- List of Figures
- List of Tables
- List of Abbreviations
- About the Contributors
- The Case For a Multilateral Trade Organization
- The Inconsistent Quartet: Free Trade Versus Competing Goals
- Trade Liberalization And Domestic Politics
- The International Trade Organization
- The Expanding Mandate Of The Gatt: The First Seven Rounds
- The Uruguay Round Negotiations and the Creation of the WTO
- The Role of the Director-General and the Secretariat
- Defining the Borders of the WTO Agenda
- Collective Agency, Systemic Consequences: Bargaining Coalitions in the WTO
- The Influence of the EU in the World Trade System
- The Role of the United States: A Multilevel Explanation For Decreased Support Over Time
- The Role of the Brics in the WTO: System-Supporters or Change Agents in Multilateral Trade?
- Least-Developed Countries In The WTO: Growing Voice
- Awkward Partners: NGOs And Social Movements At The WTO
- What Happened To The Influence Of Business? Corporations and Organized Labour In The WTO
- Trade In Manufactures And Agricultural Products: The Dangerous Link?
- Trade In Services In The WTO: From Marrakesh (1994), To Doha (2001), to… (?)
- Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights
- Flexibilities, Rules, And Trade Remedies In The Gatt/WTO System
- Regulatory Measures
- The Trade Policy Review Mechanism
- Dispute Settlement Mechanism—Analysis And Problems
- The Dispute Settlement Mechanism At The WTO: The Appellate Body—Assessment And Problems
- WTO Judicial Interpretation
- The Dispute Settlement Mechanism: Ensuring Compliance?
- Persistent Deadlock In Multilateral Trade Negotiations: The Case Of Doha
- The Role Of Domestic Courts In The Implementation Of WTO Law: The Political Economy Of Separation Of Powers And Checks And Balances In International Trade Regulation
- Preferential Trading Arrangements
- New Trade Issues In Food, Agriculture, And Natural Resources
- Fairness In The WTO Trading System
- Labour Standards And Human Rights
- Trade And The Environment
- Proposals For WTO Reform: A Synthesis And Assessment
- The WTO And Institutional (In)Coherence In Global Economic Governance
Abstract and Keywords
Defining the borders of the World Trade Organization's (WTO) agenda has been an intensely debated issue for several decades. Although the original General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade already reached ‘behind the border’, early multilateral trade negotiation rounds had the distinctive characteristic of dealing mainly with border measures, particularly tariffs. The fact that numerous regional trade agreements concluded after 1995 go significantly further ‘behind the border’ than multilateral agreements signals that at least part of the WTO membership is willing to include themes into their trade agenda which have not reached support at the multilateral level. This article examines the linkages between trade liberalization and internal or ‘behind the border’ measures from the point of view of the WTO, and discusses the process of agenda-setting in the WTO and the rationale for linking domestic regulations to trade negotiations. It also considers other types of internal measures such as subsidies or public procurement. The terms ‘international regulation’ or ‘international standards’ are used to refer to domestic regulatory measures that have been harmonized across countries.
Keywords: agenda, World Trade Organization, behind the border, Tariffs and Trade, multilateral trade, trade negotiations, trade liberalization, domestic regulations, international standards, subsidies
Marion Jansen is the Head of the Trade and Employment Programme in the International Labour Office. She is currently on leave from her position as a Counsellor in the Economic Research and Statistics Division of the World Trade Organization.
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