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date: 30 May 2020

(p. 896) (p. 897) Index

(p. 896) (p. 897) Index

Aarslef, H.18, 19, 74
Abbé L’Epée74, 75
Abercrombie, D.108, 115, 123, 132, 170, 705
abjad53, 59, 60, 62, 64, 66, 193
Ablaut142, 152, 160, 198
abstraction4, 7, 11, 21, 24, 28, 29, 31, 37, 44, 56, 77, 82, 89, 95, 101, 148, 154, 157, 161, 167, 169, 171, 174, 177, 182, 187, 189, 194, 202, 205, 207, 211, 236, 237, 239, 243, 256, 266, 299, 318, 325, 330, 343, 356, 360, 383, 385, 388, 390–2, 405, 408, 411, 413, 424, 426, 447, 449, 452, 453, 457, 467, 483, 484, 491, 497, 523, 588, 589, 610, 613, 616, 625, 628, 657, 665, 666, 673, 680, 682, 683, 685, 689, 695, 724, 729, 731, 766
Académie Française371, 515
accent19, 66, 68, 107, 108, 111, 112, 120, 124, 128, 157, 160, 161, 176, 234, 236, 294, 332, 350, 369, 444, 484, 626, 650, 666, 667
accidence287, 334, 342, 353, 357, 380, 416, 483, 518, 596, 707, 761
acoustics2, 110, 115–18, 123, 128–30, 132, 134–6, 140, 165, 172, 174, 175, 196, 477, 675, 767
acquisition11, 25, 32, 50, 69, 81, 85, 86, 96, 158, 209, 352, 365, 384, 440, 454, 455, 466, 471, 579, 623, 678–82, 706, 711, 728, 730
actio, art of delivery72, 73
addressee69, 493, 543, 617, 618, 698; see also hearer
Adelung, F.10, 639, 640, 653
adequacy23, 41, 81, 117, 144, 247, 267, 279, 326, 426, 428, 435, 452, 470, 476, 490, 491, 493, 497, 498, 515, 535, 541, 549, 550, 557, 572, 595, 608, 618, 626, 653, 680, 682, 686, 712, 730, 731, 741, 752, 758, 763, 771, 773
adhikaraṇa244, 249
adjective67, 68, 97, 218–20, 285, 347, 355, 357, 378, 380, 404–6, 408, 415, 416, 459, 464, 492, 504, 521, 531, 740, 759, 761, 770
adverb56, 98, 206, 219, 287, 321, 332, 335, 337, 338, 401, 406, 409, 413, 491, 504, 521, 740
Ælfric362, 363
Affective77, 100, 474, 475
affixation56–8, 64, 101, 146, 148, 229, 234–47, 250, 281, 383, 408, 448, 457, 495, 651, 692
Afro-Asiatic5, 259, 260, 264, 265, 275, 278–81
agency2, 10, 14, 29, 40, 165, 561, 594, 609, 656, 657, 660, 664, 665, 726
agent role37, 237, 244, 248, 257, 279, 281, 301, 305, 322, 347, 487, 493, 583
agglutination24, 29, 37, 57, 146, 148, 155, 162, 209, 215, 222, 645, 651, 652, 660, 762
agreement (grammatical)101, 250, 285, 338, 444, 447, 457, 462, 496, 637, 758
Aijmer, K.731, 745
Akkadian2, 5, 56, 259, 261, 262, 265, 266, 275–9
Alexander of Villa Dei350, 351
Alexandria6, 286, 287, 289, 332, 379, 380, 507, 539, 685, 755
Allan, K. xi, xix, 1, 5, 7, 8, 10, 12, 13, 22, 43, 108, 114, 142, 147, 160, 163, 164, 167, 168, 169, 170, 307, 331, 333, 338, 348, 362, 378, 469, 556, 592, 599, 604, 609, 660, 679, 753
Allen, W.S. 106, 108, 169, 230
allomorphy68, 174, 189, 426
allophone64, 107, 117, 160, 161, 169, 171, 173, 174, 179, 180, 186, 189, 478
ALPAC report709, 716, 725
alphabetical order213, 346, 351, 363, 432, 503, 505, 508–10, 529
Altaic163, 209, 260
alternation4, 57, 152, 161, 172–4, 179–82, 185, 187, 189, 190, 385, 431, 490, 499
ambiguity67, 98, 108, 223, 242, 292, 293, 309, 312, 317, 321, 323, 324, 326, 328, 345, 409, 414, 450, 453, 578, 585, 596, 597, 707, 709, 714, 718, 724
American linguistics88, 181, 419, 429, 443, 483, 566, 593, 682
American Sign Language (ASL)92, 93, 96, 101, 189
American structuralism2, 167, 168, 178, 180, 183, 187, 190, 420, 444, 478, 734, 768
Ammonius308–10, 313, 320, 322, 336, 339
analytic31, 67, 107, 111, 187, 215, 221, 234, 251, 375, 394, 411, 413, 441, 545, 551, 581, 624, 626, 627, 633, 634, 645, 651, 664, 695, 762, 771
anaphora316, 324, 460, 492, 497, 550–4, 685, 715, 722, 740
anatomy2, 14, 15, 25, 26, 28, 32–5, 37, 41, 44–52, 63, 106, 109, 110, 112, 114, 116, 130, 145, 280, 643, 645, 686
ancient Egyptian5, 16, 58, 59, 62, 66, 212, 260, 261, 264, 274, 275, 278–80, 686
ancient Greece2, 5, 8, 9, 105, 107, 331, 332, 381, 507, 512, 620, 643, 677
Ancient Greek4, 6, 17, 25, 53, 59, 62, 64, 65, 66, 72, 78, 106, 108, 112, 121, 143, 144, 147, 148, 151, 156, 169, 198, 274, 283, 284, 288–93, 302, 308, 312, 315, 316, 318, 321, 324, 326, 328, 329, 332–4, 346, 349, 359, 375, 377–82, 386–8, 395, 398, 400, 401, 413, 507, 508, 509, 512, 513, 519, 535, 537, 539, 542, 543, 558, 587, 588, 592, 621, 635, 638, 645, 649, 675, 677, 699, 704, 749, 758
Ancient India2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 25, 60, 65, 67, 71, 105–7, 110, 111, 120, 143–5, 147, 154, 165, 169, 194, 214, 215, 227–57, 268, 369, 505, 506, 535, 643, 652, 749, 755
Anderson, S.R.168, 173, 174, 178, 180, 181, 187, 188, 190, 385, 391, 392
Andresen, J.80, 655, 660, 663
Anglo (culture)93, 600, 606, 676, 678, 682
Anglo-Saxon92, 414, 559, 567
anomaly250, 289, 291, 326, 328, 330, 378, 420, 756
antecedent328, 337, 404, 460, 715, 722
anthropology10, 13, 28, 50, 74–80, 82, 84, 88, 95, 164, 183, 207, 327, 467, 483, 516, 533, 566, 567, 590, 614, 618, 619, 621, 624–8, 655, 663, 664, 667, 668, 671, 768
antiquity2, 6, 13, 68, 71, 72, 143, 283, 286, 288, 291, 327, 332, 341, 344, 346, 356, 378, 382, 384, 397, 401, 411, 417, 541, 556, 557, 592, 749, 757, 768
antonymy201, 568, 723
apādāna241, 248
aphasia72, 177, 686, 687
Āpiśali231, 232, 238
Apollodorus of Athens315, 317
Apollonius Dyscolus5, 7, 8, 12, 285, 315–17, 320, 323–5, 331–8, 376, 379, 401, 604, 754, 757–9, 761, 768, 770
apologizing604, 607, 609, 629
appellative314, 315, 321, 324
appropriateness28, 68, 72, 73, 78, 102, 103, 106, 109, 120, 172, 206, 276, 284, 286, 289, 292, 294, 296, 303, 308, 309, 310, 312, 319, 326, 328, 329, 365, 392, 404, 449, 454, 499, 511, 545, 556, 564, 600, 605, 609, 621, 628, 629, 643, 671, 684, 697, 706, 715
Apresjan, J.D.520, 521, 525, 565, 576
Arabic4, 5, 59, 61, 63–8, 109, 120, 144, 169, 180, 261–3, 267–71, 273, 275, 278, 490, 506, 508, 509, 535, 543, 637, 677
Aramaic59–61, 64–6, 261–3, 266, 267, 269, 270, 275, 276, 278, 279, 509, 732
arbitrariness17, 38, 48, 76, 77, 82, 87, 96, 97, 101, 148, 192, (p. 899) 194, 195, 197, 200–2, 204–6, 220, 290, 328, 398, 402, 404, 406, 412, 415, 453, 470, 472, 473, 481, 487, 488, 646, 660, 695, 696, 740, 749, 753, 756, 758, 759
archiphoneme176, 280
Arens, H.750, 762
argument (structural)301–3, 305, 311, 320, 399, 459, 460, 463, 490–3, 497, 499, 500, 576, 620
Aristarchus5, 286, 287, 289, 291, 332
Aristotle (Aristoteles)5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 106, 108, 284–6, 297, 301–309, 311, 313, 314, 317, 319, 321, 322, 325, 326, 336, 339, 375–8, 380, 382, 399, 400, 402, 413, 414, 472, 537–43, 546, 548, 551, 588, 592, 596, 604, 620, 676, 685, 750–5, 758, 759, 761
Arnauld, A.18, 405, 534, 679, 761, 762
ars (grammatica)291, 312, 331, 335, 341–52, 358, 362, 364
article (grammatical category)38, 40, 286, 314–16, 324, 325, 337, 401, 406, 545, 693, 740
artificial intelligence (AI)11, 491, 620, 682–4, 710–12, 714, 716, 719
Asclepiades287–9
assimilation65, 80, 109, 149, 152, 153, 161, 165, 269, 318, 336, 352, 475, 590, 657
associative relations470, 473, 484, 767
Aṣṭādhyāyī107, 233–42, 245, 247, 248, 250
Atherton, C. xi,5, 283, 291, 309, 326, 329, 338, 379
atlas268, 658, 669
auditory44, 100, 109, 115–17, 133, 136, 137, 145, 177, 675, 676, 677
augmented transition network (ATN)710, 713
Augustine (Saint)327–9, 348
Austin, J.L.74, 481, 483, 538, 591, 592, 594, 602–8, 629, 630, 715
Australian English128, 129, 130, 133–6, 517, 522, 735, 744
Australian indigenes79, 85, 86, 129, 130, 133, 490
authority6, 15, 69, 114, 218, 284, 288, 297, 313, 327, 330, 332, 333, 346, 348, 370, 414, 513, 515, 606, 642, 660, 667, 753, 761
autonomy (of grammar)8, 452, 457, 483, 484, 487, 488, 497, 575, 577
auxiliary429, 430, 448, 497
axiomatics650, 754, 755, 762, 768, 770, 772, 774
Babel16, 20, 22, 74, 195, 276, 364, 372, 657, 725
Bacon, F.10, 404, 408, 635, 636
bag of words563, 568, 720
Baker, P.731, 744, 745
Bakhtin, M.M.656, 665–7
Bally, C.470, 474–6, 481
Barcelona, A.582, 616
Bar-Hillel, Y.11, 709
Barthes, R.208, 630, 633
Basque31, 163, 662, 744
Bateson, G.82, 83
Batteux, C.411, 412
Baudouin de Courtenay, J.4, 118, 167, 172–5, 179, 183, 185, 189, 477, 519
Beaugrande, R. de631, 632
Beauzée, N.411, 412, 762
behaviorism79, 81, 182, 416, 417, 440, 483, 676, 678, 682, 769
Bell, A.M.63, 117, 118, 121, 127, 178
Bellugi, U.85, 86, 97
Benveniste, É.480, 481, 484, 623
Bever, T.G.182, 684, 714
Bhartṛhari234, 249, 255, 256, 257
Bhaṭṭojidīkṣita233, 234, 255
Biber, D.436, 731, 734, 737, 739, 742
Bible6, 15, 16, 64, 69, 112, 120, 263, 267, 276, 348, 349, 369, 370, 509, 596, 605, 606, 631, 699
Bickerton, D.15, 17–19, 22, 25, 26, 28, 29, 31, 33, 34, 37–43, 45, 51
bilingualism5, 102, 103, 214, 265, 276, 350, 367, 507, 512–14, 520, 526, 535, 718
binarism68, 176, 183, 218, 480, 481, 546, 617, 770
binding334, 443, 444, 460, 539, 540, 549, 608
biolinguistics7, 440, 454, 466
biology7, 13, 14, 22, 24, 30, 32–34, 43, 47, 48, 50, 52, 86, 145, 153, 164, 299, 411, 440, 454, 456, 466, 467, 579, 676, 679, 685, 730, 763, 766, 771, 772, 773
bird26, 34, 50, 56, 615
Birdwhistell, R.L.82, 87
(p. 900) bitext718, 719, 725
biuniqueness386, 387
bivalence542, 548
Black, R.345, 354
Blank, D.L. xi, 5, 283, 291, 326, 331, 338, 379
Blei, D.717, 724
blending102, 143, 495, 581, 582, 616
Blevins, J. xi, 6, 7, 375, 394, 419, 420
Bloch, B.183, 184, 421, 422, 437, 443
Bloomfield, L.4, 7, 79, 80, 96, 162, 167, 179, 181–4, 187, 190, 191, 198, 199, 205, 376, 385, 391, 392, 419–32, 437, 443, 444, 483, 613, 618, 670, 682, 769–73
Bloomfieldian see post-Bloomfieldian
Boas, F.U.80, 81, 122, 167, 172, 180, 181, 656, 663, 664, 672, 768
Boccaccio366, 515
Boersma, P.128
Bohas, G.61, 281
Bolinger, D.L.38, 82, 205, 207, 622
Booth, A.D.707, 708, 709
Bopp, F.4, 152–4, 158, 164, 279, 416, 641–6, 764
bottom-up184, 424, 441, 447, 457, 492, 493, 770
boundedness446, 454, 626, 671, 713
brāhmaṇa228, 240, 257
Brahmi script61, 62, 67
brain2, 7, 10, 11, 32, 34, 35, 37, 43, 50, 52, 93, 103, 204, 417, 455, 458, 467, 675–8, 682, 685–90, 767
Bréal, M.18, 30, 560, 561
Bredsdorff, J.H.149, 150
Bresnan, J.431, 487, 489, 713
Bright, W.53, 508, 668
Brill, E.722, 723
Britain94, 105, 106, 113, 115, 118, 136, 162, 178, 180, 372, 412, 524, 528, 597, 616, 734
British National Corpus (BNC)527, 530, 531, 721, 732, 734, 735, 740
broad and narrow notation163, 178
Broca, P.35, 49, 686–8
Brockelmann, C.278, 279
Brøndal, V.478, 479
Brosses, Ch.de195, 198, 410, 412
Brown Corpus11, 721, 732
Brown, P.599, 600, 629
Brücke, E. von116, 121
Brugmann, K.157–159, 163, 642, 650
Buddhism106, 110, 111, 209, 214, 215, 222, 225, 233, 251, 254, 256, 506
Bühler, K.9, 77, 88, 591, 618, 623, 682
Bullokar, W.119, 368, 369
Bulwer, J.73, 74, 94
Burleigh, W.9, 544, 549
Burnard, L.721, 734
Burridge, K. xi,3, 141
Busa, R.728, 729, 732, 744
Butcher, A.130, 137
Butler, Charles3, 113, 119
Butler, Christopher S.485, 486, 489, 491, 492, 619, 620
Bybee, J.L.486, 488, 496
Calbris, G.88, 89
Cambridge Language Research Unit (CLRU)11, 708
Campbell, L.637, 638
Caramuel, J.405
Cardona, G.234, 246, 250, 251
Carnap, R.602, 603
Carnoy, A.559
Carroll, L.191, 195, 204
Carter, R.736, 737
case (grammatical)225, 241, 243–5, 248, 254, 279, 281, 287, 294, 304, 305, 314, 317–26, 330, 333, 337, 338, 342–5, 347, 349, 352, 353, 355–7, 368, 378, 380, 385, 392, 401, 406, 409, 444, 460–2, 465, 496, 539, 711, 712, 723
Categories268, 303, 304, 313, 322, 336, 339, 399, 443,
category, basic559, 583
category, cognitive29, 31, 40, 43, 56, 71, 83, 87, 124, 180, 211, 212, 217, 225, 244, 304, 323, 329, 397, 405, 406, 412, 416, 488, 489, 496, 498, 503, 543, 577–9, 583, 594, 596, 613, 615, 639, 651, 733, 734, 750, 759, 761, 771, 773
category, grammatical6, 22, 38, 48, 67, 107, 108, 110, 114, 117, 135, 148, 171, 213, 216, 218, 219, 230, 232, 254, 269, 286, 305, 312, 315, 317, 342, 343, 355, 357, 368, 377, 378, 380, 386, 388, 399, 401, 405, 409, 413, 415, 443, 450, 452, 457, 459, 460, 482, 491, 492, 496, 497, 544, 547, 565, 578, 583, 604, 605, 617, 623, 629, 675, 692, 700, 758, 764, 766, 772, 773
category, lexical27, 38
Catford, J.C.614, 698, 700
causality14, 35, 156, 161, 257, 303, 314, 317, 318, 327, 337, 352, 400, 403, 407, 409, 426, 575, 615, 649, 650, 660, 750, 758, 763, 765, 766, 774
(p. 901) Central Asia214, 215, 267, 268
Chadic260, 265, 275, 278, 279
Chafe, W.486, 622, 623, 771
Champollion, J-F.274
chandas228, 234
Chao, Y.R.220, 221
character (symbol)2, 3, 4, 55–61, 63, 64, 67, 69, 94, 108, 111, 112, 119–21, 169, 210–13, 216–25, 271, 273, 276, 277, 372, 408, 505, 532, 721
Charisius312, 329, 331, 345, 348
Charniak, E.711, 719, 723
Cherokee54, 55, 63
Chicago83, 83, 277, 422, 602, 668
chimpanzee50, 81, 84, 85
China2, 4, 8, 57, 58, 63, 92, 110, 111, 209–15, 218, 220–2, 225, 505, 619, 677, 750
Chinese4, 20, 31, 55–7, 61, 67, 110, 111, 146, 169, 209–25, 413, 427, 505, 508, 653, 732, 733, 741, 744
Christianity15, 16, 18, 20, 55, 64, 112, 120, 261, 262, 270, 348–50, 364, 369, 370, 508–10, 513, 541, 556, 639
Chrysippus288, 289, 292, 294, 309, 312, 313, 316, 318–28, 330, 379, 754
Chung, K.S. xii, xix, 4, 209, 220, 221, 505
chunk52, 223, 582, 723, 742
Church, K.W.528, 584, 709, 719, 725, 726
Cicero73, 108, 292, 312, 326–8, 331, 347, 621
clustering61, 114, 130, 131, 133, 196, 230, 263, 271, 280, 488, 578, 681, 717
coarticulation126, 130–2, 134
code37, 48, 80, 89, 102, 368, 471, 474, 564, 613, 618, 628, 669, 692, 698
cognitivism2, 8, 9, 10, 12, 18, 34, 35, 36, 38, 41–3, 45, 52, 87, 102, 103, 168, 177, 189, 190, 288, 377, 400, 440, 453–5, 465–7, 485–501, 504, 523, 528, 530, 537, 538, 543, 550, 560, 561, 566, 571–3, 575, 577, 580, 582–5, 598, 615, 618, 622, 631, 632, 641, 676, 677, 680, 682, 683, 687–9, 692, 693, 695, 712, 739, 741, 764, 773
Cohen, M.53, 175, 280
coherence (textual)551–3, 581, 590, 596, 620, 631, 632, 715, 743
cohesion492, 632
coincidence39, 67, 135, 144, 165, 213, 323, 324, 408, 475, 757, 760, 765, 769
Colet, J.348, 354–8
Collinge, N.E.147, 159, 378
Collins (publisher)524, 528, 529, 584
collocation484, 512, 520, 521, 528, 529–31, 565, 584, 585, 719, 728, 732, 742, 743, 745
Colmerauer, A.713, 714
Comenius353, 533, 638
command284, 285, 356, 538, 607
commentary5, 6, 107, 110, 112, 222, 228, 232–5, 251–6, 286, 290, 291, 310, 311, 313, 329, 332, 333, 338, 339, 341, 345, 346, 348, 350, 351, 355, 356, 364, 410, 440, 452, 464, 470, 473, 506
common noun257, 309, 310, 343, 349, 355, 378–380, 405, 761
communicative act18, 44, 74, 83
communicative function3, 8, 18, 33, 185, 190, 476, 479, 485, 487, 489, 490, 499, 505, 610, 617, 627, 672
communicative principle9, 598, 599
comparative linguistics3, 9, 10, 80, 84, 85, 142–53, 158, 163–5, 170, 213, 215, 265, 269, 270, 278–81, 412, 416, 437, 469, 471, 476, 481, 519, 556, 557, 630, 635–41, 643, 645, 648, 650, 651, 655, 660, 661, 677, 678, 733, 735
competence35, 47, 81, 86, 172, 417, 453, 490, 529, 575, 613, 528, 671, 705, 729, 730
competition16, 27, 33, 47, 646, 701, 722
complementary distribution179, 183, 185
completeness320, 557
complexity8, 11, 15, 22, 24, 25, 27, 29, 31, 35, 36, 39, 40, 42, 48, 51, 56, 81–3, 86, 92, 95, 97, 121, 129, 136, 155, 187, 225, 244, 292, 299, 300, 351, 385, 388, 421, 424, 425, 434, 436, 449, 451, 462, 470, 494, 495, 499, 500, 508, 524, 529, 539, 544, 545, 550, 591, 662, 665, 669, 678, 681, 683, 688, 721, 723, 757, 760, 761, 771, 773
(p. 902) componential analysis9, 303, 306, 555, 563, 566–8, 570–3
composition (structural)22, 266, 290, 319, 322, 323, 336, 339, 347, 357, 391, 492, 500
computational linguistics11–13, 491, 517, 527, 535, 572, 576, 620, 707–26, 733, 738, 739, 745
computer2, 3, 11, 31, 49, 72, 126–8, 528, 529, 551, 572, 684, 707–10, 715, 716, 719, 721, 726–8, 731–3, 735, 737, 738, 741
conceptualism9–11, 40, 41, 76, 77, 83, 87, 126, 203, 300, 304, 311, 312, 394, 453, 458, 462, 482, 485, 488, 491, 493, 495–500, 530, 532–4, 560, 563, 565, 566, 569, 573, 575–8, 580–3, 589, 605, 615, 616, 657, 664, 670, 677, 683, 685, 692, 712, 717, 728, 743, 750, 753, 767, 772, 773
concord337, 347, 352, 356, 444
concordance633, 729, 758
Condillac, E.B. de18, 19, 21, 35, 40, 51, 74, 411
conditional98, 315, 323, 328, 337, 754, 761
congruence62, 333, 334, 336–8, 347, 355–7, 383, 622, 733
conjunction219, 246, 270, 287, 304, 305, 309, 310, 312, 313, 323–5, 328, 332, 336–8, 344, 377, 401, 406, 407, 409, 414, 492, 632, 740, 754, 757, 760, 771
consignification399, 408, 751
constituency347, 427, 429, 430, 736
constituent structure68, 427, 434, 447, 449, 450, 459, 463
constraint23, 36–42, 102, 181, 188, 189, 384, 406, 440, 450–2, 455, 456, 460, 462–7, 487, 490, 497, 521, 594, 625, 627, 670, 723, 737, 758, 774
construction grammar36, 41, 47, 488, 489, 494, 504, 512, 531, 741
contact3, 17, 33, 39, 106, 110, 123, 130–2, 149, 163, 164, 214, 215, 224, 225, 231, 261, 618, 656, 661, 662, 668, 687, 698, 766
context-free446, 678, 713
contextuality114, 134, 174, 230, 493, 500, 553, 560, 573, 575, 577, 579, 582, 585, 617, 618, 625, 626, 700
continuum169, 326, 495, 631, 662, 773
contrastive linguistics19, 130, 162, 171, 176, 178, 180, 183, 232, 426, 566, 567, 691, 693, 695, 731, 745
control2, 11, 35, 61, 69, 160, 454, 534, 583, 610, 660, 669, 689, 702
conventionalism17, 63, 75, 84, 119, 235, 250, 251, 257, 297, 413, 473, 494, 495, 508, 528, 530, 556, 660, 749, 750
conversation analysis (CA)88, 89, 594, 624, 625, 628
cooperativeness16, 42, 49, 483, 595, 596, 715, 732
cooperative principle595, 599
Copenhagen122, 469, 473, 474, 478, 671
copula29, 325, 353, 400, 404–9, 415, 751, 761
Corballis, M.C.19, 33, 39, 41–4, 51, 52, 85
corpus2, 11, 12, 66, 106, 127, 129, 132, 374, 420, 434, 436, 441, 442, 498, 520, 521, 523–5, 527, 528, 530, 531, 583–5, 621, 708, 716, 718, 719, 721, 722, 725, 727–45, 769, 770
corpus linguistics10, 11, 504, 528, 530, 531, 565, 633, 716, 727–745
correctness115, 288, 290–2, 297, 306, 312, 336, 337, 398, 505, 518, 593, 597, 639, 660, 699, 750, 757
Coseriu, E.185, 563, 565, 567
Crates287, 289, 291
Cratylus4, 9, 16, 17, 51, 72, 194, 195, 291–300, 306–8, 327, 329, 338, 339, 397, 398, 412, 556, 749
creativity10, 18, 25, 148, 384, 454, 628, 634, 656, 657, 660, 664, 672, 692
Cree54, 55
creole15, 25, 29, 31, 661, 662, 668
Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA)10, 616, 631–3, 745
Croft, W.13, 40, 47, 486–90, 494, 496–8, 500, 577
Cruse D.A.563, 568, 577
culture10, 31, 49, 50, 55, 78, 148, 181, 209, 210, 220, 224, 261, 365, 369, 436, 505, 506, 512, 519, 520, 525, 527, 534, 535, 567, (p. 903) 597, 598, 600, 608, 619, 623, 628, 634, 655–7, 663, 671, 695, 696, 699–701
cuneiform writing5, 56, 58, 68, 261, 262, 274–7
Cushitic5, 260, 263, 264, 271, 275
cybernetics81, 82, 186, 707, 708
cyclicity373, 463, 464
Czech353, 475, 480, 525, 526, 616, 617
Dalgarno, G.94, 113, 114, 407–9, 415
Daniels, P.T. xii, 2, 53, 54, 56, 58–60, 64, 508
Danish113, 122, 147, 150, 163, 272, 363, 370, 490, 646, 649, 691, 692, 696, 697
Dante Alighieri112, 365, 366, 515, 638
Darmesteter, A.558, 561
Darnell, R.59, 80, 664
Darwin, Ch.14, 16, 24–7, 41, 46, 52, 77, 679, 680, 763, 764
Darwin, E.106, 120, 170
Davidson, D.694, 696, 697
Davies, A.M.142, 145, 149–51, 153, 160, 164, 383, 384
Deacon, T.R.39, 40, 41
deafness3, 22, 29, 72, 74–7, 79, 85, 86, 91–7, 103, 106, 114, 117, 170, 178
decipherment5, 56, 57, 64, 211, 171, 274–7
declarative98, 180, 302–6, 313, 314, 319, 448, 713, 754
deep structure284, 451, 458, 758, 760
definiteness (grammatical)303, 315, 316, 324, 325, 328, 487, 495, 547–50, 552, 714, 715, 740
deixis77, 306, 315, 328, 622, 623, 700
De Jorio, A.76–8, 84
Delbrück, B.157, 645, 650, 651, 682
Democritus291, 292, 309
demonstrative32, 40, 77, 243, 325, 343, 355
demotic58, 264, 274
derivational morphology6, 31, 100, 314
derived construction429, 434, 449, 450, 459, 463
Descartes, R.454, 676, 679, 761, 762
descriptivism7, 107, 589, 419–37, 618, 634
destandardisation371, 373
determinism247, 248, 446, 714, 763
Deumert, A. xii, 10, 360, 371, 373, 374, 655
Devanāgarī61, 65, 144, 216, 217, 222
deviance177, 286, 449, 450, 451, 462
diachronic linguistics8, 9, 12, 142, 161, 175, 181, 277, 279, 280, 410, 471, 472, 476, 481, 485, 487, 557–9, 562, 576, 579, 653, 733, 734, 739, 747, 762, 763, 765, 774
diacritic64–7, 111, 117, 119–22, 124, 169, 223, 267, 273
diagram116, 135, 223, 353, 427, 447, 482, 685
Diakonov, I.M.260, 279, 280
dialects3, 5, 10, 20, 26, 29, 45, 65, 75, 95, 106, 112, 117, 118, 121, 128, 150, 157, 159–61, 163, 165, 211, 213, 215–18, 220, 221, 230, 231, 259, 261–4, 267, 268, 271–3, 277, 279, 287, 289, 290, 293–5, 308, 332, 336, 360, 365, 366, 478, 515, 526, 626, 627, 648, 652, 656, 658, 659, 663, 667, 669, 671, 700
dialectic29, 87, 188, 284, 285, 293, 295, 297, 302, 303, 306, 310–12, 314, 319–21, 323–9, 349, 350, 352, 609, 633, 634, 672, 753
dialogue17, 72, 127, 150, 194, 284, 290–2, 297–9, 301, 308, 349, 398, 498, 537, 556, 632, 634, 658, 667, 676, 714–17, 749, 750
dichotomy50, 172, 185, 301, 353, 470–3, 482, 484, 503, 756, 765–8, 772
dictionary4, 8, 9, 63, 76, 84, 110, 115, 119, 123, 124, 198, 212, 213, 216–18, 221, 223, 260, 265–8, 270, 271, 273, 274, 276–80, 350, 351, 355, 359, 360, 366–73, 488, 503–35, 555, 558, 560, 583, 584, 613, 638, 639, 666, 691, 693, 695, 704, 707, 708, 725, 742
Diderot, D.74, 410, 412
diglossia69, 361, 668
digraph65, 120, 369
Dik, S.C.486, 490, 617
Diodorus Cronus309, 320
Diogenes of Babylon312, 315, 317, 319
Diomedes344, 345, 347, 348, 354
Dionysius of Halicarnassus310, 311, 314, 320, 323, 326, 329, 339
Dionysius Thrax5, 108, 287, 291, 315, 326, 331, 332, 339, 364, 365, 379–81, 400
Dirichlet allocation717, 724
Dirven, R.486, 489, 498, 582, 616
disambiguity see ambiguity
discourse analysis8, 10, 487, 616, 632, 731, 743, 745
Discourse Representation Theory (DRT)9, 550, 684
discovery procedures170, 184, 435, 436
disorder72, 106, 124, 687
dispersion16, 17, 20, 32, 36, 49, 185, 198, 729
displacement39, 450, 458–63, 717
distinctive feature4, 53, 113, 142, 169, 172, 176, 178, 183, 185, 187, 188, 390, 391, 477, 480, 567, 635, 692, 736
distributionalism179, 378, 431, 432, 565, 584, 585, 771, 772
diversity14–16, 20, 22, 25, 33, 47, 48, 73, 88, 268, 398, 400, 401, 406, 411, 412, 414, 419, 490, 625, 656, 657, 659, 670
Doke, C.M.206
domain30, 34, 48, 71, 103, 104, 135, 136, 177, 192, 199, 203, 206, 232, 240, 245, 248, 249, 273, 357, 362, 378, 381, 384, 426, 430, 466, 487, 497, 528, 563, 566, 579–82, 616, 620, 621, 623, 631, 668, 675, 676, 680, 687, 689, 710, 712, 726, 734, 748
Donatus5, 6, 341–5, 348–55, 358, 362–5, 367, 376, 401, 507
Dor, D.19, 32, 33, 41, 44, 47
Dresher, B.E.168, 173, 187
dualism440, 658, 676
Du Marsais411, 412
Durand, J.168, 177, 187
Duranti, A. 625–8
Eblaic261, 262, 266
ecology13, 19, 33, 41–4, 47, 48, 50–2, 362, 610
economy20, 56, 149, 156, 185, 422, 456, 460, 462, 464–7, 481, 487, 700, 764
Efron, D.80, 81, 83
eighth century5, 109, 234, 262, 263, 269, 508, 510
eighteenth century2, 3, 5, 6, 10, 14, 16–19, 22–5, 30, 35, 51, 59, 73–5, 92, 94, 95, 110, 114, 115, 119, 195, 234, 255, 266, 276, 341, 352, 363, 368, 372, 399, 407, 410, 412, 413, 415, 515, 556, 590, 635, 637, 704, 758, 761
Egyptian5, 16, 58, 59, 66, 212, 260, 261, 264, 274, 275, 278–80, 686
Ekman, P.80, 83, 84
E-language36, 455
electroencephalography (EEG)688, 689
electropalatography (EPG)127, 130–5, 140
eleventh century109–11, 233, 253, 254, 256, 269, 363, 509
ellipsis233, 241, 319, 322, 333, 345, 403, 404, 447, 458, 632, 685
Ellis, A.J.3, 116, 117, 125, 151
emblem83, 84, 597
embodied45, 54, 55, 61, 204, 248, 316, 398, 573, 580, 589, 602, 606, 616, 620, 675, 676, 680, 689, 774
emotion19, 21, 26, 72, 77, 83, 286, 474, 530, 614, 620, 685
empathy15, 764
emphasis68, 69, 73, 74, 192, 278, 280, 553
empiricism10, 14, 43, 44, 49, 84, 164, 178, 182, 197, 199, 200, 204, 207, 287, 288, 291, 328, 335, 372, 386, 392, 416, 440, 452, 458, 462, 466, 467, 489, 498, 512, 526, 544, 547, 552, 559, 562, 583, 585, 614, 622, 628, 635, 641, 658, 659, 661, 662, 670, 672, 678, 681, 683, 701–703, 706, 708, 716–725, 730, 731, 744, 767, 772
EMU (Speech Database System)3, 126, 127, 129–36, 138, 140
England69, 111, 145, 170, 354, 363, 367, 372, 412, 510, 511, 704, 705, 707
Engler, R.7, 359, 470
Epicurus308, 309
equivalence5, 11, 63, 68, 83, 91, 97, 114, 146, 147, 155, 173, 189, 214, 215, 225, 266, 304, 308, 314–16, 318, 346, 400, 405, 406, 408, 434, 435, 446, 447, 471, 491, 493, 507, 509, 512, 519, 544, 548, 550, 600, 615, 639, 647, 663, 691–5, 698–701, 712, 713, 729, 755, 766, 767, 770
Ertel, S.199, 200, 202
Ethiopic263, 270, 271, 637
Ethio-Semitic5, 261, 263, 264, 267, 270, 271
ethnography78, 83, 84, 88, 476, 618, 634, 672, 673
ethnography of ‌communication/‌speaking627, 628, 656, 664, 667, 668, 671, 672
(p. 905) ethnomethodology10, 88, 624
etymology5, 8, 9, 64, 107, 146, 151, 154, 165, 192, 208, 210, 213, 221, 228, 229, 250, 251, 260, 275, 280, 287–9, 291, 292, 294, 296, 298, 307, 308, 316, 326–32, 342, 348, 350–2, 356, 376, 378, 379, 398, 410, 412, 414, 504, 506, 507, 514, 516, 517, 519, 522, 525, 529, 534, 555–7, 559, 561, 562, 647, 767
Eubulides9, 542, 543, 547
euphemism557, 592
Eutyches346, 348, 354
Event Related Potentials (ERPs)498, 689
evolution of language2, 13, 14, 15, 17, 19–21, 23, 27, 29, 30, 31, 34–7, 41, 43–5, 47–9, 51, 52, 76, 103, 144, 359, 353, 680
exaptation34, 45, 48
exegesis112, 255–7, 267, 342, 349, 364, 421, 749
explanatoryness1, 3, 20, 38, 43, 44, 46, 52, 142, 149, 154, 159, 187, 217, 218, 228, 229, 234, 248, 266, 296, 297, 300, 307, 308, 324, 326, 328, 330, 331, 401, 415, 417, 440–2, 454, 465, 466, 503, 505, 506, 509, 517, 519, 521, 545, 556, 559, 561, 574, 592, 598, 628, 643, 679, 697, 730, 739, 755, 756, 758–60, 763–5, 774
explication161, 218, 227, 287, 288, 326, 334, 443, 490, 521, 626, 689, 711, 715, 772
externalization36, 190, 455, 460
extrinsic ordering187–9
face (physical)98, 101, 102, 132, 626
face (social)9, 599, 600, 627, 629, 702
faculté de langage22, 471, 766
Fairclough, N.614, 633
family tree145, 154, 155, 163, 326
faˇnqiè57, 217
Fauconnier, G.486, 581, 616
felicity conditions604, 605, 609, 611, 629
Ferguson, Ch.668, 669
Ferrein, A.114, 115
Ferrucci, D.726
fieldwork132, 183, 627, 653, 658, 662, 663, 734
fifth century62, 214, 234, 251, 253–6, 260, 262–4, 275, 284, 286, 291, 310, 507, 556, 620
fifteenth century6, 61, 68, 73, 110, 254, 264, 348, 350, 367, 506, 508, 510, 557
figurative11, 31, 761
Fillmore, Ch.J.488, 491, 498, 583, 622, 623, 711
filtering44, 54, 127, 201, 460–2, 465
Firbas, J.486, 617
first century17, 72, 94, 108, 264, 267, 283, 286, 288, 292, 310, 326, 328, 331, 332
First Grammarian3, 111, 170, 364, 366
Firth, J.R.9, 145, 162, 167, 170, 178–80, 183, 188, 191, 192, 483, 484, 516, 565, 584, 614, 618, 619, 631, 663, 668, 671, 700, 718, 728, 734, 741–5
Fischer-Jørgensen, E.105, 185
Fishman, J.A.361, 668, 669
Fitch, W.T.15, 41, 44–6, 49, 51, 467
flection see inflection
Fletcher, J.130
focus (of attention)88, 89, 493, 499, 540, 715
Fodor, J.A.9, 565, 566, 571, 684
force (illocutionary)8, 12, 89, 319, 588, 601, 604–7, 626
forensics3, 135–9
formal grammar433, 439, 452, 453, 467, 487, 572, 576, 631, 670
formal language/linguistics33, 37, 540, 546, 549, 625, 659, 670, 703, 713
formal logic302, 311, 538, 546, 593, 753, 754, 774
Fought, J.80, 423, 663, 664, 673, 770, 771
fourth century5, 62, 78, 210, 230, 233, 256, 263, 264, 267, 275, 286, 290, 209, 312, 331, 345, 401, 470, 507
fourteenth century4, 112, 222, 235, 252, 254, 255, 262, 266, 363, 365, 366, 371, 402, 515
frames (conceptual/semantic)9, 11, 88, 494, 495, 498, 575, 577, 582, 583, 593, 606, 626, 627, 672, 711, 712
Francis, W.N.721, 733
Frede, M.302, 326
Frege, G.9, 416, 542, 543, 546–8, 551, 552, 591, 592, 602, 606
Frei, H.475
Freidin, Robert xii, xix, 7, 439, 442, 449, 452, 460, 463, 464
frequency (acoustic)116, 128, 134, 136, 138, 139
Fries, Ch.421, 728, 735
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)688
(p. 906) functional sentence perspective (FSP)476, 486, 616, 617, 621
functional grammar8, 41, 431, 489, 490, 497, 499, 500, 617, 713
functionalism8, 9, 12, 483, 485–8, 501, 613, 616, 619, 620, 622, 668, 671, 676, 682, 685, 688, 689, 727, 739–41, 744, 767
fundamental frequency (F0)127, 128, 136–9
fuzziness163, 518, 533, 542, 572, 573, 615, 743, 773
Gabelentz, G.659, 764, 766
Gale, W.719
Galen288, 321, 327, 339, 686
Gall, F.J.686
game30, 595, 615, 771
Gardiner, A.274, 483
Gardner, A. & B.84, 85
Garnham, A. xii, 10, 675, 684, 685
Garside, R.738
Gauchat, L.659, 670
Ge‘ez261, 263, 264, 270, 271
Geckeler, H.563, 567
Geeraerts, D. xii, 9, 486, 488, 489, 555, 571, 577, 579, 580, 585
gender37, 241, 250, 257, 285, 289, 308, 336, 338, 342–4, 346, 349, 356, 357, 378, 380, 401, 405, 406, 568, 571, 627, 659, 693, 705, 756
genealogy10, 145, 146, 149, 155, 163, 276, 292, 412, 567, 568, 606, 636, 637, 643, 647, 651, 653, 669
general grammar404, 407, 409, 411, 413–16, 762
generalized transformation434, 449, 456, 463
generative grammar7, 9, 38, 180, 184, 186, 190, 202, 249, 439–45, 448, 449, 452–6, 464, 466, 467, 483, 485–7, 566, 571, 580, 628, 631, 683, 771, 772, 774
generative phonology4, 67, 167, 168, 173, 180–8, 190, 203
generative semantics38, 452, 486, 622
Genette, G.195, 202, 208, 633
Geneva469, 470, 473–6, 482, 732
genre216, 218, 286, 341, 345, 346, 363, 492, 628, 631, 633, 634, 671, 721, 722, 733–5, 738
German21, 31, 65, 67–9, 105, 115, 120, 121, 142, 143, 151, 153, 157, 162, 165, 173, 176, 200, 201, 234, 268, 354, 357, 359, 365, 369, 370, 378, 380, 415, 460, 479, 512, 513, 519, 525, 540, 564, 565, 590, 591, 606, 638, 639, 645, 651, 656, 658, 661, 663, 682, 693, 696, 697, 704, 728, 766
Germanic3, 146, 147, 150–2, 156, 157, 160, 198, 199, 200, 206, 260, 371, 437, 519, 643, 644, 647, 648, 650
Geschwind, N.687, 688
Gesenius, W.270, 272, 278
Gesetz (law)152, 154, 157–9, 161, 164, 177, 646, 648, 649, 661
gesture1–3, 14, 19, 27, 30, 39, 40, 42–4, 51, 71–89, 91, 93–6, 98, 101, 102, 117, 170, 328, 608, 609, 736
Gfroerer, S.137
Gil, A.113, 119, 486
givenness621, 622, 632, 740
Givón, T.43, 486, 488, 603, 622, 623, 764
Gleason, H.A.419, 427–9, 434, 435, 443, 444
glossematics167, 177, 178, 479, 619, 768, 770
Goddard, C.534, 574
Godel, R.470
Goffman, E.88, 599, 611, 625–7, 629, 671
Goldberg, A.E.488, 489, 494–7, 504
Goldin-Meadow, S.43, 86, 87
Goldsmith, J.167, 168, 176, 180, 182, 187, 190, 452
Goodenough, W.567
Goodwin, Ch.88, 609, 628
Google11, 725
government225, 241, 323, 352, 353, 355–7, 392, 174, 175, 183, 406, 444, 460, 482, 484, 487, 518, 521, 758, 759
Graffi, G. xiii, 7, 469
grammatical category6, 22, 148, 218, 219, 317, 368, 378, 380, 401, 405, 496, 497, 544, 617, 764, 766, 772
grammatical meaning48, 56, 376, 387, 388, 617, 751, 753, 769
grammatical theory61, 289, 318, 333, 343, 377, 401, 403, 411, 460, 585, 747, 774; see also theory of grammar
grammaticality/grammaticalness11, 48, 266, 417, 730, 758, 771, 773
grammaticalization48, 148, 162, 739, 764
grammatogeny54–6, 63
Grammont, M.105, 207, 208
Granger, S.535, 745
Grassmann, H.4, 10, 155, 156, 159, 649
Greece2, 5, 8, 9, 331, 332, 381, 507, 512, 525, 620, 643, 677
Greenberg, J.H.10, 48, 275, 486, 622, 653, 654, 764
Greimas, A.480, 567, 633
Grice, H.P.594–6, 602, 606, 610, 629, 701, 715
Gricean maxims9, 325, 594–7, 599, 629, 701
Gries, S.Th.498, 585, 741
Grimes, J.622, 631
Grimm, J.3, 10, 144, 146, 150–2, 154, 157, 416, 504, 517, 519, 558, 640, 643, 644, 646–9, 653
Grimm’s law146, 151, 155, 156, 647–9
Grotefend, G.F.276
Guǎngyùn217, 218
Guillaume, G.469, 481, 482
Gumperz, J.J.625–8, 668, 671, 672
Gzella267, 278
Haase, M.652, 654
Hajek, J.125, 128
Hall, D.716, 717
Hall, R.A.366, 422
Halle, Morris67, 167, 176–8, 186, 187, 231, 431, 435, 439, 444, 480, 651
Halliday, M.A.K.169, 483, 486, 489, 490–3, 614, 616, 617, 619–23, 631, 632, 668, 700, 711, 734, 742, 743
Hamito-Semitic163, 259, 275
Han213–16, 505
Hangul (Hangeul)4, 54, 55, 62, 222, 223
hanja221, 223
Hanks, P. xiii, 8, 503, 504, 510, 511, 516, 523, 528, 530, 584, 719, 731, 742
Hardcastle, W.127, 132, 133
Hardie, A. xiii, xv, 11, 727, 745
Harrington, J.129–32, 134
Harris, J.412–14
Harris, R.24, 25, 27–9
Harris, Z.7, 82, 180, 183, 188, 385, 392, 421–3, 426–8, 430–7, 440–2, 447, 449, 452, 453, 565, 631, 770, 771
Hart, J.113, 119, 170
Hasan, R.492, 614, 619, 620, 622, 632
Haspelmath, M.383, 486, 765
Haugen, E.54, 111, 185, 359–61, 364, 373, 668
Hauser, M.34, 35, 453
Hays, D.G.708, 709, 713
Head-driven phrase structure grammars (HPSG)429, 431, 488, 713, 714
hearer10, 384, 393, 394, 403, 474, 483, 485, 497, 500, 597, 601, 609, 622, 626, 629, 660, 666, 667, 696, 736, 766
Hebrew5, 15, 21, 28, 37, 62, 65, 66, 68, 144, 169, 193, 198, 261, 262, 267, 269, 270, 275, 278, 280, 401, 439, 440, 442, 506, 508, 509, 513, 519, 535, 558, 592, 635, 637
Heine, B.22, 25, 48, 486, 654, 764
Hellenism (hellênismos)288–90, 312
Helmholtz, H.v.116, 164
Hemacandra Sūri251, 253
Hengeveld, K.490, 493, 500
Herder, J.G.17, 21, 22, 27, 33, 38, 48, 416, 640, 657
Heritage, J.609, 624
Hermogenes4, 17, 194, 292–9, 307, 309, 556, 760
Herodian5, 286, 332–5
Herodotus16, 276, 588
Hesperus592
heteroglossia666
Hetzron, R.261, 264, 266, 268, 269, 271–4, 278, 279
Hewes, G.44, 84, 85
hierarchy49, 53, 68, 129, 149, 183, 185, 193, 232, 246, 249, 333, 342, 345, 423, 425, 429, 446, 447, 449, 457, 480, 482, 493, 494, 496, 506, 531–4, 617, 618, 622, 660, 663, 670, 700, 711, 736, 740, 764
hieratic58, 274
hiragana63, 67, 69, 225
Hirst, G. xiii, xix, 11, 707, 711, 713–715, 726
historical linguistics9, 10, 142, 149–52, 156, 157, 164, 206, 376, 517, 557, 591, 637, 639, 651, 654, 655, 669
historical-philological semantics555, 558–62, 580, 582
Hjelmslev, L.178, 185, 186, 478, 479, 484, 567, 619, 767, 772
Hockett, Ch.F.39, 41, 54, 67, 82, 84, 164, 183, 184, 190, 376, 385, 386, 392, 419, 421–3, 425–9, 431–3, 444, 764, 770, 771
Hoenigswald, H.M.141, 144, 442
Hoey, M.743
Holder, W.113, 114, 170
Hombert, J.-M.15, 16, 30, 35, 37, 42, 51, 52
Homo14, 17, 19, 26, 31–3, 35–45, 47, 49, 51, 52, 635
hominin/hominid14, 20, 22, 23, 25, 26, 32, 33, 38, 41–3, 46, 49, 51, 52
homonymy8, 98, 471, 584, 714, 724
homophony4, 67, 212, 213, 238, 323, 345
Hopper, P.J.486, 488, 496, 622, 623
Horn, L.R.594, 596, 606
Hornby, A.527, 535
Horne Tooke, J.410, 414, 415
Householder, F.W.12, 758
Howatt, A.P.R.162, 367, 704, 705
Hulst, H.v.d. xiii, 4, 167, 168, 180, 186, 188, 189
humanism345, 354, 366, 403, 420, 512, 610, 621
Humboldt, (F.)W.v.4, 9, 10, 29, 147–9, 158, 196, 197, 204, 205, 416, 591, 601, 640–2, 645, 652, 654, 656–8, 660, 663, 664, 666, 672
Hurford, J.R.13, 34, 37, 48, 601
Hutchins, W.J.707–709, 716
Hymes, D.80, 609, 614, 628, 663, 664, 671, 672, 770, 771
IBM718, 726
Icelandic111, 147, 153, 170, 364, 646
iconicity3, 39, 44, 49, 63, 66, 85, 93, 96–8, 111, 117, 121, 122, 204, 206, 309, 419, 487, 759, 764
immediate constituents427, 443–5, 447, 449, 770
Ide, S.600, 601, 735
idealization161, 174, 285, 293, 295, 311, 312, 393, 397, 398, 417, 435, 436, 456, 473, 498, 548, 550, 575, 589, 609, 659, 749, 774
identity3, 21, 26, 27, 32, 33, 37, 38, 41, 47, 49, 51, 93, 100, 117, 130, 135, 136, 146, 153, 170, 176, 280, 321, 323–7, 366, 431, 434, 444, 472, 475, 479, 509–511, 526, 546–9, 552, 561, 568, 574, 598, 637, 641, 644, 662, 665, 666, 673, 676, 699, 760, 761, 767
ideophone206, 207
idiolect21, 29, 32, 47, 48, 766
I-language36, 37, 455, 456, 460, 466
illocutionary force8, 12, 89, 319, 493, 604, 605, 607
imitation15, 19, 23, 24, 26, 27, 30, 32, 33, 44, 48, 52, 133, 194–6, 206, 233, 290, 293, 294, 296, 298, 329, 330, 360, 412, 430, 436, 456, 476, 484, 498, 538, 662, 725, 731
imperative319, 363, 402, 414, 600, 607
implicational universal66, 177
implicature9, 316, 325, 594, 595, 715
inclusiveness217, 261, 441, 465, 754
indefinite see definiteness
indexicality204, 305, 392, 623, 629, 672, 673
indicative (mood)41, 247, 279, 305, 381, 386, 387, 460
indirect speech act600, 605, 607, 608, 629, 715
Indo-European (IE)3, 16, 17, 25, 27, 142, 143, 148, 151–60, 163–5, 173, 215, 260, 279, 375, 437, 470, 497, 504, 519, 520, 644, 649, 650, 653, 658, 678
inference42, 50, 229, 292, 328, 408, 572, 623, 626, 685, 711, 712, 715, 750, 753–5, 772
inflection6, 25, 27, 31, 37, 38, 57, 58, 60, 67, 100, 146, 148, 152, 153, 224, 234, 238, 269, 287, 289, 310, 314, 317, 319, 320, 325, 328, 330, 333, 344, 349, 376, 378, 380–4, 386, 387, 390, 392–4, 436, 443, 534, 645, 651, 658, 756, 764
information retrieval531, 585, 708, 720, 722, 724, 726
information structure9, 488, 490, 498, 499, 540, 551, 576, 581, 621, 622, 632
information theory81, 82, 186, 393, 394, 420, 421, 436, 682, 683, 718
inheritance49, 50, 80, 238, 250, 333, 334, 343, 347, 357, 381, 386, 401, 495, 573, 672, 711
innateness7, 50, 203, 417, 440, 454, 455, 467, 487, 678, 679, 761
insertion149, 163, 458, 647
instrumental phonetics3, 115, 136, 171
intension9, 298, 304, 455, 458, 462, 546, 547, 712, 761, 762
interactional (behavior)22, 29, 30, 32, 33, 39, 42, 44, 47, 51, 71, 80–3, 86, 88, 89, 102, 233, 360, 491, 493, 497–9, 538, 597, 609, 614, 616, 617, 619, 624–7, 632, 656, 662, 665, 666, 671, 672, 689, 700, 706, 766
(p. 909) interdisciplinary14, 15, 175, 614, 621, 655, 664, 667, 682, 708, 709
interface36, 72, 129–31, 458, 462, 464–6, 575, 576, 619, 632, 744
International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)3, 116, 121–7, 139, 140, 171, 189, 227, 268, 705
internet526, 531, 535, 720, 726
interpersonal82, 83, 491–4, 594, 614, 620, 622, 712
interrogative98, 448, 449, 459, 460, 731, 740
intertranslatability11, 691–4, 700
intonation19, 109, 115, 118, 128, 129, 183, 424, 484, 539, 607, 622, 623, 626, 665
intransitivity269, 279, 347, 356, 357, 404, 482, 496, 504
introspection498, 530, 585, 601, 646, 730, 731
intuition11, 107, 108, 114, 121, 197, 200, 201, 205, 305, 327, 392, 393, 446, 464, 521, 530, 542, 685, 729–31, 737, 752, 755, 757, 766, 769, 772, 773
inventory (phonetic)32, 33
Isidore of Seville9, 342, 348, 352, 556
island constraint460, 497
isolating languages24, 25, 29, 37, 61, 146, 148, 155, 215, 221, 651, 652
Italian6, 80, 112, 128, 350, 365, 366, 371, 404, 460, 470, 478–80, 512, 513, 515, 519, 526, 590, 598
Itkonen, E. xiii, 12, 221, 747, 749, 755, 763, 772, 774
Jablonka, E.19, 32, 33, 41, 44, 47
Jackendoff, R.S.9, 33, 35, 38, 573, 575, 576
Jakobson, R.4, 53, 88, 117, 167, 168, 172, 173, 175–7, 187, 191, 196, 202–5, 208, 476–8, 480, 481, 486, 510, 614, 616–18, 623, 628, 630, 691–5, 698, 701, 763
Jankowsky, K. xiv, 10, 142, 635, 651
Japan2, 57, 92, 209, 221, 223–5, 513, 527
Japanese57, 63, 64, 67, 69, 111, 128, 199, 201, 209, 221–6, 490, 513, 527, 594, 596, 600, 601, 609
Jelinek, F.718, 721, 725
Jespersen, O.4, 25, 30, 31, 105, 121, 122, 141, 142, 174, 150, 151, 153, 162, 172, 191, 359, 360, 373, 452, 705
Johansson, S.731–3, 745
Johnson, M.486, 580, 582, 583, 615, 616
Johnson, S.368, 372, 514–16, 518
joint attention16, 30, 42, 49
Jones, D.118, 162, 173, 178, 179, 183, 185, 483
Jones, (Sir) W.3, 10, 25, 120, 143–5, 153, 154, 162, 164, 637, 638, 642, 677
Jorio, A. de, see De Jorio
Joseph, J.E.142, 159, 164, 360, 361, 373, 658, 660, 664, 667, 668
Joshi, A.K.713
Josselson, H.H.709
Juilland, A.729, 732, 744
juncture184, 444
Jurafsky, D.718, 719
Källkvist, M.702, 703
kana63, 64, 67, 111, 224, 225
Kannada252, 255
Kant, I.416, 590, 594, 753
kāraka244, 245, 248, 249, 251, 254
Karcevskij, S.175, 476
Karmamīmāṃsā255–7
karman244, 246
Kasami, T.713
Kāśikā233, 234, 250
katakana63, 69, 225
Kātantra251, 252
Kātyāyana233, 242, 246, 248–51
Katz, J.J.9, 565, 566, 571, 572, 577, 747, 772–4
Kay, M.708, 713, 714
Kazan4, 118, 167, 172, 173, 175, 178, 182, 190
Kemmer, S.486, 488, 496
Kemp, A.105, 114, 123, 125, 171
Kempelen, W. 115, 170
Kendon, A. xiv, 2, 71, 72, 78, 79, 82–4, 86–9, 92, 94
Kilgarriff, A.523, 528, 722
kinesics80, 82, 83
kinship152, 326, 330, 567, 568, 710
Kiparsky, P.170, 188, 774
Klima, E.85, 86, 97
Kneale, W. & M.541, 751–3, 755, 760, 762
knowledge of language35, 36, 53, 61, 74, 210, 348, 453, 575, 645, 671, 718, 730
knowledge representation711, 720
Knox, D.73, 74
Koerner, E.F.K.12, 105, 142, 145, 161, 469, 655, 657, 658, 660, 668, 669
Korea2, 4, 61, 110, 209, 222–5
Korean54, 55, 61–3, 68, 110, 111, 209, 221–5, 490
Kramadīśvara252, 253
Kratzenstein, C.115, 116
Kress, G.614, 620
Kruszewski, M.4, 167, 172–5, 189
Kučera, H.721, 733
Kumārila256, 257
Kuryłowicz, J.185, 186, 384, 385
Kuteva, T.22, 25, 48, 764
Ladefoged, P.125–7, 130, 132, 133, 170
Lakoff, G.486, 488, 495, 579, 580, 582, 593, 602, 615, 616, 773
Laks, B.167, 168, 177, 188
Lallot, J.291, 338, 380
Lancelot, C.18, 405, 679, 761
Landsberger, B.277, 280
Lane, H.74, 80, 97
Langacker, R.W.485, 486, 488, 489, 494–8, 500, 773
language acquisition11, 32, 86, 454, 455, 466, 579, 678, 680, 728, 730
language acquisition device86, 679, 682
language change7, 8, 15–17, 19, 57, 95, 153, 158, 164, 177, 227, 362, 515, 516, 540, 652, 659–62, 666, 670
language contact3, 17, 33, 39, 106, 149, 163, 164, 215, 224, 261, 656, 661, 662, 668
language design456, 465–467
language learning8, 10, 11, 48, 512, 517, 527, 535, 680, 681, 702, 704, 706, 731, 771
language of thought (LOT)23, 36, 40
language organ10, 14, 34, 35
language planning361, 371, 373, 408, 409, 668, 669
language production164, 384, 385, 686
language teaching6, 11, 84, 112, 118, 122, 125, 165, 179, 348, 359, 367, 527, 669, 691, 701–6, 728
language variation20, 373, 601, 656, 658, 668, 669, 730
langue (Saussure)7, 79, 172, 174, 185, 203, 470, 471, 473–7, 482–4, 499, 613, 729, 766, 767
larynx46, 113, 115, 232
Lasnik, H.439, 446, 458, 460, 462–4
latency413, 718, 724
Lautgesetze154, 158, 161, 177, 648, 661
Law, V.11, 268, 343–6, 348, 350–2, 354, 363, 375, 379
Lawler, J.199, 205, 206
Leech, G.486, 563, 599, 605, 721, 732, 733, 737, 738
Leeuwen, T.v.620, 632
Lehmann, W.P.144–6, 154, 160, 163, 654, 709
Leibniz, G.W.4, 10, 194, 195, 408, 409, 417, 478, 504, 516, 532, 533, 542, 546, 635–9, 641
Leipzig76, 162, 310, 343, 469, 486, 651, 678, 682
lekton314, 317–23, 325, 336, 753, 754
Lenclud, G.15, 16, 30, 35, 37, 42, 51, 52
length (of phonological segment)63–6, 100, 124, 128, 163, 179, 229, 230, 238, 240, 261, 273, 281, 294, 333
Leningrad172, 174, 185
lenition129, 149
Lepsius, C.R.120, 122, 274, 275
Leskien, A.157, 163, 383, 650
Leslau, W.270, 271, 273
letter (gramma)20, 55, 59–69, 108, 109, 111, 113, 119–21, 143, 144, 146, 149, 151, 158, 160, 162, 165, 170, 193, 196, 202, 204, 211, 222, 223, 262, 268, 269, 272, 277, 283, 285, 289, 293–8, 300, 306, 311, 312, 323, 333–5, 341, 342, 344, 347, 350, 370, 383, 398, 403, 506–9, 511, 647, 648, 728, 749
Levinson, S.C.538, 599, 600, 605–7, 629
lexical field/network/relation8, 9, 27, 32, 260, 265, 275, 278, 520, 521, 525, 532, 555, 556, 563–6, 579, 584, 719, 723, 743
lexical item5, 38, 66, 100, 164, 188, 216, 234, 235, 251, 264, 273, 279, 281, 351, 355, 407, 423–5, 446–8, 456, 457, 465, 490–2, 504, 510, 513, 514, 576, 578, 580, 582, 632, 707, 713, 741, 742
lexical semantics9, 11, 19, 32, 92, 96, 98, 149, 155, 169, 183, 198, 199, 268, 273, 306, 321, 323, 325, 332, 335, 351, 382, 403, 408, 424, 431, 462, 488, 491, 492, 495, 504, 521, 552, 553, 555–69, 571, 575–7, 583–5, 613–16, 618, 623, 683, 684, 687, 723, 740, 750, 751, 769
(p. 911) Lexical Functional Grammar431, 489, 713
lexicalization565, 574, 713, 723
lexicogrammar491, 493, 619, 742, 743
lexicography2, 8, 12, 207, 210, 213, 228, 234, 265, 268, 269, 273, 275, 277–9, 345, 350, 351, 370, 379, 503–35, 558, 559, 584, 731, 742
lexicology516, 559, 562, 578
lexicon3, 8, 9, 32, 38, 54, 93, 95, 148, 212, 213, 248, 250, 251, 268, 270, 274, 278, 280, 391, 408, 423, 454–7, 461, 462, 465, 492, 495, 505, 506, 509, 510, 520, 521, 526, 532, 565, 566, 573, 576, 577, 617, 626, 683, 687, 721, 742, 743, 753
lexis285, 286, 307, 312–14, 316, 321, 323–5, 334, 380, 512, 732, 742, 743
liberal arts342, 564, 621
Liberman, M.718, 721
Libyco-Berber260, 264, 275, 278, 279
Lieberman, P.28, 32–5, 39, 41–4, 46, 49, 51, 52
Lily, W.348, 354–8, 368
linearity14, 17, 18, 20, 23, 32, 40, 43, 62, 64, 87, 97, 98 101, 168, 180, 187, 223, 373, 429, 446, 447, 482, 736
lingua franca73, 92, 265, 290, 507, 510, 512, 669
linguagram3, 132
Linn, A. xiv, 6, 359, 367, 369–71
Lipiński, E. xiv,5, 259–61, 264, 267, 268, 270, 271, 273, 277–9, 281
literacy/literate55, 59, 63, 212, 216, 221, 222, 348, 623, 749,
literature106, 110, 141, 144, 150, 209, 224, 225, 228, 233, 253–5, 257, 262–4, 266, 271, 286, 333, 341, 344, 349, 365, 369, 371, 506–8, 511, 512, 515, 516, 519, 523, 535, 630, 633, 722
literalness214, 244, 314, 506, 508, 514, 523, 537, 608, 684, 692, 693, 712
Loakes, D. xiv, 3, 123, 129, 133–7
loans64, 212, 214, 215, 223, 271, 275
localization10, 35, 100, 101, 499, 686, 688, 689, 699
Locke, J.4, 194, 195, 413, 414, 601, 603, 694
Locke, W.N.707–9
Lodwick, F.112, 114, 170
logical form (LF)400, 405, 407, 458, 459, 462, 465
logico-philosophical tradition8, 538–54
logogram56, 60, 276
London73, 95, 113, 114, 118, 167, 178, 226, 276, 469, 483, 486, 507, 598, 616, 618, 619, 621, 641, 644, 668, 735
Long, A.310, 311, 326, 329, 339
long components180, 183, 188, 428
LSLT (Logical Structure of Linguistic Theory)7, 439, 441–7, 449–453, 455, 460, 464
Lucretius17, 18, 21
Ludolf, J.270, 637, 641
Luhtala, A. xiv, 6, 333, 341, 350, 352, 379
Lyons, J.431, 544, 563, 568, 623
Maat, J. xv, 6, 397
machine learning436, 720, 724
machine translation (MT)11, 707–10, 716–19, 725, 726
MacMahon, M. xv, 3, 105, 124–6
MacWhinney, B.41, 42
magneto-encephalography (MEG)688, 689
Magnus, M. xv, 4, 191
Mahābhāṣya107, 233–5, 246, 255
Malinowski, B.483, 516, 614, 618, 663
Malkiel, Y.206, 556, 658
Mallery, G.76, 77, 81, 86, 95
Malmberg, B.185, 186
Malmkjær, K. xv, 11, 691, 705, 706
Mandarin215, 217, 218, 221, 490, 733, 741, 744
Manning, C.D.719, 724
Marcus, M.P.714, 721, 738
Margoliash, D.26, 34, 50
markedness61, 65, 66, 117, 149, 176, 215, 235, 238, 242, 246, 380, 543, 553, 617, 618, 740
Marr, N.J.186, 730
Marsais, C.C. du411, 412
Martianus Capella3, 346, 352
Martin, J.A.718, 719
Martin, J.R.489, 492, 634
Martinet, A.169, 175, 184, 185, 480, 481, 486, 619, 669, 763
Mathesius, V.475, 476, 480, 485, 616, 617
mātra61, 62, 65
(p. 912) Matthews, P.H.376, 377, 381, 386–92, 394, 421, 423, 427, 433, 435–7
Matthiessen, C. 489, 491, 494, 616, 619, 622
Mauro, T. de470, 473, 526
maxim9, 595–7, 599, 629, 701, 715
McClelland, J.680
McCune, K.199, 206
McEnery, T. xii, xv, 11, 727, 731, 733, 738, 741, 744, 745
McNeill, D.42, 43, 87
Mead, M.82, 83
medicine105, 106, 109, 114, 115, 117, 128, 204, 286, 288, 292, 295, 529, 624, 630, 634, 678, 687, 688
medieval2, 6, 66, 72, 92, 112, 150, 256, 266, 332, 342, 344–54, 356, 358, 361, 362, 364, 401, 506, 508–10, 544, 545, 546, 556, 564, 732, 761
Medieval philosophy541, 587, 589
Meillet, A.41, 152, 470, 481, 561, 591
Meiner, J.W.415, 416
Mel’čuk, I.A.520, 521, 708, 709
Melanchthon, P.348, 354, 356–8
mental experiences750, 753, 761
mental language759, 760
mentalism9, 81, 181, 188, 440, 572, 677, 682, 759, 771, 772
Merge456–63
Merkel, C.116, 121
Meroitic260, 264
Mesopotamia56, 58, 62, 259, 261, 262, 276
message23, 43, 45, 80, 136, 309, 598, 618, 628, 632, 641, 691–3, 698, 699, 702, 722,
Message Understanding Conference (MUC)722
metafunction491–3, 619, 620, 622
metalanguage8, 9, 17, 107, 145, 236, 239, 290, 334, 367, 369, 541, 573–5
metaphor78, 87, 89, 163, 206, 286, 294, 313, 329, 486, 489, 495, 523, 524, 528, 530, 557, 559, 561–3, 577, 578, 580–2, 615, 616, 618, 626, 628, 633
methodology7, 10, 82, 84, 97, 141, 142, 145, 148, 149, 151, 153, 154, 158, 159, 160, 163–5, 185, 199, 307, 327, 386, 419, 422, 426, 432, 435, 444, 466, 498, 520, 557, 559, 565, 568, 571, 577, 584, 585, 590, 624, 627, 634, 636, 645, 649, 650, 654, 655, 661, 668, 670, 682, 684, 697, 703, 705, 719, 727, 728, 734, 737, 739–41, 744, 745, 747, 748, 755, 758, 762, 764–6, 769, 772, 773
metonymy78, 489, 495, 557, 559, 560, 562, 576–8, 580, 582, 615, 616, 618, 684, 720
metricality107, 112, 255, 341, 344, 350, 402
Mey, J. xv, 9, 587, 591, 594, 595, 598, 601, 603, 604, 607–10, 629, 634
Middle Ages2, 5, 6, 72, 111, 222, 265, 278, 341, 342, 345, 346, 348, 350, 351, 354, 355, 359, 362–4, 367, 401, 510, 539, 543, 556, 557, 589, 621, 704, 758, 761
Middle Chinese210, 216, 217
Middle English64, 112, 119
Miller, G.A.445, 467,