620, 772
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) 132, 779
and Monitoring Group (ECOMOG) 132
and peacekeeping operations 780
economic development:
and policy implementation 415–16
and Singapore 412–13
Economic Development Board (EDB) (Singapore) 412–13
economic diplomacy 385
and definition of 385–6, 387
and domestic decision-making 389–90
complexity of 390
and globalization 387–8
and grand strategy 387
and increased importance of 387–8
and international finance 394–5
debt relief 395–6
global financial crisis (2008–9) 397–9
private sector financial crises 396–7
summit diplomacy 394–5
and international negotiations:
multi-level 391
multilateral 390
and international organizations 386
and international trade and investment 391–4
and involvement of private sector bodies 389–90
and political objectives 387
and reconciling domestic and international policy objectives 386
and (secondary) role of foreign ministry 389
and trends in 398–400
emerging economies 399
regional and bilateral approaches 399–400
regulatory reform 400
and voluntary and binding relations 386–7 see also finance diplomacy; trade diplomacy and promotion
Ecuador 630
education, and soft power 547–8, 550
Egeland, Jan 667
Egypt, and Al-Jazeera 221–2
criticism of 217
Eisenhower, Dwight D 781
Eizenstat, Stuart E 80–1
Ekeus, Rolf 815
El Salvador 664, 712
embassies:
and creating goodwill 126–7
cultural links 126–7
hospitality 126
public speaking 126, 235
sport 127
and development assistance 129–30
and diplomatic reporting 125, 232
herd instinct 126
and finance diplomacy 128
and functions of 124–5
and future of 137–8
and intelligence services 131–2
and joint embassies 134
and ‘localitis’ 16–17, 126
and migration and visas 130
and military attaché 131
and non-resident ambassador 134
and political relations 125–6
and prestige 134
and security liaison 132
and specialized economic functions 132
and staff of 123
local staff 123–4
and trade diplomacy 127
and trade promotion 128–9 see also diplomatic missions
embedded liberalism 165–6
emerging economies:
and finance diplomacy 170
empathy, and diplomacy 836
Enda Tiers Monde 632
Enduring Freedom, Operation 786
English language, and soft power 550, 555
environmental issues:
(p. 917) and agenda-setting by civil society groups 180
and diplomacy 13, 406
and global conferences 268
and sports diplomacy 719 see also climate diplomacy
Esfandiari, Golnaz 212
Estonia 59
Esty, D 633
European Commission 146, 313
European Convention on Consular Functions (1967) 514
European Council 18, 306, 313
European Court of Human Rights 118
and freedom of the press 524
European Economic Community 628
European External Action Service (EEAS) 447
European Free Trade Association 628
European Parliament 143
European Payments Union 166
European Union (EU) 10, 119, 252
and Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) 253
and banking regulation 398
and food aid 643, 650
and Gazprom 205
and International Criminal Court 756–7
and Kosovo peace negotiations 347
and mediation 339
and public diplomacy 439, 441, 447
and sovereign debt crisis 398
Evans, Gareth 765, 767, 768, 769
Evans, Roy 715–16
Evans-Sahnoun Commission (2001) 292
Evenett, Simon 859–60, 868
Evian Conference (1938) 678–9, 686
exchange rate system 394–5
expediency, and principles 117–18
experts, and agenda-setting 180
Falk, Richard 802
Falkner, Robert 841, 851
Fanfani, Amintore 834
Fédèration Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) 61, 710, 721
Fédèration Internationale de Gymnastique (FIG) 710
Fédèration Internationale de Ski 715
Fei Xiaotong 556
Feklisov, Aleksandr 833–4
Ferguson, Niall 566
Fernández, Mariano 378
Figueres, Christiana 847
finance diplomacy 128, 160
in 1918 to early 1930s period 160–2
advice to foreign governments 161–2
Brussels Financial Conference (1920) 161
central bank cooperation 161
central bank creation 162
central bankers 162
debt negotiations 162
employees of international institutions 163
finance ministry officials 162
Genoa Conference (1922) 161
private financiers 163
in Bretton Woods era 164–7
central bank cooperation 166–7
collapse of Bretton Woods system 167
creating of international financial institutions 165
embedded liberalism 165–6
rule-based multilateralism 166
wider scope of activities 166
and changes in:
broadened scope of 171
diplomatic techniques 171–2
participants in 171
in financial globalization era 167–71
civil society groups 170
crisis management 169
emerging market countries 170
Financial Stability Board 169
‘G’ groupings 167–8
macroeconomic coordination 167–8
network governance 168
private financiers 169–70
regulation and standards 168–9
wider scope of activities 167
and shared world view of finance officials 172
finance ministries, and relations with foreign ministries 128
(p. 918) financial crises 128
and Asian crisis 730–1
as diplomatic issue 14
and economic diplomacy 396–7
and impact of 58–9
and management of 169
and Mexican crisis (1993–4) 730 see also global financial crisis (2008–9)
financial regulation, and global coordination of 737–9
Financial Stability Action Programme 396–7
Financial Stability Board (FSB) 24–5, 169, 398, 738–9
Financial Stability Forum (FSF) 396, 738
Finnemore, M 146, 151, 154
First World War 58, 578, 582
and impact on practice of diplomacy 5
Flaherty, Jim 892
Food Aid Convention 645–6, 647, 655
and food crisis (2007–8) 652–3
and revised agreement 653–4
food aid diplomacy 646–7
and challenges facing 654
and Consultative Subcommittee on Surplus Disposal 644
and donor governments 643
and Food Aid Convention 645–6, 647, 655
food crisis (2007–8) 652–3
revision of 653–4
and Food and Agriculture Organization 644, 648
Committee on World Food Safety 648
and food crisis (2007–8) 651–3, 655
and fragmentation of governance of 643, 654
and growth of actors involved in 643
and international agreements 643–4
and trends in 647–51
1970s 648
1980s–1990s 648–9
controversy over tied aid 650–1
early programmes 647–8
emergency aid 649
genetically modified organisms (GMOs) 649–50
non-state actors 648–9
political considerations 648
World Food Conference (1974) 648
and World Food Programme 644–5, 655
Committee on Food Aid Policies and Programmes (CFA) 648
food crisis (2007–8) 652
and World Trade Organization Agreement on Agriculture 646–7
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 150, 636
and Committee on World Food Security 648
and Consultative Subcommittee on Surplus Disposal 644
and World Food Conference (1974) 648
Food Assistance Convention 653–4
food security:
and Africa 736
and food crisis (2007–8) 642
and fragmentation in global governance 642–3
and global hunger levels 642
and increased attention to 642 see also food aid diplomacy
Ford, Gerald 730
foreign aid:
and balancing interests 83
and dependency 613
and soft power 553–4 see also food aid
foreign ministers:
and continued need for 107
and demands on 103
and diminished independent role 112
and diplomatic role of 40–1
and heightened profile of 40–1
and personal diplomacy 103–4
and relationship with head of government 98, 112
and role of 91
foreign ministries:
and balancing short-term pressures and long-term objectives 109
and confidentiality 109, 114
and continued need for 107–8
and coordination of intergovernmental interactions 115–16
and criticisms of 60
(p. 919) and decline in resources 24, 56, 59–60, 62, 110, 240
and desk officers’ functions 239–40
and domestic influence of 108
and economic diplomacy 389
and efficient management of 237
and external pressures on 61
and foreign service:
control of 110
distinction between 109
professional cadre 109
retention of 109–10
and functional/thematic approaches of 239
and geographic approaches of 238–9
and intelligence activities 115
and internal pressures on 61
and international organizations 119
and legislatures, relationship with 117
and loss of influence of 16, 40, 236–7, 242
and managing public interface 109
and multilateral diplomacy 118–20
and network diplomacy, failure to adapt to 62
and non-state actors 117
and political/professional cooperation 109
and pressures on 121
and public opinion 114
and relations with finance ministries 128
and relationship with other ministries 115–16
and relationship with overseas posts 110
and role of 15–16
and services to nationals abroad 111–12
and soft power 373
and special representatives 113
and structural inadequacies 230
and structure and organization of 108
and vertical structure of 238
foreign policy:
and balancing expediency and principle 117–18
and blurring of domestic/foreign policy boundaries 17–18
and coordination of trade and foreign policy 407–8
and development of 244–5
and diplomacy, distinction between 2
and domestic politics 405
and economic relations 405
and head of government's responsibility for 92, 93, 112
American president 94–6
Canadian prime minister 97–8
and legislatures 116–17
Foreign Policy Centre 437
foreign service:
and decline in resources 110
and fast-track systems 238
and foreign ministries:
controlled by 110
distinction between 109
and loss of capability 110
and professional cadre 109
and retention of 109–10
Forges, Alison des 670
forum-shopping 149
Foucault, Michel 547
framing, and issue framing by civil society groups 181
France:
and Afghanistan 787
and landmines campaign 803
Franck, Tom 497
Franco-Czechoslovakian Treaty (1924) 581
Francophonie 18
Frederick II 578
Free Aceh Movement (GAM) 343
free trade, and national interest arguments 83
Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) 886
freedom of the press 524
French, Joshua 487
Friedman, Thomas 211, 416, 423
Fry, Greg 684
Fuentes, Carlos 235
Fukuyama, Francis 55
Fulbright Program 427
Fullilove, Michael 81
Fundación para las Relaciones Internacionales y el Diálogo Exterior (FRIDE) 784
and Afghanistan 785–7
(p. 920) G system, and brief history of 729–30
G2 39
G5 394, 730
G6 730
G7 394, 730
and establishment as an institution 395
and Financial Stability Forum 169, 738
and special representatives (Sherpas) 113
G8 18, 395, 730
G20 18, 37
as ad hoc group 254
and avoiding bureaucratization 734–5
and BRIC countries 891, 892–4, 895
and China 892, 893
and club diplomacy 37
and common good 739
and creation of 55
as crisis responder 734
and criticism of 735
and dynamics of change in diplomacy 36–7
and emergence of 103, 397–8
and Finance Ministers G20 730–2
African under-representation 731–2
informal discussions 732
membership criteria 732
origins of 730–1
and Financial Stability Action Programme 396–7
and Financial Stability Board 24–5, 169, 398, 738–9
and Financial Stability Forum 396
and food security and African infrastructure 736
and global coordination of financial regulation 737–9
and global responsibility of 734
as global steering committee 734
and Leaders’ G20 733–5
and leaders’ role 37
and multi-level diplomacy 398
and multipolar world 742–3
and Mutual Assessment Process (MAP) 168
and national sovereignty 739–41, 743
and origins of 733
and porous nature of 39
and reactions to 45
and scope of issues addressed by 734
and success of 251, 254
G77, and formation of 148
Gaddafi, Muammar 446, 757, 772
Gambari, Ibrahim 133
game theory, and negotiations 326–8
Gandhi, Sonia 118
Garcia, Marco Aurelio 895
Gard, Lieutenant-General Robert 801
Gates, Bill 43, 195, 427, 701
Gates Foundation 43, 77, 701
Gates, Melinda 43, 701
Gaviria, Cesar 300n3
Gazprom 205
Gbagbo, Laurent 772–3, 792
Gebauer, Thomas 798
Geertz, Clifford 573n17
Geithner, Tim 169
gender:
and gender-based violence 785
and peacekeeping operations 784–5
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 127
and decision-making 627–8
green-room process 628
and Kennedy Round (1964–7) 858
and Tokyo Round (1973–9) 858
and Uruguay Round (1986–94) 392, 393, 628, 638, 858 see also World Trade Organization
genetically modified organisms (GMOs) 406
and European Union-USA trade dispute 630, 649
and food aid 649–50
‘Geneva, Curse of’ 857
Geneva Accords (1988) 781–2
Geneva Conventions 187, 598, 661, 667, 673n2, 800
Geneva Diplomatic Conference (1974–77) 661
Geneva Economic Conference (1927) 265
Geneva Protocol (1925) 598
Geneva summit (1961) 303
Genoa Conference (1922) 161
Gentz, Friedrich von 269
Geradin, D 633
(p. 921) Germany, and public diplomacy 440
Ghannouchi, Rached 219
Gibraltar 714
Giscard D’Estaing, Valéry 730
Gleneagles summit (2005) 308–9, 396
Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect 764
Global Commission on Drug Policy (2011) 300n2
Global Commission on Elections, Democracy and Security (2011) 300n2
global financial crisis (2008–9) 55
and Brazil 891
and BRIC countries 883–4, 891–2
and Doha Round 867–8
and economic diplomacy 397–9
and global coordination of financial regulation 737–9
and impact of 59, 883
and India 891–2
and multilateral diplomacy 251
Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria 695
global governance:
and challenge of 57–9
and diplomacy 24, 44–7
challenge faced by 57–9
and fragmentation of 642–3
and globalization, disconnect between 56
and summit diplomacy 305
and trade 627–30
global South:
and human rights diplomacy 661
and trade diplomacy 626, 633
coalitions in WTO 633–7
Global War on Terror (GWOT) 8, 81, 440, 465, 588, 669, 746, 748, 779
global warming, as diplomatic issue 13 see also climate diplomacy
globalism:
and challenge to nation state 55
and globalization, distinction between 55
and nature of 423
and new international order 58
globalization:
and contradictory attitudes towards 742–3
and cultural diplomacy 422–3
and economic diplomacy 387–8
and expanded role of non-state actors 406–7
and global governance, disconnect between 56
and globalism:
distinction between 55
nature of 423
and health diplomacy 692
and impact on diplomacy 15, 54–6, 407
and internationalization 56
and new international order 58
and simultaneity 56
and sovereignty 739–41
Goethe Institute 426, 440
Goh Chok Tong 253
Goldsmith, Jack 505, 506
Goldstein, Irving 209
Goodin, Robert E 677
Google 205–6
Goose, Stephen 801
Gorbachev, Mikhail 80, 288, 594, 600
Gore, Al 817
Goulart, Joao 885
governance, and government 58
government:
and business:
Africa 411–12
Costa Rica 413–15
developing human capital 410
information sharing 409–10
policy planning and advice 410
promoting civil society 410
relations between 404, 409
sharing expertise and experience 409
Singapore 412–13
and governance 58
Gowan, Richard 787
Graham, Bill 768
Graham, Thomas, Jr 816
Gray, General Alfred 801
Greek city-states 3–4, 20, 67, 475
and alliances 581
Greenham Common Women's Peace Camp 600
(p. 922) Greenpeace 11, 12, 77, 847
Grey, Sir Edward 251
Gromyko, Anatoly 828–9
Guantanamo detention facility 183, 470, 571, 665, 666, 669
Guatemala 772
Guinea-Bissau 619
Gulf Cooperation Council 629
H1N1 crisis 46, 259
Haas, Peter 841, 850, 852
Haass, Richard 769
Haddad, Emma 677
Hague Peace Conference (1899) 9, 264–5, 597, 673n2
Hague Peace Conference (1907) 9, 265, 597, 673n2
Hague, William 245n4, 457
Haig, Alexander 370
Haigh, A 426
Haiti, and Multinational Interim Force for Haiti (MIFH) 377–8
Halonen-Mkapa Commission (2004) 292
Hamburg, David 288
Hamilton, Lee 768
Hammarskjöld, Dag 132, 153, 260, 781, 782, 802
Handicap International 799, 800
Hankey, Sir Maurice 265
hard power 545
and definition of 373
and resources associated with 564
Harper, Stephen 97, 103
Harris, Stuart 407–8
Harsanyi, John 559
Hart, H L A 494
Hasenclever, Andreas 687
Hayward, Tony 199
He Yafei 40
heads of government:
and advisory staff 112
and diplomatic role 36, 37–8
and relationship with foreign minister 98, 112
and responsibility for foreign policy 92, 93, 112
American president 94–6
Canadian prime minister 97–8
and sports diplomacy 38, 716–17
and summit diplomacy 36, 305, 308, 316
and trade diplomacy 38–9, 129
health diplomacy 14, 40
and celebrity diplomacy 700
and communicable diseases 694–6
and contexts for 693
and definition of 693
and divergent perspectives on 692–3
and future of 704–5
and globalization 692
and growth of interest in 691, 692
and health-system capacity problems 698
and intergovernmental organizations 700
and neglect of 691
and non-communicable diseases and health harms 696–8
and non-governmental organizations 700–1
and non-state actors 700–1
and philanthropic foundations 701
and principles of 702–3
and problems addressed by:
definition of health 693–4
expansion of 694
and processes 701–2
and reputation 46
and social determinants of health 698–9
as soft power 703–4
and states 699–700
Health Organization of the League of Nations 700
hegemonic stability theory 72
Heine, Jorge 35, 221, 596
Held, David 45
Helms, Jesse 95
Helsinki Accord (1974) 668
Helsinki Watch 668
Helton, Arthur C 685
Herby, Peter 801
Hersh, Seymour 455
Hezbollah 359
High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges, and Change (2004) 287, 288, 293, 619, 765, 770, 783
(p. 923) Hillier, General Rick 97
Hiroshima 598, 811
Hitler, Adolf 578, 714
HIV/AIDS 695
and network diplomacy 155–6
Hobbes, Thomas 580, 586, 590
Hoekman, Bernard 864
Holbrooke, Richard 40
Holeman, Frank 833
Holy Alliance 264
Honduras 712
Hong Kong:
and digital diplomacy 457
and HSBC 204–5
honorary consuls 131
hospitality, and embassies 126
Howard, John 682, 684
HSBC 204–5
Hu Jintao 568, 887–8, 893, 895
and diplomatic tours 39
and new diplomacy 49
and soft power 544
Huang Jinqi 887, 890
human capital, and development of 410
human rights:
as diplomatic issue 13
and establishment of new norms 659
and gap between theory and practice 659
and Geneva Diplomatic Conference (1974–77) 661
and intergovernmental organization personnel 664–8
discreet diplomacy 667–8
lack of support from member states 665
networking 666
pressure from member states 664–5
public diplomacy 666–7
retaining member state support 665
treaty monitoring 666
and international humanitarian law 660–1
and internationalization of 658–9
and League of Nations 658
and non-governmental organizations 668–70
accuracy of information 669
charges of bias 669
maximizing influence 668
successes and failures 669–70
and recognition in international law 659
and separatist (pluralist) view of diplomacy 670–1
and solidarist view of diplomacy 671–2
and sovereignty 766, 767
and sports diplomacy 719
and states’ diplomacy 660–4
advancing interests and values 661
consideration of domestic reactions 663
domestic political influences661–2, 663
genuine commitment 663–4
sovereignty costs 663
strategic interests 662, 671
and treaty monitoring mechanisms 666
and United Nations Charter 658
and United Nations Conference on Human Rights (Tehran, 1968) 661
and United Nations Human Rights Council 660
Universal Periodic Review 662
and Universal Declaration of Human Rights 659
Human Rights Watch 11, 77, 668, 669, 670
and International Criminal Court 755
and landmines campaign 798, 799, 800
human security 589
Human Security Agenda 467n17
human security network 377, 801, 806–7
humanitarian diplomacy 352, 365–6
and access to populations in need 363–4
and attacks on aid workers 363, 364
and coordination of operations 355
and deconfliction 354–5
and definition of 354–5
and effectiveness of 353
and expectations of 352–3
and growth of 352
and humanitarian negotiation with armed groups 354
and humanitarian reform 364–6
broadening partnerships 365
cluster approach 365
funding 365–6
motives for 363–5
recruitment of coordinators 365
(p. 924) and Indian Ocean tsunami (2004) 355–6
initial reactions to 355–6
leadership of relief coordination 356–7
lessons learned from 359
outcomes of 358
political challenges 357
political divisions in Sri Lanka 358
and Lebanon (2006) 359–61
humanitarian corridors 360
humanitarian truce proposal 360–1
and limitations of 353
and military intervention 766, 774
and obstacles to humanitarian work 363–4
and organizations involved in 352
and principles of humanitarian action 354
and progress in 361–2
and regional actors 363
and sovereignty 765–6
and Westernized humanitarianism 362–3 see also Responsibility to Protect (R2P)
humanitarian intervention 765–6, 768 see also Responsibility to Protect (R2P)
Huntington, Samuel 219, 321, 556
Hurley, Dan 102
Hurrell, Andrew 882
Husband, Jon 466n5
Hussein, Saddam 75, 81, 493, 769
Huygens, C 428
Hyder, M 155
Ibero-American Summits 313
IBSA (India, Brazil, South Africa) 886
Iceland, and Afghanistan 787
Ignatieff, Michael 768
Ikenberry, G J 741, 882
immigration, and diplomatic missions 130
implementation of diplomatic agreements, and role of civil society groups 186–8
Independent Diplomat 138
India:
and balance of interests 70–1
and diplomatic tours by leaders 39
and early history of diplomacy 4
and expansion of foreign service 134
and global financial crisis 891–2
and growing power of 8
and inadequate diplomatic capacity 111
and inadequate foreign policy capacity 22
and increasing importance of 103, 110
and media 425
and soft power 127
and Union Carbide 206–7
and World Trade Organization 860–2
presence in all small group meetings 861–2
rising trade shares 861
use of Dispute Settlement Mechanism 861 see also BRICs
Indian Ocean tsunami (2004), and humanitarian diplomacy 355–6
and initial reactions to 355–6
and leadership of relief coordination 356–7
and lessons learned from 359
and outcomes of 358
and political challenges 357
and political divisions in Sri Lanka 358
indigenous peoples, and civil society groups 180
individuals, as diplomatic actors 42, 43
Indonesia 731
and Aceh peace process 343
and Indian Ocean tsunami (2004) 358
inequality, and peacekeeping operations 794
influenza 695
information and communications technology (ICT) 209
and Al-Jazeera 220
and impact on ambassadorial discretion 5
and impact on modern diplomacy 15, 54, 56, 92, 101–2, 209–11, 405–6
Iranian protests (2009) 211–12
and non-democratic governments 211
and origins of 210
and power 562
and public diplomacy 456
and simultaneity 56
and utilization by non-state actors 211 see also digital diplomacy
information, as diplomatic resource 209
(p. 925) innovation, and soft power 549
Institute of International Finance 170
institution building, and soft power 550–1
integrative diplomacy 601–2
intelligence services:
in embassies 131–2
and foreign ministries 115
Intelsat 210
Inter-Agency Committee 365
Inter-American Court on Human Rights 515
Inter-American Development Bank 314
Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees 679
Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee (INC) 841, 843–4
intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) 73–4
and agenda-setting 147
and autonomy of 146
and bilateral diplomacy 143, 150
and bureaucracies/secretariats as diplomatic actors 154–5
and coalition-building 147–8
and decision-making:
consensus 145
voting systems 145
and definition of 142
as diplomatic actors 152–3
executive heads 153–4
international bureaucracies 154–5
as diplomatic arenas 142
and evolution of diplomacy in 143–4
and executive heads 153–4
and forum-shopping 149
as forums 147
impact of characteristics of 148–9
and functions of 143
and global governance 142
and health diplomacy 700
and human rights 664–8
and multilateral diplomacy 143–4
and network diplomacy 155–6
among IGOs 155–6
with outsiders 156
and non-state actors, incorporation of 144
and number of 142
and public diplomacy 446–7
and purposes of 142–3
and regional organizations 143
and regulatory organizations 152
and role of committee chairs 148
and service organizations 150–1
and size of 148
and socializing effects of forum diplomacy 150
and sports diplomacy 719–20
and states, relationship between 145–6
and technical organizations 151–2
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 21, 180, 257, 841
and formation of 156
Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty (1987) 600
internally displaced persons (IDPs) 151, 766–7
International Accounting Standards Board 169
International Action Network on Small Arms (IANSA) 603
International Amateur Athletics Federation (IAAF) 710
International Archery Federation 715
International Association of Athletic Federations (IAAF) 710
International Association of Insurance Supervisors 168–9
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 7, 10, 83, 152, 250, 593, 812
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) 165 see also World Bank
International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) 99–100, 569, 603, 797, 804
and creation of 799
and effectiveness of 799
and reasons for success of 799
International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD) 632, 636
International Chamber of Commerce 203
international civil servants 19
International Commission against the Death Penalty (2010) 300n2
(p. 926) International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty 589
International Commission on Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament (2009) 287, 289, 294, 295,
296
International Commission on State Sovereignty and Intervention (ICISS) 150, 287, 288, 289, 293, 294, 295, 296, 298, 616, 763
and Canada 767–8
and challenge facing 766
and consultations by 769
and convening of 767–8
and Iraq War 769
and mandate of 768
and membership of 768
as norm broker 768
and publication of report 769 see also Responsibility to Protect (R2P)
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) 11, 77, 151, 187, 352, 354
and human rights diplomacy 667–8
and international humanitarian law 661
and landmines campaign 798, 800–1
and Nazi Germany 668, 673n11
and prohibition of certain weapons 800
International Conference on Assessment of the Role of CO2 and other GHGs in Climate Variation and
Associated Impact (1985) 842
International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) 842
International Court of Arbitration 203
International Court of Justice (ICJ) 143
and nuclear disarmament 812
and sources of international law 497
and Vienna Convention on Consular Relations (1963) 515
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and treaty monitoring 666
International Criminal Court (ICC) 118, 745
and African Union 757
and Assembly of States Parties (ASP) 746, 750, 751
organization of 752–3
Special Working Group on the Crime of Aggression 753
working groups 753
and club and network diplomacy 757–8
and Coalition for the International Criminal Court 101, 753, 754
and Court officials 750–1
coordination 752
diplomatic functions 751–2
president 750, 751
prosecutor 750, 751
registrar 750–2
and criticism of:
for discriminatory operations 749
by non-governmental organizations 755
as an e-court 752
and establishment of 663–4, 746
and European Union 756–7
and independent oversight mechanism (IOM) 751
and Kampala Rome Statute Review Conference 748–9
and non-governmental organizations 753–4
bilateral NGO-ICC relations 754–5
as operational extensions of 755–6
role in establishing 101, 749–50
trilateral NGO-state-ICC relations 754
and Rome Statute 101, 746
and state diplomacy 752–3
and states’ motives for joining 747
and structure of 750
and transparency 752
and United Nations 746, 756
and United States 94–5, 746, 747–8
and victim-oriented innovations 755–6
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) 750
International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) 750
International Enterprise (IE) (Singapore) 412–13
International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH) 756
International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies 354
international finance, and economic diplomacy 394–5
debt relief 395–6
(p. 927) global financial crisis (2008–9) 397–8
private sector financial crises 396–7
summit diplomacy 394–5
International Finance Facility for Immunization 695
international financial market, and simultaneity 56
International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) 645
International Grains Council 646, 653
International Health Regulations (IHR) 695
international humanitarian law (IHL) 660–1
and Geneva Diplomatic Conference (1974–77) 661
and landmines campaign 801
International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) 380
International Labour Organization (ILO) 5, 183, 250, 266, 660, 749
and voting system 145
international law:
and conference diplomacy 20
and critical legal studies 504
and customary international law 20
and difference from political understandings 506
and diplomacy 505–6
embodiment of self-interest 506
facilitating diplomatic communication 505
minimizing interstate conflict 506
stable decision-making framework 505–6
and feminist perspective on 504
and human rights 659
and injustice 504
and language-game view of 505
and mainstream conception of 494–500
consent 495, 497
conundrum of 496
customary practice 497–8
function of rules 501–2
Hart's conception of a legal order 494
hierarchy of norms 496–7
interpretation 499–500
normative change 498–9
response to sceptics 495, 496
sources of law 497
and newstream perspective on 503–5
and policy-oriented jurisprudence 500–2
and postmodernism 504–5
and rational choice perspective on 502–3
and scepticism over existence of 494–5
and sovereignty 495–6
and strengthening of 250
and third world perspective on 504
International Law Commission (ILC) 746, 749
International Maritime Organization (IMO) 150, 152
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 7, 119, 731
and autonomous power of 155
and creation of 165
and crisis management 169
central banks 169
and reform of governance 398
and role of 394
and voting system 145
International Olympic Committee (IOC) 709, 714–15, 718
and bureaucratic expansion 721
and conferences hosted by 721
and diplomatic activity of 710–11
and multinational corporations 718
and sub-national relations 720
International Organization of Securities Commission (IOSCO) 168
international organizations (IOs)
and critical roles of 132
as diplomatic actors 8–10, 337
as diplomatic arenas 142
and diplomatic cooperation 630
and economic diplomacy 386
and foreign ministries 119
and global governance 142
and growth in number of 8–9, 337
and network diplomacy 42
and permanent missions to 124, 132
(p. 928) and proliferation of 132
and resident missions of 124
International Parliamentary Association 805
International Platform on Sport and Development 718
International Refugee Organization 679
international relations:
and expanded number of actors 405, 406
and increased importance of economic affairs 405
and media revolution 405–6
and new geopolitical order 7–8, 256–7, 258
and new issues 406
and post-First World War changes in 5
and realist approaches 324, 372, 563
and technology shifts 406
International Rescue Committee (IRC) 785
International Sanitary Conference (1851) 693, 694, 695
International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) 786, 787
international sports organizations (ISOs) 714–16
and bureaucratic expansion 721
and club diplomacy 710–11
and diplomatic roles of 710
and functions of 709–10
and increasing demands on 720
and niche diplomacy 715, 721
and sports diplomacy 709–11
International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF) 715–16, 721
International Task Force on Global Public Goods (2006) 290, 291
International Telecommunications Union (ITU) 152
international trade:
and economic diplomacy 391–4
and growth in intra-regional trade 258
and importance of 406 see also Doha development agenda (DDA); trade diplomacy and promotion; World Trade
Organization (WTO)
International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) 11, 183
internationalization, and globalization 56
Internet:
and impact of 454–5
and modern diplomacy 92
investment, and economic diplomacy 391–4
Iran, and use of social media in protests 211–12
Iraq:
and criticism of Al-Jazeera 217
and disarmament of 594
and invasion of Kuwait 223n23, 493
Iraq War:
and Al-Jazeera's coverage of 217–19
as American foreign policy blunder 81–2
and ex post facto humanitarian justifications for 769
and framing of 564
and illegality of 254
Ireland, and Afghanistan 787
Iskander, Adel 219
Islam 78
Israel 359
Israel-Palestine conflict 255, 584
issue framing, and civil society groups 181
issue linkages:
and negotiation 639
and refugee diplomacy 684–5
Italian city-states 4, 55, 60, 122
Italian Wars (1494–1559), and early history of diplomacy 4
Jacobson, Harold 146, 155
Jacobsson, Per 163
Jakarta conference (2004), and Indian Ocean tsunami 357
Japan:
and China 73
and cultural diplomacy 424
and landmines campaign 804
(p. 929) and public diplomacy 443
and regional trade diplomacy 629
and United States 8
Jiang Zemin 887
Jobs, Steve 550
Joffé, Roland 798
Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development (2002) 178, 649–50, 846
Johnson, Lyndon 831
Jolie, Angelina 43
Jolly, R 155
Jones, Bruce 883
Jordan, and Afghanistan 787
Jubilee 2000 movement 170, 181
justice:
and conflict resolution 348–9
and negotiation 330–1
Kampala Rome Statute Review Conference748–9
Kant, Immanuel 321
Kapuscinski, Ryszard 712
Karlsson-Ramphele Commission (2005) 292
Karzai, Hamid 70
Katzenstein, Peter 422
Kaufmann, Johan 266
Kautilya 4
Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) 582
Kelly, David 202
Kemmerer, Edwin 163
Kemper, Barbara 343
Kennan, George 407
Kennedy, John F 303, 309, 811
and Cuban missile crisis 826, 828–9, 834, 835, 837
back-channel diplomacy 832–3
naval quarantine 505, 827
private diplomacy 832
Kennedy, Liam 427–8
Kennedy, Robert F 828, 829, 832
Kenny, Anthony 572n5
Keohane, Robert O. 372, 373, 545–6
Keynes, John Maynard 164
Khanfar, Wadah 471n54
Khanna, Parag 231
Khrushchev, Nikita 303, 309, 505
and Cuban missile crisis 826, 827, 828, 829–30, 835, 837
back-channel diplomacy 833
private diplomacy 832
Kindleberger, Charles 866
Kirchner, Nestor 310
Kirsch, Philippe 95
Kissinger, Henry 18, 45, 65, 730
and human rights 663
Kjellen, Bo 849
knowledge-building, and network diplomacy 638–9
knowledge innovation, and soft power 549
knowledge society 58
Knox, William 833
Koenders, Bert 794
Koh, Tommy 252, 255
Koizumi, Junichiro 733
Kosovo 611, 612, 614, 617, 618, 620
and NATO intervention 766
Kosovo Commission (2001, 2001) 300n3
Kosovo peace negotiations:
and involvement of regional actors 347
and issues on negotiation agenda 348
and mandate for mediator 344
Kouchner, Bernard 671
Kozlowski, Amanda 882
Krauthammer, Charles 63
Kriesberg, Louis 329
Kristoff, Nicholas 96
Kumalo, Dumisani 138
Kumaratunga, Chandrika 358
Kuperman, Alan 773
Kurds 19
Kuwait:
and criticism of Al-Jazeera 216
and Iraq's invasion of 223n23, 493
Kyoto Protocol (1997) 841, 845–6
and Buenos Aires Plan of Action 845
and entry into force of (2004) 846
and Marrakesh Accords (2001) 846
and Russia 846 see also climate diplomacy
Lake, Anthony 817
Lamy, Pascal 858, 865, 878n2
(p. 930) Langhorne, Richard 41
language, and soft power 550, 555
language instruction, and cultural diplomacy 432
language skills 234
Laqueur, Walter 420, 423, 432
Lasswell, Harold 500–1
Latin America:
and civil-military relations 371
and defence diplomacy 371
and regional integration 371–2
Latin American Commission on Drugs and Democracy (2009) 300n3
Latvia 59
Lavrov, Sergei 793
Le Roy, Alain 783, 788, 793
leaders,see heads of government
leadership:
and climate diplomacy 849–50
and commission diplomacy 291–2
and United Nations (UN) 132–3, 140n25
League of Nations 5, 9, 144, 162, 163, 265–6
and human rights 658
and main purpose of 582
and refugees 677, 678
and renunciation of conquest 582
Leahy, Patrick 798, 799
Leal García, Humberto 477
Lebanon, and humanitarian diplomacy (2006) 359–61
and humanitarian corridors 360
and humanitarian truce proposal 360–1
Lee, Luke T 516
legislatures 116–17
Leguey-Feilleux, Jean-Robert 57, 154
Lehman Brothers crisis 259, 390, 397
Lempkin, Raphael 763
Lennon, Alexander 882
Levant Company 475
Levitte, Jean-David 138–9
Lewis, Flora 799
Li Zhaoxing 888
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) 17
Libya:
and Al-Jazeera 222
criticism of 217
and Responsibility to Protect (R2P) 772
Licklider, Roy 322
Lie, Trygve 664
Liechtenstein Institute on Self-Determination 753
Lindsey, Brink 14
Lindt, Auguste 683
Lithuania 59
Lloyd George, David 5
London G20 summit (2009) 734
London Monetary and Economic Conference (1933) 265
London Olympic Games (1948) 711
Long-Term Capital Management 731
Lord's Resistance Army 585, 748, 751, 754
Los Angeles Olympic Games (1984) 712
Louvre Accord 167
Luck, Edward 293, 296, 301n16, 771
Lukin, Vladimir 768
Lula da Silva, Luiz Inácio 38, 258, 717, 724n34, 885, 886, 891, 893, 894, 895
and diplomatic tours 39
and sports diplomacy 38
Luxembourg, and Afghanistan 787
McCarthy, John 136
McDonald, James G 678
McDougal, Myres 500–1
McFaul, Michael 65
Machiavelli, Nicolo 3, 369, 563
McKinnon, Don 80
Macmillan, Harold 834
McNamara, Robert 764
Make Trade Fair 632
malaria 695
Malaysian Industrial Development Authority 403
Maldives, and diplomatic success of 39
Malinowski, Bronislaw 556
Malloch-Brown, Mark 19
Mandela, Nelson 817
Manley, John 768
Mantega, Guido 891
Manuel, Trevor 732
Mao Zedong 18, 887
Mar del Plata Summit of the Americas (2005) 310, 311
(p. 931) Mark, Simon 420, 426
Markey, David 22
Marrakesh Accords (2001) 846
Marshall, Peter 405, 416
Marshall Plan 166
Martin, Ian 140n25
Martin, Paul 97, 308, 768
on summit diplomacy 303
Mayor, Federico 278
Mbeki, Thabo 412, 789, 793, 817
Médecins Sans Frontières 632
media:
and CNN effect 211
and cultural diplomacy 424–5
and diplomacy between global media firms and governments 200–2
and impact on modern diplomacy 61, 405–6
and network diplomacy 63
and public diplomacy 20
and soft power 548 see also Al-Jazeera
mediation 337–8
and Aceh peace process 342
involvement of regional actors 347
issues on negotiation agenda 347–8
mandate for 343
and definition of 338
and effectiveness of 340
and engaging the conflict parties 344–5
getting right parties at the table 345
involving women in process 345
and evaluative mediation 341
and facilitative mediation 341
and feasibility study and conflict analysis 340–1
and Geneva Accords (1988) 781–2
and growth in use of 337
and issues on negotiation agenda 347–9
balancing past and future 347–8
transitional justice 348–9
and Kosovo peace negotiations:
involvement of regional actors 347
issues on negotiation agenda 348
mandate for 344
and multi-level conflict resolution strategy 346
and multiple actors involved in 339
and Namibia peace negotiations:
engaging local population 346
involvement of regional actors 347
UN mandate 342–3
as part of wider peace process 340
and post-agreement implementation 349
and potential of mediated agreements 349
and reaching beyond negotiating table 346
diasporas 346
engaging local population 346
and regional actors 347
and regional organizations 339
and release of American prisoners in China (1955) 781
and rise in mediated settlements 321–3
and risk from spoilers 346
and role and mandate of the mediator 341–4
clarity of mandate 341, 342–4
as honest broker 342
mediation styles 341
neutrality and impartiality 341–2
profile of mediator 342
and states as mediators 339
and Track One diplomacy 339
and Track Two diplomacy 339–40
advantages of 340
increased importance of 340
limitations of 340
and transformative mediation 341
and United Nations 338
advantages of 338–9
Mediation Support Unit 339 see also negotiation
Medico International 798, 799, 800
Medvedev, Dmitry 894
and diplomatic tours 39
megadiplomacy 231
Melian dialogue (415 BC) 581
Menem, Carlos 307
Merck 203
MERCOSUR 371, 629
Merkel, Angela 38
Merrigan, Bill 414
Metternich, Klemens von 3
Mexican Centre for Economic Research and Development (CIDE) 236
(p. 932) Mexican Council on Foreign Relations (COMEXI) 236
Mexico:
and cultural diplomacy 235
and financial crisis (1993-4) 730
and foreign policy 244
and trade promotion 234
and United States:
consulates in 230, 247n15, 481
relations between 229
Mexico G20 summit (2012) 734
Mexico Olympic Games (1968) 713
micro-states 61
Microsoft 197–8, 199
middle class, and multipolarity 742
migration, as diplomatic issue 14–15
Mikoyan, Anastas 830
Miles, Hugh 219
Miliband, David 893
military attaché 131
military humanitarianism 766, 774
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 7, 149, 249, 279, 699, 779, 862
Millennium Labour Council (South Africa) 411
Milosevic, Slobodan 75
Mine Ban Treaty (1997) 595, 602
Mines Advisory Group 799, 800
Mingst, Karen 274
ministries of foreign affairs (MFAs), see foreign ministries
Mintzer, Irving 851–2
Mitrany, David 276
Mobutu, Sese Seko 310
Moland, Tjostolv 487
Mongoose, Operation 827
Monterrey Summit of the Americas (2004) 310
Montreal Olympic Games (1976) 716
Montreal Protocol 180, 183
moral authority, and soft power 118
Morales, Evo 310
Moreno-Ocampo, Luis 751, 754
Morgenthau, Hans 21, 49, 372
and the national interest 72, 76
Morgenthau, Henry 164
Morocco, and criticism of Al-Jazeera 217
Morozov, Evgeny 211, 212
Morriss, Peter 572n5
Mortimer, Edward 767
Moscow Olympic Games (1980) 712
Moussa, Amr 817
Mubarak, Hosni 221, 222, 446
Mueller, John 584
Muller, Bobby 798
Mulroney, Brian 97, 98
multilateral diplomacy 118–20
and charm 254–5
and civil society actors 10–11
and complexity management 144
and definition of 248, 266
and development of 144
and difference from bilateral diplomacy 57
and diversity of 248
and expansion of 19
and forms of 251–4
ad hoc gatherings 254
functional and specialized agencies 252
regional level 252–4, 258
universal gatherings 251–2
and functions of 249–51
banking regulation 251
conflict resolution 250
dealing with economic crises 251
goal setting 249
norm creation 249
as ‘Parliament of Man’ 249, 257
treaty negotiation 249–50
and intergovernmental organizations 143–4
agenda-setting 147
coalition-building 147–8
decision processes 145
forum-shopping 149
norm creation 149–50
role of committee chairs 148
socializing effects 150
and Israel-Palestine conflict 255
and multilevel nature of 144
and new geopolitical order 256–7, 258
and role of power 255–6
and specialized agencies 250
and strengthening of:
(p. 933) change in American policy needed 260–1
changing mindset about world order 259–60
developing international consensus 260
increasing prestige of international organizations 261
as sunrise industry 248
and tensions within 248, 254–8
and United Nations 9–10, 144 see also conference diplomacy; summit diplomacy
Multilateral Investment Agreement (MAI) 392
Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) 198
multinational corporations (MNCs):
and case studies of diplomacy of 203
Gazprom 205
Google 205–6
HSBC 204–5
Union Carbide 206–7
Wal-mart 204
and contemporary firm-government diplomacy 196–200
determinants of results of 199
diplomatic objectives 196–7
global media firms 200–2
Government Relations departments 196
judicial processes 197–8
multilateral organizations 198
primary host state 199–200
routine business 197
tools and strategies 198–9
and corporate social responsibility 203
as diplomatic actors 12, 42, 192–6
differences from governments 194
similarities with governments 194–5
size threshold 193–4
and historical origins of 195–6
and inter-firm diplomacy 203
and non-state actors, diplomacy between 203
and sports diplomacy 718
Multinational Interim Force for Haiti (MIFH) 377–8
multipolarity 741–2
Munich Conference (1938) 581
Munich Olympic Games (1972) 713
Murdoch, Rupert 202
Murray, Craig 17
Murrow, Edward R 571
Museveni, Yoweri 751, 755
Muskoka Initiative on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health 701
Mustapa Mohamed, Dato Sri 403
Mutual Assessment Process (MAP) 167–8
mutually assured destruction 580
Myanmar 806
Naftogaz 205
Nagasaki 598, 811
Namibia 323, 612, 664
and peace negotiations 342–3, 346, 347
Nansen, Fridtjof 678
Napoleonic wars 581–2
Napster 464
Narlikar, A 629, 882
Nasheed, Mohamed 402, 403
Nasser, Gamel Abdel 257
nation-building, and distinction from state-building 612
nation state:
and centrality to international system 92, 660
and challenge of globalism 55
and contraction of 42
and decline of 372, 404
as diplomatic actors 7–8
and diversity among 7
and growth in number of 7, 405
and human rights 660–4
and impact of technological revolution 56–7
and intergovernmental organizations, relationship between 145–6
as mediators 339
and new geopolitical order 7–8
and new international order 58
as primary subject of international law 660
and push for return of 44
and Westphalian system 123
(p. 934) National Economic Development and Labour Council (NEDLAC) (South Africa) 411
national identity, and public diplomacy 442–4
national interest 58, 72–3
and diplomacy 21
and free trade 83
and inapplicability of concept 71
and Iraq War 81–2
and problems with concept
existence of competing interests 74–5
inadequate guide to policy 84
inapplicability to non-state actors 77–8
logical fallacy of 72
subjective nature of 75–7
use of word ‘national’ 73–4
and Realist conception of 72–3 see also balance of interests
National Security Council (USA) 96
Natural Resources Defence Council (NRDC) 811
Naumann, Klaus 768
Nauru 684–5
NBC Universal 201
Neale, Margaret 865
negotiation:
and agency 330
and approaches to study of 323–4
comparing 331–2
and best alternative to a negotiated agreement (BATNA) 639
and bilateral diplomacy 233
and cognitive and relational aspects of 332
and communication-based approaches to 328–30
as learning process 328
pre-negotiation 328–9
problem-solving workshops 329
relationship- and trust-building 328
role of third parties 329–30
third-party assisted dialogue 329
and conference diplomacy 272–4
and culture 330
and decisional analysis approaches to 326–8
game theory 326–7
problems with 327–8
and definition of 319
and explanations of preference for 319–23
Cold War influences 320
context of globalization 320
growth in international institutions 320
limited use of judicial processes 320
realist theories 320–1
sovereignty 321
spread of democracy 321
third-party mediation 321–3
and humanitarian negotiation 354
and integrative aspects of 331, 601–2
and interest-based 320
and issue linkages 639
and justice 330–1
and minimum/maximum aspirations 639
and modern state system 319
and process-oriented approaches to 331
and strategy 639
and structural analysis approaches to 324–6
coalition behaviour 325
problems with 325–6
realist approach 324
weaker parties 324–5 see also mediation
Nehru, Jawaharlal 257, 834
Neruda, Pablo 235
Netherlands:
and Afghanistan 787
and consular affairs 487
and economic diplomacy 529n48
and public diplomacy 440
network diplomacy 21–2, 23, 24–5, 62–3, 67, 429, 638, 686
as approach to diplomatic business 65
and bridging gap between home and host countries 65–6
and central task of 65
and commission diplomacy 299
and complexity management in 6
and consular affairs 486
and cultural diplomacy 429–30
and defence diplomacy 373, 381
and facilitation of experience exchanges 66
(p. 935) and failure to adapt to 62
and finance diplomacy 168
and intergovernmental organizations 155–6
among IGOs 155–6
with outsiders 156
and knowledge-building 638–9
and media 63
and non-state actors 42
and public diplomacy 445
and Responsibility to Protect (R2P) 763
and sports diplomacy 716–17, 721–2
lobbying to host events 716–17
non-governmental organizations 717–19
and trade diplomacy 637–8
network governance 102–3
network state, and rise of 56–7
New International Economic Order (NIEO) 892
New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) 411–12, 731
New Rules for Global Finance 170
New Zealand 407
News Corporation 201–2
Nicolson, Sir Harold 61, 65, 66, 221, 438
and bilateral diplomacy 230
and conference diplomacy 265
on diplomacy 263, 426
Nigeria 731
Nixon, Richard M 18, 663
Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) 18, 148
and Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty 812, 814, 815, 816, 817, 820, 823
non-communicable diseases and health harms, and health diplomacy 696–8
non-governmental organizations (NGOs):
and agenda-setting 11, 179–81
and balancing interests 80
and challenges to legitimacy of 11
and climate diplomacy 842
and conference diplomacy 271, 275
as diplomatic actors 11–12
and finance diplomacy 170
and growth in number of 9
government responses to 178–9, 184
and health diplomacy 700–1
and human rights 668–70
accuracy of information 669
charges of bias 669
maximizing influence 668
successes and failures 669–70
and International Criminal Court 753–4
bilateral NGO-ICC relations 754–5
as operational extensions to 755–6
role in establishing 101, 749–50
trilateral NGO-state-ICC relations 754
and multinational corporations, diplomacy between 203
and norm creation 149–50
and Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conferences 822
and Ottawa Process, role in 99–101
and relations with government 11–12
and sports diplomacy 717–19
and trade diplomacy, influence on 631–3
and United Nations, activity in 144
and World Trade Organization:
participation in 631–3
representation at ministerial conferences 631 see also civil society groups; non-state actors
non-proliferation 593
Non-Proliferation Treaty Review and Extension Conference (NPTREC) (1995) 816–20
and appointment of conference president 817–18
and assessment of 820–1
and chairman's closing statement 821
and consensus decision-making 819
and diplomatic preparations for:
Non-Aligned Movement 817
United States 816–17
and disagreements over voting procedure 818
and failure of review aspect 819
and groups within 820
and Middle East 819
and political context of 816
and significance of 810
and small group consultations 818
and success of extension aspect 819
(p. 936) non-state actors:
and balancing interests 80
and diplomatic role 42–3, 117
and end of Western domination over 257
and expanded role of 406–7
and food aid 648–9
and growth in number of 405
and health diplomacy 700–1
and increasing influence of 77
and intergovernmental organizations, incorporation by 144
and multinational corporations, diplomacy between 203
and network diplomacy 42
and public diplomacy 448–9, 450
and soft power 568
and summit diplomacy 304
and Track Two diplomacy 18–19, 339–40
and utilization of information technology 211 see also civil society groups; non-governmental organizations
noosphere 460–1
norm creation:
and commission diplomacy 287–9
and global conferences 268
and human rights 659
and intergovernmental organizations 149
and multilateral diplomacy 249
Norman, Montagu 161, 162
normative framing, and negotiation 865
North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 244, 246n14, 372, 629
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 18, 119, 779
and Afghanistan 785–8
and Cuban missile crisis 834
and international defence meetings 380
and Kosovo 766
and public diplomacy 446, 447
and UN Security Council 786
Norway:
and non-resident ambassadors 134
and soft power 565
nuclear diplomacy 19, 320
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) 249, 589, 593–4, 598–9
and discriminatory approach of 812
and expansion of membership 812, 813–14
and future of 823
and historical context of 811–12
and Non-Nuclear Weapon States (NNWS) 812
and Nuclear-Weapon States (NWS) 812
and opponents of 814
and Review Conferences:
1975 Review Conference 814–15
1980 Review Conference 815
1985 Review Conference 815–16
1990 Review Conference 816
1995 Review Conference 816–20
2000 Review Conference 821
2005 Review Conference 821
2010 Review Conference 287, 816, 821, 822–3
consensus decision-making 814
final declarations 814
non-governmental organizations 822
provisions for 813
and shift from club to network diplomacy 812
and tensions within 812, 813, 820–1
and terms of 812
Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) 593–4
Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI) 607n3
nuclear weapons:
and deterrence 580
and influence on soft power 547
Nye, Joseph 102, 372, 373, 420, 456
and co-optive power 546
and hard power 545
and institutional power 550
and power 93
and power and interdependence 545–6
and smart power 823
and soft power 544
Nyerere, Julius 765
Obama, Barack 446, 717, 748
and Afghanistan 786
and Doha Round 866, 867
and environmental diplomacy 37, 850
(p. 937) and foreign policy 96
and G20 734
and Global War on Terror 779
and India 79
and social networking 102
and sports diplomacy 38
and trade diplomacy 38
Office Internationale d’Hygiène Publique 700
Ogata, Sadako 665, 765
Ogata-Sen Human Security Commission (2003) 290–1, 296, 765
Ohanyan, Anna 155
Olympic Games:
and Atlanta (1996) 717
and Berlin (1936) 711, 714
and competition to stage 716–17
and London (1948) 712
and Los Angeles (1984) 712
and Mexico (1968) 713
and Montreal (1976) 716
and Moscow (1980) 712
and multinational corporations 718
and Munich (1972) 713
and Rome (1960) 713
and Seoul (1988) 708, 713
and Tokyo (1964) 713 see also International Olympic Committee (IOC)
Olympic movement 709
O’Neill, Jim 878n6, 882
opinion leaders, and soft power 549–50
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 392–3, 733
Organization for Security Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) 339
Organization for the Prevention of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) 446
Organization of American States (OAS) 10, 18, 132, 313, 663
and Cuban missile crisis 835
and Declaration of Security in the Americas 372
and Summit Implementation Review Group (SIRG) 313
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) 394
Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) 10, 18, 78
organized crime 11
and war 13
and weapons 595, 602
Ortega, Daniel 310
Orwell, George 711
Oslo Ministerial Declaration (2007) 14, 596
Ostler, Nicholas 555
Ottawa Treaty 98, 602, 797, 804
and campaign to ban landmines 797–9
Canadian initiatives 802–3
celebrity diplomacy 805
government-NGO cooperation 803
impact of 806
International Campaign to Ban Landmines 99–100, 569, 603, 797, 799, 804
International Committee of the Red Cross 798, 800–1
international context of 807
international humanitarian law 801
proportionality 801
questioning military utility of 800–1
role of states 801–3
and human security network 801, 806–7
and non-signatories 798
compliance of 806
and Ottawa conference (1996)
calling of 802–3
participants 803
structure of 803
and Ottawa conference (1997) 805
principle for participation 804
and Ottawa Process 804
context of 807
criticism of 804
influence of 806–7
rallying support for 804–5
role of civil society groups 99–101
and signing of 806
and success of 806, 807
and symbolic significance of 798
Otunnu, Olara 254–5
Ouattara, Alasanne 773, 792
Outer Space Treaty (1967) 596
outsourcing, and diplomacy 42
Oyuevala, Raúl Estrada 843, 849
Pace, William 754
Pacific Armies Chief Conference 379
Pacific Armies Management Seminar 379
Pakistan:
and Afghanistan, balancing interests in 82–3
and Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate (ISI) 17
and refugees 683
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) 19, 77
Palme Commission (1982) 278, 288, 294, 296, 298, 764–5
Palme, Olaf 278, 764–5
Palmerston, Lord 72
Pan-American Sanitary Bureau 700
paradiplomacy 19
Paris Club 169
Paris Declaration (2005) 130
Paris Peace conference (1919) 123, 303
parliamentary diplomacy 145, 265–6
and definition of 266
parliamentary systems, and development of foreign policy 98–9
Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT) (1963) 598, 811
Partnership for the Americas Commission (2008) 300n3
Patrick, Stewart 883
Paz, Octavio 235
peace-building, and rise of 611–13 see also state-building
peace movement, and disarmament diplomacy 599, 600
peace processes, and complexity of 340
peacekeeping operations (PKOs):
and Afghanistan 785–7
and authorization for 782
and bedrock principles of 784, 794
and Brahimi Report (2000) 782–4
and change in political environment 779
and Côte d’Ivoire 780, 789–93