- List of Figures
- List of Tables
- List of Abbreviations
- About the Contributors
- The Case For a Multilateral Trade Organization
- The Inconsistent Quartet: Free Trade Versus Competing Goals
- Trade Liberalization And Domestic Politics
- The International Trade Organization
- The Expanding Mandate Of The Gatt: The First Seven Rounds
- The Uruguay Round Negotiations and the Creation of the WTO
- The Role of the Director-General and the Secretariat
- Defining the Borders of the WTO Agenda
- Collective Agency, Systemic Consequences: Bargaining Coalitions in the WTO
- The Influence of the EU in the World Trade System
- The Role of the United States: A Multilevel Explanation For Decreased Support Over Time
- The Role of the Brics in the WTO: System-Supporters or Change Agents in Multilateral Trade?
- Least-Developed Countries In The WTO: Growing Voice
- Awkward Partners: NGOs And Social Movements At The WTO
- What Happened To The Influence Of Business? Corporations and Organized Labour In The WTO
- Trade In Manufactures And Agricultural Products: The Dangerous Link?
- Trade In Services In The WTO: From Marrakesh (1994), To Doha (2001), to… (?)
- Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights
- Flexibilities, Rules, And Trade Remedies In The Gatt/WTO System
- Regulatory Measures
- The Trade Policy Review Mechanism
- Dispute Settlement Mechanism—Analysis And Problems
- The Dispute Settlement Mechanism At The WTO: The Appellate Body—Assessment And Problems
- WTO Judicial Interpretation
- The Dispute Settlement Mechanism: Ensuring Compliance?
- Persistent Deadlock In Multilateral Trade Negotiations: The Case Of Doha
- The Role Of Domestic Courts In The Implementation Of WTO Law: The Political Economy Of Separation Of Powers And Checks And Balances In International Trade Regulation
- Preferential Trading Arrangements
- New Trade Issues In Food, Agriculture, And Natural Resources
- Fairness In The WTO Trading System
- Labour Standards And Human Rights
- Trade And The Environment
- Proposals For WTO Reform: A Synthesis And Assessment
- The WTO And Institutional (In)Coherence In Global Economic Governance
Abstract and Keywords
The relation between international trade and environmental protection has engaged policymakers for decades. Claims that open international trade would worsen environmental conditions erupted in the 1990s over the North American Free Trade Agreement and the World Trade Organization (WTO). The debate over trade and the environment continues to this day. This article examines the relationship between international trade and environmental concerns in the context of the WTO, highlights some of the key provisions of the WTO that relate to environmental concerns, and considers proposals which have been made whereby the WTO could deal with this issue more effectively. In particular, it discusses the proposals on eliminating tariffs on environmental goods and also addresses the issue of environmentally harmful subsidies as well as climate change. The article presents a ‘Code of Good Practice’ for the major emitting countries to guide their trade-related climate change measures, and also touches upon the trade implications of geoengineering.
Meera Fickling is a graduate student studying energy and environmental policy at Duke University. She was a Research Analyst at the Peterson Institute for International Economics from 2008 to 2011.
Gary Hufbauer is the Reginald Jones Senior Fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics. He has written extensively on international trade, international taxation, economic sanctions, and climate change.
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