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date: 23 October 2019

(p. 893) Language Index

(p. 893) Language Index

Abkhaz607, 610
Aboriginal English266, 274
Afrikaans502 n., 572–5, 708–9, 714
Ahtna498
Ainu545 n.
Akan542
Akha610, 612
Akkadian8, 649–5
Albanian204, 499, 523, 611
Alemannic397
Algonquian496, 610–11
Al‐Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language (ABSL)694
Amele602
American English:
African‐American Vernacular English270
Alabama403
Colloquial201, 274–5
and complex predicates560 n.
and corpus linguistics244–6, 248, 404, 669 n.
and final particles669–72
future, expression of77, 297
and functional linguistics63
and prosody335
South Eastern
and Standard English201, 245
and syntax372 see also English
American Sign Language203, 683, 685–6, 689, 692
Amharic521, 578
Ancient Greek195, 506–7
Antiguan Creole597
Anywa513–14, 520
Apalai463
Appalachian English275
Arabic47, 756
Jordanian281 n.
Aranda145
Arawak609, 611
Archi611
Armenian544
Ashenaca Arawakan463
Assyrian654
Athabaskan languages178–81, 183–6, 191, 497–9
Athpare513
Australian:
creoles275, 500
English266, 671–2
languages500, 513, 671 see also Aboriginal English; Wambaya, Nunggubuyu
Avar504, 506 n., 510, 513
Awara473–4
Azeri754–7, 760
Babine‐Witsuwit'en498–9
Babylonian654
Bahamian English266
Bajan270
Baka145
Bantu languages494, 497, 519, 525, 572, 573, 609, 629, 634, 703
Bashkir754, 755, 756, 758, 759, 760
Basque296, 299, 494, 509, 586, 609
Belarusian523, 746
Belizean Creole266
Berber514–15
Biansi608
Bislama266, 271, 274
Bodic518
Brazilian Portuguese11, 14
future temporal reference215–18, 223
grammaticalization729–39
pronouns700 n.
negation572, 574, 575–6
verbal predicates585
Breton381, 464
Budu745
Bulgarian172, 204, 280, 351, 479, 480, 523, 742, 744, 749
Burgundian708
Butler English266
Caddo603
Cameroon Pidgin English274, 276
(p. 894) Canadian English230
African Nova Scotian English210
Quebec English230, 235
Toronto English121–2 see also English
Cantonese114, 338, 464, 472–3, 789 see also Chinese
Cassubian746–7
Catalan409, 572, 575, 576, 723, 725
Catalan Sign Language688 n.
Cavineña660
Chaghatay754–6, 758–60
Channel Island English266, 274
Chantyal518
Chinese, diachronic varieties of:
ancient540
Classical641, 789
Early Modern382–4
Medieval786 n., 787, 789, 791–6
Middle382–6
Old382, 384–6
Chinese, Standard:
adverbial formation506, 510
agreement493
aspect53, 586
auxiliaries540
clause‐marginal status471
compounding240
and conceptual overlap89–91
degrammation479, 480 n.
generative grammar47, 53
and Japanese776, 781–2
and Korean764–5
and lexicalization508
and linguistic typology110, 112–13
numeral classifiers384
passives542, 790–1
relative clauses641
relatives53
as a sinitic language110, 112–14, 786–7, 789, 790–6
syntax371
tense586
wh‐movement47
word order change380, 382–7
Chinese, dialectal varieties of13, 15
Cantonese114, 338, 464, 472–3, 789
Hui789
Hunan dialects540
Mandarin112, 114, 508, 586, 787, 793
Min789
Southern Min (Hokkien)114, 338, 789
Xiang789, 792
Choctaw464, 633
Chuvash754–60
Circassian610
Colloquial Fiji English266, 275
Common Slavic544, 660, 740
Cree/Montagnais/Naskapi496, 610–11
Croatian295, 544, 742, 744–5, 748, 750 n.
Cushitic languages519, 698–9
Czech542–4, 742 n., 746–51
Dani513
Danish482, 602–3, 660, 708, 712–15
Dargwa611
Datooga520
Desano463, 608
Dhaasanac698–9
Diegueño464, 473, 527
Dogrib498
Dukhan754, 759
Dutch:
adverbs507 n.
agreement496
auxiliaries713, 715–16
Brabantish123
debonding485–7
definite articles534
degrammaticalization167, 476, 717
and directionality168–9
final particles668
and Germanic languages708
Hollandish123
and lexicalization442
negation572
passive inflection711
Pennsylvania717
and sociolinguistics123–4
and transitive/ intransitive verbs27
Dyirbal513
East Old Turkic754, 759–60
Eastern Maroon Creole266
Egyptian492
Old492
Egyptian Coptic344, 492
Enets609
English, diachronic varieties of:
Early Modern136, 244–5, 257, 362, 409, 442, 464, 562–3, 638
English, Standard:
adverbs398, 503, 505–7
and African languages698, 703, 706
and Afrikaans708–9
agreement493, 500
analogy and extension25, 27
aspect584, 588
auxiliaries28, 47, 60, 71, 74–5, 101, 133, 354, 372, 540, 548–57, 584, 713, 734
avertives403–4
and Brazilian Portuguese737–8
case markers512, 515
coalescence into words, gradual351, 353–4
and Chinese791 n.
and cognitive grammar84–8
complementation, system of49
complex predicates6, 10, 559–69
constituent structure73–4
conversation425, 620
and corpus linguistics239–48, 254–5, 257, 335, 408 n.
and debonding484–5
definite articles523, 526, 530, 533, 534
degrammaticalization166–70, 476 n., 477 n., 479 n., 482, 484–7, 717
deixis627
demonstratives62, 76
derivational affixation357–8, 448
and discourse413, 417
discourse markers616, 619–20, 622–3, 716
and Dutch168–9
final particles668–72, 675, 679
and French336, 573
and functional linguistics59, 60, 62
future, expression of3, 235, 297, 300, 390, 413, 417, 508, 557, 713
generative grammar47–9
genitive inflection35, 60
and German398, 459, 551
and Germanic languages708–11, 713–14, 716, 717
grammar system, abstract34, 38, 41
grammaticalization195–6, 199, 201–3, 300, 583, 619
and Japanese672, 679–80, 781, 783
and Korean765
and lexicalization443–5, 446, 448, 508
negation570, 572–3, 577
and language acquisition130, 132–9
and language change in the individual252, 254, 262
and language contact203, 281–2, 287, 297–8
and language evolution149
and linguistic complexity155, 159
vs. non‐standard varieties of14, 263–78
passives539, 540–1, 544
phonetic reduction70
pragmaticalization42, 127, 455, 459
prepositions73, 75, 319
present perfect136–8, 308 n.
progressive tense590
PRO‐self/ PRO paradigm398
prosody331–40
and quotatives647–8
reanalysis75, 77, 188–9
and reference systems631
and semantic change390, 392–3, 396, 398, 667
and sociolinguistics118–19, 121–8
and Spanish226
speech, spontaneous190–1
subordination637–8, 640–1, 643–5
and Swedish155, 167, 174
and syntax367–70, 372–5
tense, origins of592–3
and Turkic languages758
wh‐movement47
wh‐words463
and word formation356–8, 360–3
and word order change378–81, 385–7
Englishes, World13, 263–78
Aboriginal English266, 274
Appalachian English275
Australian English266, 671–2
Bahamian English266–7
Butler English266
Cameroon Pidgin English274, 276
Channel Island English266, 274
Chicano English266, 276
Colloquial Fiji English266, 275
Falkland Islands English266
Fiji English266, 274, 275
Ghanaian English266, 270–1
Hong Kong English266, 270
Indian English266, 270, 274, 708
Irish English267, 272–3
Jamaican English266
Kenyan English274
Malaysian English266, 270
Maltese English266
Manx English266
Melanesian Pidgin English282 see Tok Pisin
(p. 896) Newfoundland English266, 270, 273
New Zealand English266–7, 274
Nigerian Pidgin English213–14, 266, 274
Ozarks English275
Pakistan English266
Saint Helena English266
Scottish English127, 266, 270
Singapore English271, 282
Tristan da Cunha English266 see also American English; Canadian English; see also under individual creoles and pidgins
Eskimo191, 513, 603, 609
Estonian610 n., 612
Euchee609
Evenki542, 793
Eyak178, 184–5
Falkland Islands English266
Faroese76, 708–9, 711, 713, 715
Fiji English266, 274, 275
Finnish27, 121, 505, 519, 523, 527, 545 n., 631, 668
French:
and adverbial formation203, 418, 505, 509
and agreement493–4
auxiliaries305, 555, 714
and Basque296
and chunking71
coalescence into words, gradual349, 354
collocations230
colloquial53, 494–5, 574
and complex predicates562
coordination349, 658
and corpus linguistics230, 240
definite articles523–5, 527, 530, 534
deixis627
demonstratives315–16, 534
derivational affixes357–8
and discourse416–17, 419
discourse markers619
and evidentiality605 n., 610
existential sentences308–11
future temporal reference220, 222–3, 297, 360 n.
grammaticalization, degrees of302–16
and iconicity464
and language contact711
and lexicalization441, 508
mood311–16
negation52, 54, 211, 397, 571–7
Old305 n., 315, 349, 417, 420–1, 494, 524, 534, 571–7
passives545
‘past simple’307–8
and Portuguese222, 304, 734
and prosody335–6
and reference systems632
and Romance languages721–2
and semantic change397
and sociolinguistics123–4
subordination642, 644
word order change360 n., 380–1, 387, 388
French, varieties of:
Canadian French124, 230
Louisiana French Creole571–2
North American French124
Quebec French124
Swiss French574
Frisian485, 528–9, 630, 708
Fehring528–9
Gagauz754, 760
Gascon296, 726
Georgian513–14, 520, 607, 644, 650
German:
and adverbs398, 503–10
and agreement500
and analogy41
auxiliaries540–4, 550, 551, 555
articles, development of26
chunking71
coalescence into words, gradual342–3, 346, 349–50, 354
connectives661
and conversation426 n., 437
coordination349
and corpus linguistics240
debonding485
definite articles294, 297, 532, 534
and degrammaticalization167, 477 n., 479, 485, 717
and degrammation479
derivational affixation448–9
and discourse markers619, 620–3, 716
and final particles668
and functional linguistics59
and Germanic languages708
and Hebrew287–8
and language acquisition133
and language contact286–8, 296–7, 299, 711
and lexicalization439, 441, 447–9
modality287, 749
and negation572
non‐linearity159
passives390, 536
(p. 897) and pragmaticalization455, 459, 460
pragmatic and semantic definiteness528
prosodic independence, loss of346
and quotatives649
and reference systems629, 631
and Romani281 n., 286
and semantic change390, 394, 396, 398
and Slavic languages749, 751
and sociolinguistics123–4
and tense360 n.
and word formation357, 362, 363
and word‐form replication281 n.
and word order426 n.
German, diachronic varieties of:
Middle High123, 358, 394–5, 448–9, 523
Modern High275, 395–6
Old High202 n., 342, 415, 439, 447, 718
German, dialectal varieties of:
Luxembourgeois, dialect of297
Mönchen Gladbach528
Pennsylvania170, 298, 479, 480, 481, 717–18
Texas708
German Sign Language (DGS)686, 688, 690–2
Ghanaian English266, 270–1
Gidar523, 631
Gimira145
Gothic199, 397, 505, 708
Greek:
adverbs506–9
auxiliaries555–6, 714
ancient195, 506–7
Byzantine280
Cappadocian204
coalescence into words, gradual343
Cypriot203
definite article280, 281 n., 284, 522
future markers205
Homeric506, 508
and language contact287
medieval195
negation572
Old544
passives544
phonetic reduction195, 197
verb endings199
Greek Sign Language (GSL)685, 688
Greenlandic:
Inuit544, 603
West603, 607, 609, 612
Guanche514
Gujarati544
Gullah266, 270
Guyanese Creole275
Hakha Lai608–9
Hakka789
Halia145
Hausa353, 627–8, 641
Hawaiian Creole266, 275
Hdi627, 660
Hebrew287–8, 499–500, 543, 648, 654
Hidatsa581
Hindi‐Urdu520
Hittite509, 513, 660
Hmong110
Hokkien114, 338, 789 see also Chinese
Hong Kong English266, 270
Hong Kong Sign Language692
Hungarian:
adverbs505, 509
case marking7, 510, 516–17, 519
coalescence into words, gradual342, 345, 347, 350
Old22, 505 n.
passives544
and reanalysis21
Hup484
Hupda608
Icelandic145, 708–9, 711, 713
Imonda145
Indian English266, 270, 274, 708
Indonesian496–7
Riau Indonesian156–8, 160 see also Malay
Indopakistani Sign Language691 n.
Inuit544, 603
Greenlandic544
Irish English267, 272–3
Irish Gaelic35, 266, 270–3, 484, 486
Iroquoian494, 603, 660
Israeli Sign Language685 n., 689
Italian:
adverbs507–8
analogy and extension24
auxiliaries305–6, 540, 555
coordinating connectives658, 660, 663, 664, 666–7
coordination350
definite and indefinite articles295, 299
demonstratives315–16
discourse markers623
existential sentences308–10
grammaticalization, degrees of302–17
(p. 898) and language contact296, 299
lexicalization508
linearity and relevance354
modality596
mood311–14
negation572, 575, 576
Old665
passives542, 545 n.
‘past simple’307–8
pragmaticalization457
preterite tense714–15, 724, 726
as a pro‐drop language47
reference systems632
subject agreement495
verbal groups724
Italian Sign Language (LIS)685
Jamaican Creole270, 274
Jamaican English266
Jamul Tiipay473, 612
Japanese4–6, 13
case and information structure520–1
coordinating connectives664
debonding484, 486
deixis628
diachronic overview of grammaticalization775–85
discourse markers616, 617, 619–20, 622
final particles668, 672, 673 n., 679–80
grammatical relations and alignment376
interrogatives464
and Korean lexis765
Old776 n., 778, 780, 782
as a pro‐drop language47
quotatives646, 655
stem‐internal morphology538
subordination638–45
word order change388
Japanese Sign Language691 n.
Jarawara464, 473–4, 608, 609
Jordanian Arabic281 n.
Jur Luwo513–14, 520
Kabyle514
Kamaiurá611
Kara672
Karachay‐Balkar754–6, 758–60, 762
Karaim754, 756
Karakhanid754, 758
Kazakh754, 755, 756, 759
Kenya Pidgin Swahili637
Kenyan English266, 274
Khakas754, 758, 759, 760–3
Khalaj754, 756, 758, 760
Kham607
Khmer110–11, 115, 116, 464–70, 474 n.
Khoekhoe519
Khwe519, 705
Kiliva463
Kimbundu545
Kirghiz754, 759, 760, 762
Klamath367–9
Komi611
Kono700, 780
Korean13
connectives664
deixis628
existential verbs240
grammaticalization in764–74
passives538 n., 542
as a pro‐drop language47
quotative markers647–8
Kpelle145
Krio266
Kriol266
Kumyk754, 755, 756, 759, 761–2
Kurdish520
Kuuk Thaayorre660
Kwa273, 634, 700, 704, 706
Kwaza482–3
Labwor700, 707
Lak513
Lakota240
Lao464
Latin:
adverbial formations505, 507–8
analogy and extension24
auxiliaries549, 554–5
and Brazilian Portuguese731, 736, 737
coalescence into words, gradual343, 349
complementation48
connectives736, 737
coordinating connectives658
and corpus linguistics245, 250
definite articles523–4, 526–7, 531, 534
definiteness and case515
degrammaticalization166
demonstratives278, 314, 493, 524, 526, 534, 699, 722, 730
and directionality170–1
and English711
and French632
and functional linguistics63, 65
and German714
(p. 899) grammaticalization, degrees of304, 313–14
and Jespersen's Cycle571, 574, 577
mood313–14
morphology199
and negation571–2, 574–5, 577
passives538, 542, 544, 546
‘past simple’307
pragmatic and semantic definiteness530
pronouns730–1
and Romance languages15, 719–28
semantic change391–2
semantic loss526
and Spanish198, 203–4
speech variability416
Old195
and orthography354 n.
and sociolinguistics123
Vulgar220, 314–15
word order change378, 380–1
Latvian540, 542, 612 n., 661
Laz520
Lega609
Lele634
Lendu699–700
Lewo573
Lezgian607, 660
Lisu608
Lithuanian343, 510 n., 544, 606, 611, 612 n.
Luwo513, 514, 520
Luxembourgeois297
Maale519
Macedonian204, 283–6, 498–9, 523, 742, 744, 746–7, 749, 753
Ma'di609, 701
Malagasy544
Malay502, 542, 793 see also Indonesian
Malaysian English266, 270
Maltese540
Maltese English266
Manchu538, 542, 793
Mangarayi513
Mansi606
Manx266
Manx English266
Mara579
Marathi520
Margi538
Maricopa607
Marshallese499
Mayan539, 544
Maybrat463
Meithei609
Melanesian Pidgin English see Tok Pisin
Mina631
Mingrelian513
Mizo377
Mlabri470 n.
Mohawk442, 660
Molise Slavic (Molisean)295, 742
Moré145
Motu602
Mupun629–30, 633–4
Nahuatl296, 299, 494, 505
Nakanai660
Namibian see Khwe
Naskapi610–11
Nenets609, 611
Netherlands, Sign Language of the (NGT)683, 688 n.
Newfoundland English266, 270, 273
New Zealand English266–7, 274
Nganasan609
Ngangela519
Ngiti700
Nicaraguan Sign Language (NSL)693
Nigerian Pidgin English213–14, 266, 274
Noghay754–5, 759, 761
Norf'k266, 275
Northern Khoisan519, 662, 702 see also !Xun
Norwegian162, 482, 484–5, 660, 708
Numidian514
Nunggubuyu578
Occitan304, 723
Old Chinese382, 384, 386
Old Church Slavonic172, 479, 740 n., 742, 744 n., 745, 748, 752
Old Egyptian492
Old English:
adverbial formations505–6
and agreement495
auxiliaries48
case‐marking515
complex predicates561, 567
coordinating connectives661, 663
degrammaticalization718
and directionality170
impersonal construction127
and language acquisition132–3, 135–6
and lexicalization442, 446
modality135, 393–4, 550, 599–601
(p. 900) morphology196, 199
negation397
passives544
and phonetic reduction195
present perfect136
preterite present verbs101
and semantic change397–8
and subjectification410
and subordination637, 644
and word formation356, 358
and word order change381, 386–7
Old French305 n., 315, 349, 417, 420, 421, 494, 524, 534, 571–7
Old Greek544
Old High German202 n., 342, 415, 439, 447, 448, 542, 718
Old Hungarian22, 505 n.
Old Italian665
Old Japanese776 n., 778, 780, 782
Old Latin195
Old Norse124, 562, 711–12, 718
Old Polish544
Old Russian195
Old Saxon199, 660
Old Spanish198, 203
Old Swedish477, 482–3, 487
Old Uyghur754, 757, 758, 761
Omotic519
Ottoman:
Old756–7, 760
Turkish284, 754–5
Ozarks English275
Pakistan English266
Palau504, 510
Parengi656
Päri513–14, 520
Pashto520
Patwin610, 612
Paumarí609
Pero628
Persian200 n., 540, 756
Philippine languages598
Pipil294, 296, 298–9
Piro609
Polish:
adverbs509, 510 n.
auxiliaries540–2
coreference and switch reference633
deixis627
evidentials749
future expression745 n.
hooks177 n.
and language contact287
modality602
mood748
Old544
passives542–3, 751, 793
person749–50
positional variability348
resultatives746
and word order change380
Pomo, Central602
Portuguese, Amazonian613 n.
Portuguese:
archaic737
auxiliaries304
connectives736, 738–9
definite articles527
future, expression of220–3
negation572, 574–6
object person forms351
‘past simple’308
positional variability348
pronouns730
French660 see also Brazilian Portuguese
Punjabi520
Quebec English230, 235
Quebec French124
Quechua538, 540
Rama508, 644
Riau Indonesian157–8, 160
Roma666, 813, 874
Romani279–81, 284, 286–7, 297, 300, 719
Romanian195, 204–5, 527, 723–4, 726
Roper River Creole266
Russian195, 667, 745–6
adjectives, pronominal declension of742 n.
converbs (gerunds)752–3
counterfactual conditions753
definite articles523, 532
derivational affixes361–2
and language contact287
modals747–8
Old195
passives543–5, 751, 752
person750
resultatives746–7
Saami484, 486
Saint Helena English266
San Andrés Creole266
(p. 901) Sanskrit202 n., 343, 513, 789
Sanuma464
Sarcee660, 661
Sardinian523, 725
Scottish Gaelic540
Semelai464, 471
Serbian280, 350, 544, 661, 742, 744–5, 748, 750 n., 753
Sherpa513
Shibacha Lisu608
Sicilian166, 307
Singapore English271, 282
Sinhala540
Sino‐Tibetan110, 374, 609
Sirionó162
Sissala523, 608
Slave498
Slovak280 n., 749, 751
Slovene742, 744 n., 745, 750 n.
So699
Sorbian293–7, 299, 740, 742, 749, 751
Colloquial Upper Sorbian (CUS)742
Sotho544
Southern Min see Hokkien
Spanish, Standard:
adverbs507
aspect589
auxiliaries305–7, 549–50
coalescence into words, gradual343, 348, 350
collocations in grammaticalization226–8
constituent structure73
coordinating connectives658
and corpus linguistics240
definite articles523, 527
demonstratives314–16
determiners723
discourse markers619
existential sentences308–10
future temporal reference219–20, 222–3
grammaticalization, degrees of302–16
and language contact203–4
and lexicalization508
modality599
mood311–14
non‐linearity158
object cycles497–9
passives544
‘past simple’307–8
phonetic reduction71
and Pipil‐Spanish bilingualism294, 296, 299
as a pro‐drop language47
tense590–2
verbal predicates584
Spanish, varieties of:
Bolivian Spanish612–3 n.
Colombian Spanish612–3
Ecuadorian Spanish612, 613 n.
Limeño Spanish498
Malinche Spanish498
Mexican Spanish612–3
River Plate Spanish498, 612 see also Catalan; Old Spanish
Surmic519
Susu700
Swahili499–500, 584, 637, 703
Swedish121, 343, 477, 708
auxiliaries542, 713–15, 718
debonding485–7
degrammation479 n.
deinflectionalization482–3
discourse markers716
Old477, 482–3, 487
passive inflection711–12
plural noun formation155
possessives165 n., 167–70, 174
speech verbs648
suffixed definite articles712
Tagalog532
Tai110
Tai‐Kadai110, 646
Taiwan Sign Language687–8, 690–1
Takia294
Tamangic languages518
Tamil463, 587
Tariana607, 610–11
Tatar754–62
Tauya463, 513, 643
Teso76–7
Tetun660
Thai53, 110, 112, 240, 463, 496, 538, 542, 668
Thakali518
Tibetan374, 513
Lhasa Tibetan612
Sino‐Tibetan110, 374, 609
Tigemaxo702
Tiriyo513
Tlingit178, 184–6
Tocharian517
Tofan754, 756
Tok Pisin271, 274, 282, 602, 603, 708
Tolowa183, 190
Torres Strait Creole266
Trinidadian Creole266
Tristan da Cunha English266
(p. 902) Tsafiki607
Tungusic544
Tura485–6
Turkish203, 204, 754–5
actional modification762
adjectives as sources755–6
adverbs502, 506
agglutinating marker287
aspect585, 589
and bilingualism283
cognitive and linguistic categorization504
contact‐induced internal change28
definite articles524
and Macedonian283–6
nouns as sources756–7
Ottoman284, 754–5
passives538
postverbal constructions759
potentiality760
secondary postpositions757
verbal stems as sources758–9
viewpoint aspect markers762
Turkish Sign Language693
Turkmen754–9
Tuvan754–5, 758–9
Tuyuca608, 611
Tzeltal544
Tzutujil578
Udihe607
Ukrainian523, 744–6
Umbundu519
Uralic344
Urdu540
Hindi‐Urdu520
Ute161
Uto‐Aztecan499
Uzbek754–60, 763
Vandalic708
Vincentian Creole266
Walbiri494
Wambaya353
Wandala632
Wappo513
Waskia294
Welsh145, 479–81, 537 n., 539
Wintu607–9
!Xun519–20, 662, 700, 702 see also Northern Khoisan
Yagaria469 n.
Yakut754, 757
Yiddish298, 708, 713
Yidiŋ504, 506 n., 510
Yoruba464, 700
Yuhup608
Zapotec464