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date: 24 July 2021

Abstract and Keywords

Although strands of proto-fascist thought can be identified before 1914, it was only after the First World War that a syncretic fascist ideology emerged. It is best understood within a matrix encompassing three core themes. The first is the quest for a ‘new man’, which required the creation of new forms of dynamic leadership. The second is the celebration of the holistic nation, though this did not necessarily mean militaristic expansionism outside states with major geopolitical aspirations. The final theme is the quest for a Third Way, which would inspire the community and promote economic prosperity. Within this matrix there were notable differences about issues such as the role of violence, biological racism, and the nature of the totalitarian state. However, since 1945 fascism has been a pariah with only a handful of mainly former supporters seeking to reanimate its ideology

Keywords: fascism, leadership, new man, nation, racism, Third Way, totalitarianism, violence

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