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date: 13 July 2020

(p. 705) Subject Index

(p. 705) Subject Index

Abolitionist movement, and African ideologies 609–10
Action Française 295, 296, 477
Adam Smith Institute 389, 405
Afghanistan 550, 635, 636
African ideologies:
and Abolitionist movement, Equiano’s autobiography 609–10
and African Diaspora:
Abolitionist movement 609–10
influence of 607–8, 610
and African nationality 612
and anti-imperialism:
Cabral 618–20
Fanon 618, 619, 620
Nkrumah 614–16
violence 619
and Cold War 614, 616
and cultural nationalism 610–11
and cultural pluralism 623
and definition of 608
and demands to manage own affairs in colonial period 611
and emerging ideologies 622
and environmentalism 621
and Ethiopianism 612
and feminism 620–1
and grass-roots movements 620
and human rights 609, 622–3
and influences on 607
and justice and forgiveness 621–2
and liberation 620
and Marxism 614
and Nasserism 617–18
and Negritude 612–14
and Non-Aligned Movement 617, 618
and one-party rule 616, 617
and Pan Africanism:
Nasser 617
Nkrumah 615
and particular nature of 607
and postcolonialism 622
and pre-colonial Africa 608–9
tribalism 608–9
and slavery 607
and socialism 614
academic critiques of 616–17
Nasser 617
Nkrumah 614–16
Nyerere 616, 617
ujamaa 616, 617
and source of 609
and universal nature of 607
agonist democracy 150–1
agrarian populism 495, 507
agreeableness, and ideological orientation 242
Algeria 619
Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana (APRA) 594–5
al-Jazeera 227
al Qaeda 225, 226–7, 635, 636
Alternative Libertaire 394
al-Wasat (Egyptian political party) 638
American Association for Public Opinion Research 81
American Committee for Cultural Freedom (ACCF) 95
American Political Science Association 77, 86
American revolution, and liberalism 331
American Sociological Association 100
anachronism 280
anarchism:
and anarcha-feminism 396, 397
and anarchist communism 394, 395–6
and anarcho-syndicalism 394–6
and anti-statism 386–7, 388
and black anarchism 396–7
and conceptual analysis of 386–7
(p. 706) and different formations of 386
and difficulty in defining 385
and egoistic anarchism 388
and environmental anarchisms 397–8
and everyday practices 387
and green anarchisms 398
and ideological synthesis 391–4, 400
anarcho-capitalism and social anarchism 392–3
forms of 392
and individualist anarchisms 386, 388, 389–90
anarcho-capitalism 389, 413, 414
anti-statism 389–90, 391
existential versions of 389
philosophical anarchism 389
property rights 389
rejection of coercion 390
variety of 389
and individualist-socialist divide 388, 399–400
and Latin America 590
and liberalism 388
and misrepresentations of 385–6
and post-anarchism 399
and primacy of the individual 57
and queer anarchism 397
and rejection of statist politics 385
and social anarchisms 386, 388, 390–1
anti-statism 391
direct action 390
hybridization 400
organizations 390–1
principles of 390
and socialism 388
Anarchist Federation 390, 394
Anarchist Frequently Asked Questions (AFAQ) 391
Anarchist Media Group 386
anarcho-capitalism 389, 392–3, 405, 413, 414
animal rights 426
anthropocentrism 425
anti-communism 94–5
and Latin America 589–90
and South and Southeast Asia 665
anti-Enlightenment 476–7
anti-Semitism:
and fascism 482, 483
and National Socialism 482
and neo-fascism 488
and populism 504
and reactionary conservatism 295
and Romanticism 477
anti-statism, and anarchism 386–7, 388
individualist anarchisms 389–90, 391
social anarchisms 391
Arab Spring 641–2
archaeology, and nationalism 456
Argentina:
and anarchism 590
and communism 591
and neoliberalism 595
and populism 496, 595
and socialism 590–1
arguments, and ideology 199–200
Army of God 227
articulation 171 n17
Asian Relations Conference (1947) 618
Asian values 669
attitudes:
and ideological orientation 234–5, 236, 238–9
and ideologies 178–9
Aum Shinrikyo cult 227
Australia 406
Austrian School 405, 408
and role of the state 415
authoritarianism:
and Africa 616
and populism 506
and South and Southeast Asia 668–9
and xenophobic populism 497
authoritarian personality 233
Babouvism 365
Bandung Conference (1955) 618, 662
Bangladesh Nationalist Party 671
behaviouralism 75–6
and Cold War 74–5
and political science 80
defence of interest-group liberalism 81
public opinion 81
and scientism 74
beliefs:
and ideology 177–8
structure of 178
and knowledge 177
Berlin Wall 410
Big Society 307–8
Bildung 333
biocentrism 426
bioregionalists 425
black anarchism 396–7
Bolivia:
and populism 496, 504, 509, 595
and socialism 591
Bolsheviks 369, 370
Bolshevism 65, 66
and ideology 67, 68
and universal appeal of 70
Boulangism 476
Brazil:
and communism 591
and populism 496, 595
British Union of Fascists (BUF) 484–5
Buddhism 645, 673, 674
bureaucratic centralism 373
Burma 674
Cambodia 665, 674
Cambridge School of intellectual history 515
Camelots du roi 296
capitalism:
and Bernstein on 350
and imperialism 545
and postcolonialism 282
care, ethics of 577
Carthage 608
catachresis 199, 203
Catholic Church:
and Christian Democracy 313, 315
dispute over authority over 319–20
in inter-war years 320–1
Leo XIII’s ‘Immortale Dei’ encyclical 317–18
Leo XIII’s ‘Rerum Novarum’ encyclical 319
Pius X’s ‘Pascendi Dominicis Gregis’ encyclical 320
and democracy:
John XXIII 325–6
Pius XI’s condemnation of 316
Pius XII on 323
Toniolo’s definition of 318
and liberalism, danger of 315–16
and Second Vatican Council 326
Cato Institute 389, 405
Caucus for a New Political Science 85
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) 95
central planning:
and Communist states 374, 375
and economic libertarians’ critique of 419
Cercle Proudhon 477, 478, 479
certainty, and system justification 237–9
Chad 608
Cheka 370
Chicago School 306, 405
Chile:
and anarchism 590
and communism 591
and conservatism 589
and economic libertarianism 406, 407, 418, 589
and military coup 593
and socialism 591
Chilean Communist Party 591
China 372, 644
in 1930s-40s 651–3
conservative opinion 651–2
renewed faith in Chinese culture 652
rural reconstruction 652
Third Force 652–3
and Buddhism 645
and Chinese communism 653–5
continuous revolution 654
critiques of 654–5
early period 653
Mao’s ideology 653–4
New Democracy 653–4
and Chinese Communist Party 644, 657
monopoly on power 381
Three Represents doctrine 657
and Confucianism 645, 649, 651, 652
and contemporary political and ideological debates 658
and Cultural Revolution 380–1, 654
(p. 708) and democracy, demands for 657
and democratic centralism 381
and economic reform 381, 656, 657
and future development of 658
and Great Leap Forward 380, 655
and higher education 657
patriotic worrying 657–8
and Hundred Flowers Movement 380
and imperial imaginaries 539, 540
and industrial development 656
and May Fourth Movement 650–1, 658
vernacularization 651
and mixed economy 381
and New Confucianism 655–6
and Qing dynasty 644
Chinese values 646
foreign affairs movement 647
overthrow of 648
political reform 647
reform of civil exam system 646
self-strengthening movement 646–7
using past to legitimize transformation 647–8
Western influences 645, 648
and Revolution of 1911 648
cultural construction 649
Sun Yat-sen’s ‘Three Principles’ 648
and self-identity 645, 650
and Sinophone diaspora 655, 656
and socialism with Chinese characteristics 644, 656
and socialist market economy 374
Chinese Democratic League 652–3
Christian Democracy:
and Belgium 316–17
and catch-all parties 325
and Catholic Church 313, 315
dispute over authority 319–20
Gregory XVI on danger of liberalism 315–16
in inter-war years 320–1
Leo XIII’s ‘Immortale Dei’ encyclical 317–18
Leo XIII’s ‘Rerum Novarum’ encyclical 319
Pius X’s ‘Pascendi Dominicis Gregis’ encyclical 320
Pius XI’s condemnation of democracy 316
Pius XII’s views on democracy 323
Toniolo’s definition of democracy 318
and Cold War context 325
and development during Second World War 322–4
and France 315
and Germany 317
and ideal-type of 318
and ideology of 314
elements of 314
formation of 317
pillars of 313
in inter-war years 321–2
and market social economy 325
and origins of term 314
and the people 315
and personalism 313, 322
and pluralism 313
and postwar academic attention towards 312–13
and postwar ideological evolution 324–5
and postwar reconstruction 324
and Protestant confessions 318
and religion:
role of Catholic church 315
vision of Christian past 314–15
and solidarism 313
as third force 313
and variety of parties 313
Christian Democratic Union (CDU) (Germany) 325
Christian Identity 227
Christianity:
and communist ideas 364
and decline in hegemony of 56
and progressive total ideologies 61
civic humanism, and imperialism 542
civil association, and New Right 304–5
civilization, and imperialism 539, 540–1, 546
civil society, and Gramsci 28–9
clash of civilizations 15
class:
and Marx 8, 22–3, 25
and paradox of class struggle 166
class consciousness 8
classical liberalism 405
(p. 709) class struggle:
and Bernstein’s scepticism over 350
and Marx 368
and paradox of 166
clientelism, and distinction from populism 500
Club of Rome 427
Cold War:
and African ideologies 614, 616
and behaviouralism 74–5
and Christian Democracy 325
and economic libertarianism 408
and end of ideology thesis 91–2, 94–7
and ideological polarization 12
and Latin America 592–3
and South and Southeast Asia 662, 665
collective bargaining 355
Colombia 586–7, 588
Comintern 285, 378
and Latin America 591, 592
and South and Southeast Asia 665
communicative reason 141, 258
communism:
and anarchist communism 394, 395–6
and China 653–5
continuous revolution 654
critiques of 654–5
early period 653
Mao’s ideology 653–4
New Democracy 653–4
and India 666
and Latin America 591, 592
and Lenin 369–71
and Marx:
class struggle 368
The Communist Manifesto 368
dialectic 367
stages of development 367
and Plekhanov 369
and pre-Marxian communist ideas 364–6
Babouvism 365
Cabet 366
Campanella’s The City of the Sun 365
Christianity 364
French Revolution 365
More’s Utopia 365
Owen 366
Proudhon 365–6
Saint-Simon 366
and South and Southeast Asia 665–7
challenges facing 665
critiques by 666
disagreements over ideological orthodoxy 666
political participation 667
and Trotsky 370
Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) 369
Communist states:
and abandonment of Communist ideology 381–2
and aspiration to build communism 376, 377
and bureaucratic centralism 373
and central planning 374, 375
and Communist Party’s monopoly on power 372–3
and Cuba 379–80
and democratic centralism 373–4
and discrediting of 410
and ideological variation among 372
and International Communist Movement 376–7, 378
and leaders’ belief in ideology 377
and names of 372
and oppressive character of 372
and public ownership 374–5
and role of ideology in excluding economic reforms 375
and socialist market economy 374
and Stalinism 378–9
and Yugoslavia 372, 375, 379
see also China
communitarianism:
and republicanism 516, 519–20
and Singapore 669
comparative gaze, and imperialism 542–3
compassion, and ideological orientation 242
conceptual history and ideology 3–17
and contention over concept of ideology:
19th century German debate 6–7
19th century social democrats 9
Cold War period 12
early American debate 5–6
end of ideology school 12–13
(p. 710) French Enlightenment 3–4
function of ideologies 12
inter-war years 10–11
linguistic turn 15–16
Marx and Engels 7–9
Napoleon’s critique 4–5
post-Second World War 11–13
totalitarianism 13–14
and discursive struggles 3, 15–16
and ideology as action-oriented concept 7
and indefinability of ideology 3
and linguistic turn 15–16
and morphological analysis of ideology 132
and nature of democratic politics 3
and strength of approach 17
and time philosophy 16–17
and weakness of approach 17
Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) 395
Congress for Cultural Freedom (CCF) 92, 95, 97, 98, 106
Congress of Oppressed Nationalities (1927) 618
conservatism 57
and Big Society 307–8
and constitutionalism 305
and critique of ideology 6
and democracy 469
and inequality 57, 468
(p. 711) and Latin America 587–90
in 19th century 588–9
in 20th century 589–90
hostility to liberalism 587–8
religion 588
and limits on scope of political action 293–4
and mistaken assumptions of radical politics 293
and moderate conservatism 298–301
accommodation with mass democracy 300–1
assuming all men to be knaves 299–300
commitment to limited state 300
ideal of 298–9
middle-way strategy 301
organic vision of society 300
role of the state 300–1
theological ground for 299
tragic vision 299
as modernizing project 308
and national identity 465–6
and national sovereignty 467
and New Right:
civil association 304–5
concerns of 301–2
defence of free market 302–4
Hayek’s thought 302–4
national identity 302
reformulation of organic position 302
as positive ideology 293
and radical conservatism 297–8
association with Nazism and fascism 298
inter-war Germany 297–8
post-war strategies 298
problems with 298
and reactionary conservatism 294–7
abandonment of politics 296–7
charismatic leadership 296
critique of democracy 295
demonizing of groups 295
extra-constitutional strategies 295–6
fascism 296
instability of 295
joining with revolutionary party 296
marginalization of 295
religion 294
strategies of 295–7
utopianism of 295, 297
and schools of 294
and United States 305–7
Chicago school 306
libertarianism 305
neoconservatism 306
New Conservatism 305–6
Paleoconservatism 306
rational choice theory 306
Tea Party 306–7
conservative nationalism 465–6, 467–8
Conservative Party (UK) 412–13
and Big Society 307–8
constitutionalism 597–8
and conservatism 305
and cultural diversity 598
and Latin America 596–7, 598, 600
and post-nationalist 600
constitutional liberalism 524–5
constitutional patriotism 333
constitutions, and ideology 131–2
context models, and ideological discourse 181–2
contrapuntal reading 276
Convention People’s Party (Ghana) 616
corporatism 477
and fascism 484
and social democracy 355
cosmopolitan democracy 143–4
and emancipation 143–4
and republicanism 528
cosmopolitanism, and British intellectuals 262
courts, and liberalism 337
critical discourse analysis (CDA) 134, 176
critical theory:
and contemporary state of 149–52
and distinctive contribution of 138
and domination 138, 141–4
and emancipation 138, 141
and founding premise of 138
and guiding principle of 138
and Habermasian thought 140–4
and ideology 11–12
and impasse in 141
and interdisciplinary nature of 139
and liberalism 139
and poststructuralism 146–8
and reflexivity 139
Cuba 379–80
and influence in Latin America 592–3
cultural anthropology 115
cultural diversity, and constitutionalism 598
cultural identity 276
cultural nationalism, and African ideologies 610–11
culture:
and economic libertarianism 419
and nationalism 453, 467–8
cynicism, and ideology 165, 200
decentralization, and green ideology 427
decolonization 100, 105
decommodification 353
deconstruction 159, 171 n4
decontestation 161, 171 n7 , 216–17
and morphological analysis of ideology 118, 120–1, 123, 129, 130
and national imaginary 221
deep ecology 424, 426
and green anarchisms 398
deliberation 141, 258
and cosmopolitan democracy 143–4
and domination 141–4
and rhetoric 203–4
democracy:
and Catholic Church:
John XXIII 325–6
Pius XII on 323
Pius XI’s condemnation of 316
Toniolo’s definition of 318
and conservatism 469
and developmentalism 668–9
and economic libertarianism 417–18
and fascism 469
and ideology 323
and intellectuals 258–9
and Latin America 587
and moderate Islamism (wasatiyya) 638–9
and nationalism 469
and National Socialism 469
and populism 505–6
relationship between 506–7
and reactionary critique of 295
and rhetoric 209
and suspicion of 469
democratic centralism 373–4
and China 381
democratization 121
and green ideology 427
and imperialism 543
and populism 507
dependency culture 306, 407
development:
and ideology 105
and imperialism 543
developmentalism, and South and Southeast Asia 667–9
democracy 668
difference feminism 577
(p. 712) direct action:
and green ideology 428
and social anarchisms 390
direct democracy, and populism 505
discourse and ideology 133–4, 175, 176, 180–1
and approach to studying ideologies 198, 199
and context models 181–2
and formal structures of discourse 188–9
argumentation 193
fallacies 193–4
lexicon 189–90
narration 193
order 192–3
salience 193
syntax 190–2
and ideology as social cognition 176–8
attitudes 178–9
mental models 179–80
structure of ideologies 178
and methods of discourse analysis 176
and neglect of 175
and reproduction of ideology 175
and semantics of ideological discourse 182–8
actor descriptions 185–6
disclaimers 187
implications and presuppositions 185
levels of generality and specificity 186–7
local coherence 184–5
metaphor 187
modalities 183–4
propositions 183
topic 182–3
as social practice 176
discourse ethics 142
disgust, and ideological orientation 240
divine right of kings 56
domination 138, 141–4
and ideology 175
and republicanism:
constraining private power 526–7
constraining public power 526–8
freedom as non-domination 518–26
Dreyfus Affair 477
dystopia 440, 448
Earth Liberation Front (ELF) 428–9
Eastern Europe:
and agrarian populism 495
and economic libertarianism 406
and liberalism 338–9
ecocentrism 425, 426
ecological law, and green ideology 427–8
ecologism, see green ideology
economic liberalism 405
economic libertarianism 406
and campaign against collectivism:
alliances with anti-collectivist forces 411
communist economies 410
moral certainty 411
social democracy 410–11
and central planning, critique of 419
and culture 419
and democracy, distrust of 417–18
and dilemma in economic thought of 418
and diversity of 407–8
and freedom 414
and influence of 406
and knowledge, attitude to 418–19
and market failure 419
and opposition to 406
and origins and development of 406–7
campaign against collectivism 410–11
Cold War 408
crisis of 1970s 412–13
experience of Nazism and Stalinism 408
Hayek’s Road to Serfdom 408–9
Mont Pelerin Society 409
post-war consensus 411–12
post-war period 409–10
power of ideas 410
reaction against state expansion 408
and paleo-libertarians 419
and revival of free market doctrines 405, 406
puzzling nature of 406
and the state 413–16
Austrian School 415
coercive nature of 413–14
depoliticization of economic policy 416
dismantling of 413
minimal state 414–15
new public management 416
(p. 713) protection of market order 415
suspicion of 413
Virginia public choice school 415–16
economic policy, and depoliticization of 416
economics, and justification of imperialism 544–5
Ecuador, and populism 505, 595
education, and expansion of 99–100
Egypt 608, 617–18
and moderate Islamism (wasatiyya) 637, 638
and Muslim Brotherhood 629, 637, 640
Egyptian Feminist Union 630
elites:
and discursive superstructure 233–4
and disproportionate influence of 234
and elite theory 476, 478
as ideological codifiers 216
and populism 502–4
elitism 499
emancipation, and liberalism 331
empty signifiers 162–4, 169
end of ideology thesis 12–13, 90, 221
and antecedents of 92–4
Engels 92–3
German social theory 93–4
response to totalitarianism 94
and change in material circumstances 107
and Cold War context of 91–2, 94–7
anti-Communism 94–5
conservative and dampening effect 95–6
limiting of debate and criticism 96
Milan conference of CCF (1955) 97
and conservative sensibility 106–7
and end of ideology debate 99–107
afterglow of 107–10
criticism of thesis 101
Daniel Bell 100, 103–5
meaning of ideology 100–1
misguided criticism of thesis 103–4
responses to welfare-state capitalism 101–2
role of intellectuals 102–3
Seymour Martin Lipset 100
socialism’s irrelevance 101
and Fukuyama’s The End of History 108
as ideology of progress 91
and Judt’s Ill Fares the Land 108–10
and morphological analysis of ideology 123
and multiple meanings of 91, 92
and other discussion of ideology in 1960s 105–7
and overdetermined character of 92
and postmodernism 107–8
and poststructuralism 156
and social-democratic liberalism 98
and structure of feeling embodied by 106
and uncertain meaning of ideology 90–1
Enlightenment:
and origins of ideology 3–4
and totalitarian democracy 476
environmental anarchisms 397–8
environmentalism:
and Africa 621
and death of 433–4
and sceptical environmentalism 432–3
epistemic communities, and knowledge 177
epistemic motivation, and system justification 237–9
equality, and left-right attitudes towards 235–6
essential contestability, and morphological analysis of ideology 119–20, 121
essentialism, and postcolonialism 286
Ethiopia 608
Ethiopianism 612
ethnic nationalism 458
eurocommunism 11
European integration:
and British intellectuals 261
and radical conservatism 298
Europeanism, and neo-fascism 487–8
evolutionary biology:
and ideologies 453
and nationalism 466
exclusion, and ideology 15
exemplarity 172 n24
existential motivation, and system justification 239–40
Fabian Society 349
Faisceau (fascist movement) 479
(p. 714) false consciousness 35, 42–4, 54 n3 , 62, 94, 160, 176, 441, 677
Falun Gong 227
fantasmatic logics 167–8
fantasy 165–6, 168
Farmers Party (Netherlands) 495
fascism 13, 14, 65, 66, 69
and anti-Semitism 482, 483
and colonial ambitions 483
and corporatism 484
and democracy 469
and economic policy 484–5
and elusiveness of 474–5
and Europeanist thinking 483–4
and freedom 468
and ideology 67, 68
consistency with 70
denial of possession of 69
and Latin America 589
and leadership 480–1
and living space 483
as male-dominated ethic 481
and manipulated activism 481
and myths 482
and nationalism 466, 467–8, 475
and neo-fascism 486–9
anti-Semitism 488
Bardèche’s attempt to rehabilitate fascism 486–7
economic thinking 488
Europeanism 487–8
European New Right (Nouvelle Droite) 487
Evola’s elitist approach 487
Holocaust denial 488
immigration 488
and the ‘new man’ 475, 480, 481
and origins of 476–9, 488
anti-Enlightenment 476–7
elite theory 478
Enlightenment thought 476
First World War 479
French Revolution 476
Plato 476
pre-First World War France 477
racial thinking 477–8
social Darwinism 478
Volkisch movement 477
as political religion 480
and propaganda 475
and racism 482–3
and radical conservatism 298
and reactionary conservatism 296
and rebirth 479–80
as revolutionary form of modernity 480
and role of leader 68
and sacralization of politics 68
and short duration of 490
and the state 485
and syncretic nature of 482, 488
and Third Way 475, 484
and totalitarianism 485
and variations within 475
and violence 481–2
and welfare state 485
and women 481
feminism:
and academic feminism 563
and activist feminism 563
and African feminism 620–1
and ambiguity within 563–4, 572
and anarcha-feminism 396, 397
and beauty practices 566
and black women 572
and bodily experience 572
and consciousness-raising 575
and diversity of 562
and entrenchment of gender 568–73
behaviours and attitudes 568
biological differences 568
cultural practices 570–1
culture 573
differences between women 572–3
queer theory 571
questioning of gender difference 568–9
sex-gender distinction 569–70
transgenderism and transsexuality 571–2
and fetishism of choice 564, 565–6
and gender inequality 564, 565, 566
and gender studies 563
as ideology 562, 564
and multiculturalism 573
(p. 715) and need for change 575–7
commitment to 575
difference feminism 577
feminist reforms 576
gender categories 576
genderqueer 576
radical feminism 576–7
and patriarchy 564, 579 n20
existence of 573–5
gender inequality 564–5
as ideology 562
refusal of 562
social construction 574–5
and political nature of 564
and postcolonial feminism 279
and postmodernism 575
and prison of biology 564, 566–7
and sex-gender distinction 569
parenthood 569–70
and sexist oppression 565
and sexual violence 576–7
and three theses of 567–8
and transfeminism 571
and utopianism 439
and women 563–4
and women’s studies 563
Finland 495
First World War, and origins of fascism 479
Flemish Block (Flemish Interest) 497
floating signifiers 163
Ford Foundation 74
France:
and agrarian populism 495
and Christian Democracy 321–2
and debate on ideology 4–5
and fascism 477
and liberalism 330
and republicanism 517, 520
and social Catholicism 315, 316
Frankfurt School 80
and end of ideology thesis 93–4
Free Democratic Party (Germany) 333
freedom:
and anarcho-capitalism 389
and constitutional liberalism 524–5
and economic libertarianism 414
and fascism 468
and green ideology 431
and interpretations of 177–8
and liberalism 520–6
and National Socialism 468
and negative freedom 518
and neoliberalism 341
and positive freedom 518
and republicanism 518–26
Freedom Party of Austria (FPO) 494, 497, 503
free market:
and liberalism 332
and New Right’s defence of 302–4
and revival of doctrines of 405
free trade:
and imperialism 548
and liberalism 332
French Revolution:
and communist ideas 365
and ideology 3, 4–5, 56, 216
and revolutionary language 16
and Revolutionary rhetoric 16
and totalitarian democracy 476
functionalism 10, 12
Furious Five Revolutionary Collective 397
gender:
and entrenchment of 568–73
behaviours and attitudes 568
biological differences 568
culture 573
differences between women 572–3
queer theory 571
questioning of gender difference 568–9
sex-gender distinction 569–70
transgenderism and transsexuality 571–2
and populism 508
and sex-gender distinction 569
parenthood 569–70
and transforming gender categories 576
see also feminism
gender inequality 564, 565
and feminism 566
genderqueer 576
gender studies, and feminism 563
general will 63
and fascism 476
and populism 498, 504–6
(p. 716) geopolitics, and justification of imperialism 544
Germany:
and Christian Democracy 317
in inter-war years 321
and debate on ideology 6–8
and liberalism 333
and neoliberalism 406
and Ordo Liberals 408
and radical conservatism 297
and reconstruction of 411
and social democracy 349, 355
Ghana 611
and Nkrumaism 616
global civil society 262
global financial crisis 15
global imaginary 221–2, 539
globalization 14–15
and contemporary globalisms 215
and creation of new identities 214
and global imaginary 214, 539
and impact on ideologies 214–15, 221–2
academic neglect of 215
and intellectuals’ characterization of 260
and justice globalism 215, 224–5
ideological claim of 224
policy proposals 224–5
tasks of 224
and market globalism 215, 222–3
challenges to 224, 225
codifiers of 223
emergence of 223
ideological claims of 223
variations of 222–3
as multidimensional set of processes 221–2
and religious globalism 215, 225–7
Islamism 225–7
and subjective aspects of 214
global justice movement 224
Gold Coast Aborigines Rights Protection Society 611
governance, and imperialism 547–50
gradualism, and radical conservatism 298
green anarchisms 398
Green Belt Movement (Kenya) 621
green ideology 422–3
and Africa 621
and challenges to 432, 436
death of environmentalism 433–4
post-ecologism 434–5
sceptical environmentalism 432–3
and decentralization 427
and direct action 428
and ecological law 427–8
and ecological restructuring 423–7
anthropocentrism 425
anti-human chauvinism 425
biocentrism 426
ecocentrism 426
ethical aspects of 425–6
meaning of 423–4
metaphysical holism 424–5
nature as model 425
sentientism 426
sustainability 426–7
and hybrid forms of 429–30
and key commitments of 423, 429, 435
and liberty 431
and marginalization of 436
and non-violence 428–9
and participatory democracy 427
and radical democratization 427
as ‘thick’ ideology 430–1, 436
as ‘thin’ ideology 429–30, 435–6
Green Party (UK) 430, 431
guerrilla warfare 593
Guinea-Bissau 619
Gurkhas 675
Hamas 629
happiness, and ideological orientation 242–3
hegemony 11, 28, 161
heresthetic 202–3
Heritage Foundation 389
hermeneutics 115
historicism 476
Hizb al-Da’wa al-Islamiyya 630
holism, and green ideology 424–5
holistic ideologies 57–8
and common assumption of 58
and organic nature of society 58
and political orientation 58
and total ideologies 59–62
and typical concepts of 59
(p. 717) Holocaust denial 488
human rights, and African ideologies 609, 622–3
Hungary 375, 410
and agrarian populism 495
Hussite movement 364
hybrid ideologies 392
hybridization:
and green ideology 429–30
and ideological synthesis 392
and social anarchisms 400
identity:
and breakdown of political order 162
and discursive constitution of 162
and language 159
and post-Marxist discursive account of ideology 169
and psychoanalytic account of ideology 169
and psychoanalytic thought 159
and relational nature of 171 n16
ideological discourse, see discourse and ideology
ideological morphology, see morphological analysis of ideology
ideology:
as action-oriented concept 7, 56
and approaches to analysis of 157–9, 198–9
and association with domination 175
and attitudes 178–9
and attribution to Others 175
as belief systems 177
and cognitive nature of 176–7
and conceptual analysis of 157–8, 198, 386
and contention over concept of ideology:
clash of civilizations 15
globalization 14–15
post-Cold War period 14–15
as contested concept 441, 448
and contextual nature of 216
and continued use of term 156
and core concepts 124–5, 216, 386, 500
and cynical mode of functioning 165
and definitions of 6, 90, 91, 105, 216, 314, 445, 538
and exclusion 15
and French Revolution 4–5
and history of concept 56–7
19th century German debate 6–8
19th century social democrats 9
clash of civilizations 15
Cold War period 12
early American debate 5–6
end of ideology school 12–13
French Enlightenment 3–4
French Revolution 3, 4–5, 56, 216
globalization 14–15
inter-war years 10–11
linguistic turn 15–16
Marxism 7–9
Napoleon’s critique 4–5
post-Cold War period 14–15
post-Second World War 11–13
totalitarianism 13–14
and Honneth’s thought 144–8
and hybrid ideologies 392
and ideological synthesis 391, 392
hybridization 392
and integrative role of 216
and knowledge 177
as language of politics 159
and Mannheim Paradox 38, 445, 447
and media of expression 387
and mental models 179–80
and morality of 122
and negative connotations of 7, 8, 9, 17, 439, 441
and origins of term 3–4, 441
and peripheral concepts 125–6, 500
and polarized nature of 175, 178
and political function of 12
and psychological dimension of 10–11
and religious aspects of 216
as social cognition 176–8
and social imaginaries 217–18, 539
as socially shared belief system 177
and sociology 4
and structure of 178
morphological analysis of ideology
(p. 718) ideology critique 133
and central problem for 139
and central role of 138–9
and contemporary state of 149–52
and deliberation 141–4
and disclosure 139
and domination 141–4
and emancipation 139, 140
and enduring relevance of 152
and Habermasian thought 140–4
and labour 147–8
and obstacles in practical realization of 139–40
and organized self-realization 147
and poststructuralism 146–8
and recognition 144–6, 148–9
and reflexivity 139
and suffering 145, 146
images 164–5
imaginaries 161, 168
and definition of 538
imagined communities 217, 219
immigration:
and neo-fascism 488
and xenophobic populism 497
imperialism 536
and capitalism 545
and criticism of, civilizational argument 541
and definition of 536
formal and informal imperialism 536–7
and definition of empire 536
and governance, ideologies of 538, 547–50
administrative capacity 547–8
contemporary influence 550
formal and informal rule 548
indirect rule 549
knowledge acquisition 548
public education 548–9
settler colonialism 549
violence 550
and hierarchical classification of peoples 539
and imperial imaginaries 538–43
civilizational difference 539, 540–1
comparative gaze 542–3
conceptions of time and space 541–2
contemporary influence 543
historical sensibility 542
meaning of 539
and justification, ideologies of 538, 543–7
civilizational argument 541
commercial-exploitative 544–5
liberal-civilizational 546
martialist 547
non-economic factors 545–6
realist-geopolitical 544
republicanism 546–7
scholarly expression of 543–4
and liberalism 332, 338, 546
anti-imperialism 551–2
and Marxism 545, 547
and multi-disciplinary study of 537
and neoliberalism 548
and race 540–1, 675
and resistance, ideologies of 538, 550–4
contemporary world 554
Fanon 553–4
Gandhian non-violence 553
internal opposition 551–2
liberal criticism of 551–2
Marxism 547
violence 553–4
and technological development 541–2
import-substituting industrialization (ISI) 496
Independent Labour Party (ILP) (UK) 349
Independent Smallholders’ Party (FKgP) (Hungary) 495
India:
and anti-colonial thought 283
and British imperialism 675
public education 548–9
and caste 676–7
and communism 665, 666
and Constitution of (1950) 664
and democracy 664
and developmentalism 667–8
and liberalism in colonial period 663
and nationalism 667–8
Gandhi’s vision of self-rule 669–70
and race 676
and religion 671, 673
and secularism 676
(p. 719) indigenism:
and constitutionalism 597–8
and Latin America 592, 593
indigenism, and Latin America 594, 597
indirect rule, and imperialism 549
individualism, and liberalism 330
individualist ideologies 57
and political orientation 58
individuality, and liberalism 333, 334
Indochina Communist Party 665
Indonesia:
and communism 665
and developmentalism 668
and Pancasila 674
and popular protests 665
and religion 673–4
Indonesia Communist Party 665
industrial revolution 57
Industrial Workers Association (IWA) 395
Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) 393, 395
inflation, and New Right attitude towards 304
Institute for Humane Studies 405
Institute of Economic Affairs 389, 405, 411
institutions 387
Institut National des Sciences et Arts 4–5
intellectuals:
and democratic contribution of 258–9
and detachment from national political cultures 251, 254, 255, 257, 259
criticism of 265–6
as exiles 257
and expertise of 257–8
and fallacy of transcending ideological influence 252
and ideology 252–5
and national and social constitution of 256–7
and nature and role of 102–3, 251, 266–7
Antonio Gramsci on 252, 255, 256
Daniel Bell on 258
Edward Said on 256–7, 274
Jeffrey Goldfarb on 259
Julien Benda on 252, 254–5, 256
Karl Mannheim on 252–4, 256, 257–8
Michael Walzer on 265–6
and political theory’s neglect of 251
and politics of nationhood in United Kingdom 259–66
anti-intellectualism 264
anti-national stance 260
characterization of globalization 260
cosmopolitanism 262
decline of nation-state 260–1
English identity 263–4
European integration 261
global civil society 262
multiculturalism 262–3
recasting British identity 263
role of nationalist ideas 264–5
shift from government to governance 260
and turn towards the post-national 251–2, 257, 267
International Communist Movement 376–7, 378
internationalism 221
and Communism 376
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 224, 407, 620
International Relations, and imperialism 537
Iran 634, 635
Iraq 550
Islah Party (Yemen) 629, 638
Islam:
and critique of Western materialism 629, 632
as ‘din wa dawla’ (religion and state) 627
and Islamic awakening (al-sahwa al-Islamiyya) 629
and Islamic modernism 628–9
and Muslim Brotherhood 629
and Nahda (renaissance or awakening) 628
and origins of ideological understanding of 627–30
and politics 673
and response to decline and colonization 628–9
and Salafism 627, 628
and Sharia law 628
and Shi’i Muslims 628, 642 n1
and Sufism 627
and Sunni Muslims 628, 642 n1
and Wahhabism 627, 671
Islamic Action Front (Jordan) 629, 638
(p. 720) Islamism:
and Arab Spring 641–2
and conservative Islamism 637
distinction from radical Islamism 637
and expulsion of Palestinians (1948) 631
and ideologues of:
al-Sadr 629–30
Maududi 629
and Islamic socialism 631
and Islamic state 634–5, 636, 638
and moderate Islamism (wasatiyya) 637–9
democracy 638–9
jihad 639–40
political participation 640
and Muslim Brotherhood 629, 637, 640
and post-Islamism 640–1
and religious globalism 225–7
and revolutionary Islamism 631–3, 637
Iranian revolution 633, 634, 635
jahiliyya 632, 633
jihad 632–3
near enemy 633
radicalization of Shi’i Islam 633–5
Ruholla Khomeini’s thought 633–4
seizing power from secular governments 633
vanguard 632
and secularism 636
and Six Day War (1967) 631
and transnational radical Islamism 635–6
and women 630–1
Italian Nationalist Association (ANI) 484
Italian Socialist Movement (MSI) 486
Italy:
and 1848 revolution 316
and populism 497, 508
Jacobinism 58–9, 63
Jama’at-i Islami (India) 629, 671
Japan 411
Jordan 631
Justice and Development Party (Morocco) 638
justice globalism 215, 224–5
and ideological claim of 224
and policy proposals 224–5
and tasks of 224
Kenya 614, 621
Keynesianism 353, 354
Khmer Rouge 665
knowledge:
and economic libertarianism 418–19
and ideology 177
and knowledge criteria 177
and nature of 177
and semantic evaluation of 129
as shared beliefs 177
Konfederatsiya Revolyutsionnikh Anarkho-Sindikalistov 395
Kuomintang (KMT) 648
labour, and ideology critique 147–8
Labour Party (UK) 355
and Crosland’s The Future of Socialism 356–7
and welfare state 354
language 150
and analysis of political ideas 158–9
and discourse analysis 133–4
and identity formation 159
and ideology 159
and political thought 158
Laos 665
Latin America:
and anarchism 590
and anti-communism 589–90
and clientelism 500
and conservatism 587–90
in 19th century 588–9
in 20th century 589–90
hostility to liberalism 587–8
religion 588
and constitutionalism 598
post-nationalist 600
and constitutional reforms 596–7, 602 n11
and democracy 587
and fascism 589
and ideological traditions 600–1
and import-substituting industrialization 496
and indigenism 592, 593, 594, 597
and legal pluralism 599–600
and liberalism 583–7
in 20th century 585–7
in early 19th century 584–5
in later 19th century 585–6
and Mexican Revolution (1910), influence of 594–5
and multiculturalism 596–7, 598–9, 600
and nationalism 595
and neoliberalism 587
and populism 495–6, 504, 507, 594, 595–6
direct democracy 505
social integration 596
and positivism 585–6, 590
and relativism 599
and socialism 590–4
in 19th century 590
(p. 721) in 20th century 591–4
Cold War period 592–3
communist parties 591, 592
Cuban influence 592–3
Liberation Theology 593
Marxism 591–3
Soviet influence 591, 592
Trotskyism 592
and Spanish Empire 583
La Voce (journal) 478
law, and liberalism 337
leadership, and fascism 480–1
left-wing ideology:
and characteristics of 235
and distinction from right-wing ideology 235
and individual psychological needs 236
and system justification 236
epistemic motivation 237–9
legal pluralism 600
lexicon, and discourse analysis 189–90
liberalism 329–30, 344
and American political thought 79
academic dominance of 80–1
as contested concept 81
and anarchism 388
and Catholic Church on danger of 315–16
and contemporary liberal ideologies 342–4
as ideology of the universal 344
political difficulties 343–4
in political philosophy 342–3
strength and weakness of 342
and core concepts 341
and criticism of
defenders of established order 339
exclusionary nature of 339–40
Marxist criticism of 339
socialists 339
vulnerability to 340, 341
and diversity of 329, 330
and durability and adaptability of 329
and freedom, differences from republican conception of 520–6
and highest political values 583–4
and historical development of 330–9
American progressivism 335
American revolution 331
British new liberalism 335, 336
cultural elitism 334
developmental strand of 334–5
early twentieth century 335–6
Eastern Europe 338–9
emancipation 331
ethical character of 333–4
free markets 332
free trade 332
Germany 333
ideology of protection 337
impact of Second World War 336
imperialism 332, 338
individuality 333, 334
inter-war years 336
John Stuart Mill 333–4
middle class 333
multiculturalism 338
natural rights theories 331
nineteenth century 330–1, 332–4
origins of 331
philosophical radicalism 332
pluralism 338
post-war years 336–9
proto-liberalisms 331
rights 336–7
role of courts 337
social contract 331
social justice 337
tension between universal and particular 334, 337–8
welfare state 335
(p. 722) and imperialism 332, 338, 546
anti-imperialism 551–2
and India, colonial period 663
as individualist creed 330
and influence of 64
and Latin America 583–7
in 20th century 585–7
Constant’s influence 584
in early 19th century 584–5
in later 19th century 585–6
and multiculturalism 602 n15
and neoliberalism 341
and primacy of the individual 57
and republicanism, differences between 514, 518
conceptions of freedom 520–6
constraining private power 526–7
constraining public power 527–8
focus of 526–9
and significance of 329
and South and Southeast Asia 662–5
colonial period 662–4
democracy 664
metropolitan activism 664–5
and Spanish origins of term 601 n1
and varieties of 341–2
liberal nationalism:
and individual autonomy 467
and national identity 464–5
and self-determination 468–9
and sovereignty 467
Liberation Theology 593
Liberia 610, 611
Libertarian Alliance 389
libertarianism 405
libertarian municipalism 425
Libertarian Party 389
libertarian paternalism 308
liberty, see freedom
Liberty Foundation 405
linguistic turn 15–16, 115, 155–6, 170 n1
List Pim Fortuyn 509
Malayan Communist Party 665
Malaysia:
and communism 665
and developmentalism 668
and indigenity 676
and popular protests 665
and religion 671
Mali 608
Mannheim Paradox 38, 445, 447
market failure, and economic libertarianism 419
market globalism 215, 222–3
and challenges to 224, 225
and codifiers of 223
and emergence of 223
and ideological claims of 223
and variations of 222–3
Marshall Aid 411
martialism, and imperialism 547
Marxism 129, 175
and Africa 614
and Althusser 31–4
compared with Marx’s account 31–2
descriptive account of 34
as experiential relation 32
ideological moulding of individuals 33–4
ideological state apparatuses 32
universality of 34–5
and class struggle 368
and decline in influence of 107
and development of theory of 27–8
emancipatory loss 35
explanatory loss 34
loss in eclipse of critical accounts 34–5
more prominent role of 27
non-critical accounts 27–8
and dialectic 367
and Gramsci 28–31
civil society 28–9
expansive conception of 29, 30
hegemony 28
integral state 28
narrow conception of 30
Prison Notebooks 28
rejection of critical accounts 30–1
and imperialism 545, 547
and Latin America 591–3
and liberalism, criticism of 339–40
and Mannheim’s reading of 45–7
and Marx’s approach 8–9, 20
(p. 723) camera obscura analogy 8, 20
in class-divided societies 22–3
class function of 25
critical account of 21, 23
critical concerns about 26
descriptive account of 21
as element of his sociology 22
epistemological standing of ideology 24
false ideas 22, 23, 25, 26
German Ideology 7–8, 20
little discussion of 20
positive account of 21
role in his thought 21–3
social ideas 23–4
social origin of ideology 24–5
and postcolonialism 273, 281–2, 285
and stages of development 367
and subaltern studies 280
as total ideology 62
Mauritania 608
media, and expression of arguments 387
Mensheviks 369–70
mental maps, and ideologies as 217
mental models:
and ideological discourse 180
and ideologies 179–80
Mexico:
and anarchism 590
and communism 591
and conservatism 588–9
and indigenism 597
and Mexican Revolution (1910) 586, 594
influence of 594–5
and national-revolutionary polity 586
and populism 595
and Zapatista revolt 593
middle class, and liberalism 333
mimicry 275
Mises Institute 389
modernity:
and dynamics of 218
and meaning of 218
and nationalism 219
and origin of ideologies 56–7
modernization theory:
and imperialism 543
and nationalism 459
Mongolia 372
Mont Pelerin Society 409
morality, and ideology 122
morphological analysis of ideology 17, 115, 134
and aims of 116
and appraisive nature of 133
and attributes of ideology 126
and boundaries between ideologies 128–30
challenge to notion of 128–9
collective self-identification 129
and broadening of political thought and philosophy 121
and coherence and cohesion 120
and conceptual history 132
and constitutions 131–2
and constraints on ideologies 126
and decontestation 118, 120–1, 123, 129, 130, 171 n7 , 216
and discourse analysis 133–4
and essential contestability 119–20, 121
and evaluation of ideologies 133
and features of 116–19
attention to breadth of political discourse 117–18
focus on micro-structures 116–17
ideologies as discursive competitions 117
ideology as permanent form of political thinking 116
inclusiveness of 116
political concepts 116
political ideas as ideologies 118–19
and ideological families 127–8
and ideologies as differentiated phenomena 117
and inconceivability of non-ideological thinking 123–4
and mapping feasibility of political solutions 118
and move away from notions of rigid ideologies 124
and non-idealized politics and political thinking 122–3
and patterns in thinking about politics 115, 128
and political concepts 116, 126
adjacent concepts 125, 216–17
(p. 724) changes in 126
core concepts 124–5, 216, 386
interplay between 125
peripheral concepts 125–6
and political language 120
and political parties 130–1
and polysemy 120, 121, 129
and post-Marxism 132–3
and poststructuralism 132–3
and prescriptive and interpretative realism 122–3
as reaction to negative portrayal of ideology 116
and rejection of beginning of ideology thesis 123
and rejection of end of ideology thesis 123
and resistance to prescription/description dichotomy 121–2
and truth 129
and visual displays of ideologies 126
mortality awareness, and ideological orientation 239
Mouvement Républicain Populaire 312
multiculturalism 262–3
and constitutionalism 597–8
and feminism 573
and Latin America 596–7, 598–9, 600
and liberalism 338, 602 n15
Muslim Brotherhood 629
and moderate Islamism (wasatiyya) 638
and political participation 637, 640
Muslim Sisters 630
Muslim Women’s Association 630
mutual aid societies 393
myths 11, 161, 168
and fascism 482
and founding stories 444, 448
Nahda Party (Tunisia) 638, 640, 641
Narodniki 495
National Congress of British West Africa 612
National Fascist Party (PNF) (Italy) 474
National Front (France) 486, 494, 497, 517
national identity 463
and conservatism 465–6
and fascism 466
and liberal nationalism 464–5
(p. 725) and National Socialism 466–7
and New Right 302
national imaginary:
and decontestation 221
and ideologies 220–1
and social imaginary 219–20
nationalism:
and approaches to study of 458–9
and beliefs of 463–4
and biological reading of 452–3
as comparatively modern phenomenon 457
as component of modern social imaginary 219
and conceptual indistinctness 463, 470
and conservative nationalism 465–6, 467–8
and culture 453, 467–8
and definition of 219
and democracy 469
and difference between theory and practice 459–60
and distinct ethnic/cultural groups 463, 464
and distinction from national loyalty 302
and diversity of 457
and etymology of term 452
and fascism 466, 467–8, 475
and ideology 221
and India 667–8
Gandhi’s vision of self-rule 669–70
and individual autonomy:
conservative nationalism 467–8
fascism 467–8
liberal nationalism 467
and influence of 63–4
and influence of nineteenth century debates on 455
and irrationality of 461
and Latin America 595
and liberal ideological values 457
and liberal nationalism 464–5, 467, 468
and modernity 219
and national identity 463, 464
conservative nationalism 465–6
fascism 466
liberal nationalism 464–5
National Socialism 466–7
and National Socialism 466–7
and national sovereignty 464, 467
conservative nationalism 467
liberal nationalism 467
and national values 464
and origins of 453–5
debate over 454–5
distinction from idea of nation 455
prehistory argument 453–4
and paradox of embededness of nationalist beliefs 462–3
and paradox of ideological practice 459–63
as parasitic on other ideologies 470
and populism 507–8
and postcolonial regimes 456
and primacy of the collective 57
and purported naturalistic status 452
and race 466
and racism 477
and regulative themes in ideology 463–70
and renewed interest in 457
and republicanism 516, 519–20
and responses to:
negative 456
positive 456–7
and self-determination 464, 468–9
liberal nationalism 468–9
as social object 462
as social subject 462–3
and South and Southeast Asia 667
developmentalism 667–9
tradition 669–70
and subliminal nature of 462
and tension between universal and particular 457, 461–2, 463
and territory 463–4, 467
fascism 467
National Socialism 467
and theoretical naivety and political power 460
as total ideology 61
and typologies of 457–8
and untheorizability of 460
negative response to 460–1
positive response to 460
and xenophobia 457
nationality 455
National Socialism (Nazism) 13, 14, 65, 66
and anti-Semitism 482
and democracy 469
and economic policy 484
and freedom 468
and ideology 67–8
consistency with 70
denial of possession of 69
and Kulturnation 488
and Lebensraum 483
and the nation 482
and racism 466–7, 482, 483
and radical conservatism 298
and role of leader 68
and sacralization of politics 68
and the state 485–6
and Strength through Joy 484
and territorial identity 467
and Volkisch thought 477
and women 481
National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NSDAP) 479
nativism:
and populism 502
and xenophobic populism 497
natural rights theories 331
Navy League 477
Nazism, see National Socialism
Negritude 283–4, 612–14
neoconservatism 306
neofascism 486–9
and anti-Semitism 488
and Bardèche’s attempt to rehabilitate fascism 486–7
and economic thinking 488
and Europeanism 487–8
and European New Right (Nouvelle Droite) 487
and Evola’s elitist approach 487
and Holocaust denial 488
and immigration 488
neoliberalism 405
and exaggerated coherence of 407–8
and imperialism 548
and individual autonomy 147
and Latin America 587, 595
(p. 726) and liberalism 341
and liberty 341
as new dominant orthodoxy 407
and origins and development of 406–7
and social democracy:
accommodated by 359–61
criticism of 358–9
neo-republicanism, see republicanism
Nepal 665, 675
Netherlands, and populism 495, 509
neuroscience, and epistemic processes and ideology 238
New Conservatism 305–6
New Economic Policy (NEP) 373, 374
New Harmony 366
New Labour:
and intellectual influences on 266
and partial adoption of New Right doctrine 307
New Left 221, 358
new liberalism 335
new public management 416
New Right 221
and civil association 304–5
and concerns of 301–2
and defence of free market 302–4
and Hayek 302–4
and national identity 302
and reformulation of organic position 302
and rise of 407
and social democracy, criticism of 358–9
New Zealand 406
Nicaragua 593
Niger 608
Nigeria 621
Non-Aligned Movement 617, 618
non-violence:
and Gandhi 670
and green ideology 428–9
and resistance to imperialism 553
Northeastern Federation of Anarchist Communists 394
Northern League (LN) (Italy) 497, 508
ontological turn 149–50
Ordo Liberals 405, 406, 408
organicism:
and conservative nationalism 465–6
and moderate conservatism 300
and New Right 302
Organization of African Unity (OAU) 615
organized self-realization 147
Orientalism 272–4
and consistency across time 272–3
and criticism of 273
and definition of 272
Pakistan 671
Paleoconservatism 306
paleo-liberals 405
paleo-libertarians 419
Pan African Conference (1945) 614, 615
Pan Africanism:
and Nasser 617
and Nkrumah 615
parliamentary sovereignty 305, 418
participatory democracy, and green ideology 427
Participatory Economics 395
Partido Obrero Socialista 591
Partido Socialista Argentino 590
patriarchy 579 n20
and feminism 564
existence of 573–5
social construction 574–5
and gender inequality 564–5
as ideology 562
the people, and populism 498, 501–2
People’s Action Party (Singapore) 669
People’s Party (USA) 495, 501, 507
perestroika 381, 382
Peronism 496
personalism, and Christian Democracy 313, 322
personality:
and ideological orientation 234–5, 236, 238–9, 242
and system justification 237
epistemic motivation 237–9
existential motivation 239–40
relational motivation 240–2
(p. 727) Peru:
and Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana (APRA) 594–5
and anarchism 590
and indigenism 597
and Marxism 591–2
and neoliberalism 595
and populism 496, 505
Philippines 665
planning, and New Right criticism of 302–3
pluralism 499–500
and Christian Democracy 313
and legal pluralism 599–600
and liberalism 338
and political science 77, 84
critique by 84–6
rearticulation of 79–80, 83–4
and populism 499–500
Poland 495
politeness, and ideological orientation 242
political parties, and ideology 130–1
political psychology 232
political rhetoric, see rhetoric
political science:
and American democratic thought 75
as an American social science 75
and behaviouralism 75–6
public opinion 81
and behavioural revolution 80, 82–5
commitment to scientific approach 82–3
defence of interest-group liberalism 81
definition of 85
reaction against 85
and conception of the State 76
and descriptive method for constructing democratic theory 83–4
and development of:
inter-war years 78–9
nineteenth century 76
post-Second World War 80–7
pre-First World War 77–8
and distancing from American political culture 75
and formation of American Political Science Association 77
and group politics 78, 83–4
and ideological and methodological break with past 77
and liberalism 79
academic dominance of 80–1
as contested concept 81
critique of 84–5
liberalism 79
and pluralism 77, 84
critique of 84–6
rearticulation of 79–80, 83–4
and post-behavioural era 86–7
and scientific status 77
and scientization of 81–2
and tension in 75
politics:
and ideologization of 64–5
and sacralization of 61, 68
polysemy 120, 121, 129
Popular Front 91, 94, 378, 592
popular sovereignty 56
and populism 501
populism:
and agrarian populism 495, 507
and anti-elitism 498, 502–4, 596
economic power of elites 503–4
elites as agents of alien powers 504
elites as alien 504
identifying elites 503
sustaining when in power 503
and anti-Semitism 504
and authoritarianism 497, 506
and clientelism, distinction from 500
and conceptual confusion over 493–4
as contested concept 493, 595–6
and definitions of 498
and democracy 505–6
relationship between 506–7
and democratization 507
and diffusion of 509–10
and diversity of 500
in Eastern Europe 495
in European context 493
and explaining emergence or absence of 509
and flexibility of 498, 499, 500, 504, 509
and gender 508
(p. 728) and the general will 498, 504–6
direct democracy 505
suspicion of representative government 505
and Latin America 493, 495–6, 507, 594, 595–6
social integration 596
and media use of term 493–4
as mental map 498–9
and nationalism 507–8
and nativism 497, 502
and opposites to:
elitism 499
pluralism 499–500
and origins of 494
and the people 498, 501–2, 596
common people 501–2
peoples as nations 502
as sovereign 501
as political style 595
and radical right parties:
core ideology of 497
emphasis on Muslims 497–8
nationalism 507–8
and republicanism 519
in Russia 495, 507
and socioeconomic populism 495–6
as ‘thin’ ideology 498–9
advantages of conceptualizing as 508–10
and types of 494
in United States 495, 507
in Western Europe 497–8, 507–8
and xenophobic populism 497–8
positivism 5, 59, 60, 62, 63, 82, 601 n5
and Latin America 585–6, 590
post-anarchism 399
postcolonialism 271–2
and Africa 622
and anti-colonial archive 282–7
critique of nativist and national consciousness 285
Pan-Africanist thought 283–4
reverse ethnocentrism 285–6
scepticism of universalism 286
synthesis 286
tensions within 283
and capitalism 282
and change in meaning of 271
and criticism of 281–2
and Edward Said 272–4
contrapuntal reading 276
and essentialism 286
and Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak 277–9
and Homi Bhabha 274–6, 280–1
colonial stereotypes 274–5
mimicry 275
religious conversion in colonial India 275–6
and Marxism 273, 281–2, 285
and nationalism 456
and Orientalism 272–4
consistency across time 272–3
criticism of 273
definition of 272
and origins of 272
and perspective of 280–1
and postcolonial feminism 279
and poststructuralism 273–4
and subaltern studies 277–9, 280
critique of 277–9
Marxism 280
post-Marxism:
and ideology 132–3, 160–1, 168–9
empty signifiers 162–4, 169
images 164–5
(p. 729) myths and imaginaries 161, 168
subjectivity 162
postmodernism 107
and feminism 575
poststructuralism:
and broad conception of 156
and critical theory 146–8
and Edward Said 273–4
and end of ideology thesis 156
and ideology 132–3, 155, 156
approach to analysis of 157
and language 159
and linguistic turn 155
and political theory 159
and post-Marxist discursive account of ideology 160–1, 168–9
empty signifiers 162–4, 169
images 164–5
myths and imaginaries 161, 168
subjectivity 162
and psychoanalytic account of ideology 165–8, 169–70
distinction from post-Marxist approach 166
fantasmatic logics 167–8
fantasy 165–6, 168
the real 166, 172 n26
sublime objects 167
and reclaiming ideology 157–60
approaches to analysis of 157–9
and ubiquity of ideology 156, 157, 163–4
Poujadists 495
power politics, and justification of imperialism 544
practices 387
Prague Spring 410
prefixes, and proliferation of 215
prejudice 142
primitivism, and green anarchisms 398
progress:
and faith in 57, 60
and rejection of idea of 60
progressive taxation 354
progressive total ideologies 60
and political messianism 61
and religion 60–1
and revolutionary faith 61
as secular religions 61
propaganda, and fascism 475
property rights, and individualist anarchisms 389
Protestantism, and Christian Democracy 318
psychoanalytic thought:
and identity formation 159
and ideology 165–8, 169–70
fantasmatic logics 167–8
fantasy 165–6, 168
the real 166, 172 n26
sublime objects 167
public choice economics 405
and depoliticization of economic policy 416
and the state 415–16
public goods, and state intervention 414
public opinion 81
and elite influence on ideological positions 234
public ownership, and Communist states 374–5
public reason 529
public sector:
and libertarian public choice theory 415–16
and new public management 416
queer anarchism 397
queer theory, and entrenchment of gender 571
racism:
and fascism 482–3
and imperialism 540–1, 675
and influence of 64
and late 19th/early 20th-century 477–8
and nationalism 466, 477
and National Socialism 466–7, 482, 483
(p. 730) and South and Southeast Asia 675–6
as total ideology 61
racist discourse 181
Rainbow Circle 336
rational choice analysis 82, 202–3
rational choice theory, and conservatism 306
reactionary ideologies 57
and total ideology 60
realism:
and justification of imperialism 544
and prescriptive and interpretative 122–3
Rechtsstaat 333
recognition, and ideology critique 144–6, 148–9
Red Toryism 307
relational motivation, and system justification 240–2
relationism 42–3, 253
relativism, and Latin America 599
religion:
and Christian Democracy:
role of Catholic church 315
vision of Christian past 314–15
and ideology 670–1
and reactionary conservatism 294
and South and Southeast Asia 671–4
democratic institutions 671–2
Islam 673–4
religious extremism 671
religious majoritarianism 672
source of ideological concepts and expression 672–3
state intervention 671
and total ideology 60–1
religious globalism 215, 225–7
and Islamism 225–7
representation, and meanings of 278
republicanism:
and communitarianism 516, 519–20
and constraining private power 526–7
and constraining public power 527–8
and cosmopolitan democracy 528
and Euro-Atlantic political tradition 513
and France 517, 520
and freedom:
differences from liberal conception of 520–6
as non-domination 518–26
and global politics 528
and imperialism 542, 546–7
anti-imperialism 552
and liberalism, differences between 514, 518
conceptions of freedom 520–6
constraining private power 526–7
constraining public power 527–8
focus of 526–9
and nationalism 516, 519–20
and populism 519
and progressive politics 520, 528–31
accountability and popular control 530–1
civic solidarity 531
language to criticize neoliberalism 530
and revival of 513–18
revolution, and total ideology 61
rhetoric:
and connotations of 200
as constitutive part of Western political tradition 201–2
and context of ideological rhetoric 205–6
and definition of 201
and deliberation 203–4
and democracy 209
and growth of interest in 202, 203, 205
and heresthetic 202–3
and ideological argumentation 208
appeal to authority 206–7
appeal to emotion 207
appeal to ethos 206–7
enthymeme 208
political style 207
quasi-logical forms of 208
and necessity of 201
and policy analysis 204
and political leadership 204–5
and political thought 203–4
and rational choice analysis 202–3
and stasis theory 205–6
and study of ideologies 197–8, 201, 209–10
and study of politics 202–5
and virtues of 200–2
rights, and liberalism 336–7
right-wing ideology:
and characteristics of 235
and distinction from left-wing ideology 235
and individual psychological needs 236
and system justification 236
epistemic motivation 237–9
existential motivation 239–40
relational motivation 241–2
right wing radical parties (Western Europe) 497–8
and core ideology of 497
and emphasis on Muslims 497–8
and nationalism 507–8
Rockefeller Foundation 74, 82
Romanticism:
and anti-Semitism 477
and influence on Volkisch movement 477
and total ideology 61–2
Runnymede Trust, and Commission on the Future of Multi-Ethnic Britain 263
Rural Party (Finland) 495
Russia, and agrarian populism 495, 507
(p. 731) Russian Revolution 586, 591
and Bolshevik seizure of power 370
and Marx’s view of 368–9
Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) 369, 371
Rwanda 622
Salafism 627, 628
Salò Republic 484, 487
Sandinistas 593
Saudi Arabia 671
security, and system justification 239–40
Self-Defence of the Republic of Poland 495
self-determination, and nationalism 464, 468–9
self-rule (swaraj), Gandhi’s vision of 669–70
Senegal 613, 614
sentientism 426
sexual violence 576–7
Sharia law 628
Sierra Leone 610
signifiers:
and empty signifiers 162–4, 169
and floating signifiers 163
and study of ideologies 198
Singapore 668, 669
Situationist International 388
slavery 519, 521
and Abolitionist movement 609–10
and Africa 607
social change, and left-right attitudes towards 235–6
social choice theory 202–3
social cognition, and ideology as 176–8, 235
attitudes 178–9
mental models 179–80
social contract, and liberalism 331
social Darwinism 425, 466
and origins of fascism 478
social democracy:
and achievement of 362
as compromise between capitalism and socialism 348
and definition of 348
and economic libertarianism, opposed by 410–11
and emergence of 349–52
Bernstein’s revisionary socialism 349–51
construction of cross-class coalitions 352
debate over policy 352
democratic commitment of 352
inter-war years 351
labour movements of north-west Europe 349
late nineteenth century 349–51
political theory 352
role of legislation and government policy 352
Sweden 351, 352
and golden age of 352–7
confidence of 357
as contestable concept 352
corporatism 355
Crosland’s The Future of Socialism 356–7
economic democracy 354–5
impact of Second World War 353
Keynesianism 353, 354
new economic thinking 353
post-war economic boom 354
progressive taxation 354
reduced salience of public ownership 354
revisionism of 1950s 355–6
socialization of income flows 354
welfare state 353–4
and late-twentieth century crisis in 357
acceptance of constraints on political action 360
accommodation with neoliberalism 359–61
change in employment patterns 357
cultural changes 357
gender equality 360–1
radicalization 358
rise of neoliberalism 358–9
sociological context of 357
supply-side social democracy 360
Sweden 358
and provisional utopianism 361–2
and Sweden 351, 352, 358
Meidner plan 358
(p. 732) Social Democratic Party (SAP) (Sweden) 351, 358
and welfare state 354
Social Democratic Party (SPD) (Germany) 349, 355, 479
and Bad Godesberg programme 356
social ecology, and green anarchisms 398
social imaginaries:
and definition of 538
and global imaginary 221–2
and ideologies 217–18, 539
and meaning of 217
and national imaginary 219–21
decontestation 221
ideology 220–1
and reality of 217
and solidity of 217–18
and temporary nature of 218
social imperialism 478
social investment state 360
socialism:
and Africa 614
academic critiques of 616–17
Nasser 617
Nkrumah 614–16
Nyerere 616, 617
ujamaa 616, 617
and anarchism 388
and basic ingredients of 590
and Bernstein’s revisionism 349–51
and Buddhism 674
and core concepts 590
and critique of ideology 6
and Islamic socialism 631
and Latin America 590–4
in 19th century 590
in 20th century 591–4
Cold War period 592–3
communist parties 591, 592
Cuban influence 592–3
Liberation Theology 593
Marxism 591–3
Soviet influence 591, 592
Trotskyism 592
and origins of 57
and primacy of the collective 57
see also Marxism
socialist market economy 374
and Yugoslavia 379
Socialist Revolutionaries (SRs) 370
socialization, and ideological beliefs 240–1
social justice:
and inability to objectively determine 303
and liberalism 337
social market economy, and neoliberalism 406
social psychology, and ideologies 242–3
and development of study of 232–3
and motivational substructure 234–6
attitudes towards social change and equality 235–6
definition of 233
ideology as motivated social cognition 235
individual psychological needs 236
personality 234–5
system justification 236
and socially constructed discursive superstructure 233–4
definition of 233
elite formation of 233–4
examples of 233–4
and system justification 236, 237 , 242–3
epistemic motivation 237–9
existential motivation 239–40
relational motivation 240–2
Social Science Research Council 74, 82
social sciences:
in 1960s 100
and claims of scientific authority 73
and ideology 73
and nineteenth-century roots of 73
and value-judgments 74
and Weber’s essay on objectivity in 74
social stability, and Marx 22–3
socioeconomic populism 495–6
sociology 4
sociology of knowledge 10, 40–1, 253, 442
and evaluation of political ideologies 45
and origins of 42
and relationism 42–3
solidarism, and Christian Democracy 313
(p. 733) Solidarity Federation 391, 395
South Africa 622
South and Southeast Asia:
and anti-communism 665
and Asian values 669
and authoritarianism 668–9
and Cold War 662, 665
and communism 665–7
challenges facing 665
critiques by 666
disagreements over ideological orthodoxy 666
political participation 667
and decolonization 661, 662
and developmentalism 667–9
democracy 668
and European colonialism 661
and ideological diversity 661, 662
and liberalism 662–5
colonial period 662–4
democracy 664
metropolitan activism 664–5
and nationalism 667
developmentalism 667–9
tradition 669–70
and popular protests 665
and postcolonial politics 661–2
and race:
caste 676–7
indigenity 676
and racism 675–6
and religion 671–4
democratic institutions 671–2
Islam 673–4
religious extremism 671
religious majoritarianism 672
source of ideological concepts and expression 672–3
state intervention 671
sovereignty, and nationalism 464, 467
Soviet Communism 65
and abandonment of Communist ideology 381–2
and aspiration to build communism 376, 377
and Bolshevik seizure of power 370
and bureaucratic centralism 373
and central planning 374, 375
and Communist Party’s monopoly on power 372–3
and democratic centralism 373–4
and discrediting of 410
and ideology 67, 70
and International Communist Movement 376–7, 378
and leaders’ belief in ideology 377
and perestroika 381, 382
and public ownership 374–5
and role of ideology in excluding economic reforms 375
and sacralization of politics 68
and Stalinism 378–9
Spain:
and anarcho-syndicalism 395
and liberalism 330
Spanish civil war 322
Sri Lanka 664, 673, 674, 675, 767
Stalinism 13, 14, 378–9
state:
and economic libertarian views of 413–16
Austrian School 415
coercive nature of 413–14
depoliticization of economic policy 416
dismantling of 413
minimal state 414–15
new public management 416
protection of market order 415
suspicion of 413
Virginia public choice school 415–16
and fascism 485
and National Socialism 485–6
and Ordo Liberals 406
State Socialist Party (SSP) (China) 652
Students for a Democratic Society 100
subaltern studies 277–9, 280
and critique of 277–9
and Marxism 280
subjectivity 171 n14
and ideological analysis 162
and theorization of 160–1
sublime objects 167
suffering 145, 146
Sufism 627
(p. 734) sustainability, and green ideology 426–7
swaraj (self-rule), Gandhi’s vision of 669–70
Sweden:
and social democracy 351, 352, 358
and welfare state 354
Syarakat Islam (Indonesia) 673–4
syndicalism 477
syntax, and discourse analysis 190–2
system justification 236, 237 , 242–3
and epistemic motivation 237–9
and existential motivation 239–40
and relational motivation 240–2
Taborites 364
Taliban 671
Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) 616
Tanzania 616
Tea Party 306–7
technological development, and imperialism 541–2
terror management theory (TMT) 239
Thailand:
and communism 665
and contested role of king 674
and popular protests 665
and sufficient economy 669
theories, and definition of 538
Third Way, and fascism 475
threat, and ideological orientation 239–40
Tobin Tax 225
total ideologies 59–62
and anti-democratic 63
and anti-individualism 63
and anti-liberalism 63
and apocalyptic messianism 62
and authoritarian implications 63
and definition of 59
and distinction from totalitarian ideologies 65–6
and diversity of 59
and features of 59
and Marxism 62
and myth of the new man 61
and nationalism 61, 63–4
and political messianism 61
and progressive total ideologies 60–1
as secular religions 61
and racism 61, 64
and reactionary total ideologies 60
and regeneration 61
and revolutionary faith 61
and Romanticism 61–2
and teleological representation of history 59–60
and traditionalist total ideologies 60
totalitarianism 13–14, 64–71
and characteristics of totalitarian regime 65
and controversy over use of term 64
and definition of 65
and fascism 485
and ideologization of politics 64–5
and origins of 476
and origins of term 64
and sacralization of politics 68
and terror 69
and totalitarian ideologies:
definition of 64
distinction from total ideologies 65–6
functions of 65
instrumental function of 69
as organizational ideologies 66–7
political action 67–8
role of 68–71
as secular religions 68
traditionalist ideologies 57
and total ideology 60
transfeminism 571
transgenderism 571–2
transsexuality 571–2
tribalism, and pre-colonial Africa 608–9
Trotskyism, and Latin America 592
truth:
and dynamic nature of 40
and ideological morphologies 216–17
and ideologies’ claims to 216
and morphological analysis of ideology 129
Truth and Reconciliation Commission (South Africa) 165, 622
Umma Party (Kuwait) 638
uncertainty, and system justification 237–9
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) 372
United Kingdom:
and economic libertarianism 406
and intellectuals and the politics of nationhood 259–66
anti-intellectualism 264
anti-national stance 260
characterization of globalization 260
cosmopolitanism 262
decline of nation-state 260–1
English identity 263–4
European integration 261
global civil society 262
multiculturalism 262–3
recasting British identity 263
role of nationalist ideas 264–5
shift from government to governance 260
and neoliberalism 406, 407
and social democracy 355
Crosland’s The Future of Socialism 356–7
and welfare state 354
United Nations Decade of Women (1975–85) 620
United States:
and agrarian populism 495, 507
and conservatism 305–7
Chicago school 306
economic libertarianism 411
libertarianism 305
neoconservatism 306
New Conservatism 305–6
Paleoconservatism 306
rational choice theory 306
Tea Party 306–7
and early debates on ideology 5–6
and economic libertarianism 406
alliance with conservative movement 411
constraining federal power 416
and imperialism 537
and liberalism 337
as contaminated term 405–6
difficulties faced by 343–4
progressivism 335
and neoliberalism 407
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and different versions of 448
Uruguay:
and anarchism 590
and socialism 591
utopianism and ideology 447–9
and basic vision of 448
and Bloch 443–4
and Campanella’s The City of the Sun 365
and dissatisfaction 440, 448
and etymology of term 439–40
and feminism 439
and Freeden 445
and intentional communities 440
and Jameson 445–7
and Levitas 447
and Mannheim 44–5, 254, 440, 441, 442–3
and Mannheim Paradox 445
and More’s Utopia 365, 439–40
and negative connotations of 439, 440–1
and Popper 441
and reactionary conservatism 295, 297
and Ricouer 440, 442, 444, 445, 447
and three facets of 440
and utopian literature 440
and utopian social theory 440
and violence 441
value cleavages 131
Venezuela, and populism 496, 509, 595
Versailles, Treaty of (1918) 468, 650
Vietnam 665
violence:
and fascism 481–2
and imperialism 547, 550
resistance to 553–4
and martialism 547
and meaning of 428–9
and sexual violence 576–7
and utopianism 441
Virginia public choice school 415–16
Volkisch movement 477
(p. 736) Wahhabism 627, 671
Waldorf Peace Conference (1949) 91
war, and imperialism 547
welfare provision:
and neoconservative critique of 306
and New Right 303
welfare state:
and fascism 485
and liberalism 335
and social democracy, golden age of 353–4
well-being, and ideological orientation 242–3
Western Europe, and xenophobic populism 497–8, 507–8
Western Marxism, and ideology 27
women:
and fascism 481
and Islamism 630–1
and National Socialism 481
and populism 508
and pre-colonial Africa 620
see also feminism
Women in Nigeria (WIN) 620
women’s studies, and feminism 563
work, and ideology critique 147–8
World Bank 407
World Social Forum (WSF) 224
World Trade Organization (WTO) 224
xenophobia:
and nationalism 457
and xenophobic populism 497–8
Young People’s Socialist League (YPSL) 100
Yugoslavia 372, 375, 379
and socialist market economy 374
Zabalaza Anarchist Communist Front 394
Zambia 614
Zentrum (Germany) 317, 321
Zimbabwe 608