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date: 18 June 2019

(p. 563) Index

(p. 563) Index

Medieval names are listed alphabetically by forename; modern names alphabetically by surname. References to Church councils are subsumed within references to place name.

Aachen, 312, 484, 491, 492, 494
Abbasid Caliphate, 79, 82, 85
Abbo, abbot of Fleury, 141
Abulafia, Anna, 416
Acre, 94, 95, 104, 108, 369, 422, 423
Adalbert of Prague, 121
Adalhard of Corbie, 133, 139, 483
Adam of Bremen, 120, 122, 126
Adam of Eynsham, 207
Adelbert of Prague, 309
Adomnan, 257, 258
Aelred of Rievaulx, 276
Æthelbehrt of Kent, Anglo-Saxon king, 473, 475
Æthelred, king of England, 485
Aethelthryth, Saint 220
Africa, 3, 5, 79, 94, 97, 98, 109, 115, 424, 476, 490, 552
Agde, 477
Agnes of Bohemia, 226
Agnes of Cressonessart, 380
Agobard, bishop of Lyon, 259, 415, 504
al-Andalus, 93–102, 152
Alaric II, Visigothic king, 477
Alatri, 469
Alcuin of York, 308, 482, 492, 506, 520
Alemannia, 134
Alexander II, Pope, 522
Alexander III, Pope, 223, 263, 310, 425, 445, 446, 517, 527
Alfonso III, Asturian king, 97
Alfonso VI, king of León-Castile, 97, 98, 100, 107
Alfonso X, king of Castile, 98, 230, 419
altars, 62, 63, 64, 65, 101, 171, 175, 219, 220, 224, 228, 293, 327, 341, 344, 346, 385, 490
Althoff, Gerd, 462
Alvaro Pelayo, 333
Amalarius of Metz, 237, 242, 311, 312, 313
Ambrose, archbishop of Milan, Saint, 219, 220, 293, 382, 518, 524
America, 27, 28, 50, 54
Anabaptists, 162, 558, 559
Anagni, 13, 469, 528
Anastasius, Roman Emperor, 477, 519
Anatolia, 80, 421
Anchoresses, 378, 379
Angela of Foligno, 401, 405
angels, 245, 275, 277, 295, 296, 301, 350, 367
Angenendt, Arnold, 494
Angers, 378
Anglo-Saxons, 6, 115, 116, 117, 119, 153, 212, 222, 236, 295, 348, 384, 425, 473, 480, 499, 515, 542
Aniane, 384, 496
Anselm of Bec, 213
Anselm of Canterbury, 275, 276, 297, 310, 358, 371
Anselm of Laon, 262, 309, 311
Anselm of Ribemont, 100
Anselm, archbishop of Milan, 539
Ansgar, 119, 121, 126
Anthony of Padua, 225
anthropology, 2, 31, 34, 35, 42–55, 65, 67, 232, 234, 291, 292, 358
Antioch, 93, 100, 101
Antwerp, 151, 556
Apocalypse, 24, 235, 275, 447, 451
(p. 564) Aquitaine, 204, 214, 309, 384, 437, 501
Aragon, 93, 94, 98, 99, 100, 102, 103
archaeology, 16, 36, 37, 38, 50, 53, 62, 65, 106, 119, 125, 137, 234, 328
Ari the Wise, 123
Aristides of Athens, 293
Aristotle, 186, 238, 239, 326
Arnold Amaury, 449
Arnold of Brescia, 441, 442, 443, 460
Arnold, John H., 54, 542
Arnulf of Flanders, 486
Arras, 437
Asad, Talal, 48, 49, 50, 55
asceticism, 9, 45, 220, 292, 383, 448, 496, 497, 542, 550
Assisi, 224, 226, 228, 230, 389, 390
Astorga, 195
Asturias, kingdom of, 97
Athanasius, 220
Athos, 134
Attigny, 309, 485
Atto, bishop of Vercelli, 539
Augsburg, 119, 154, 156, 261, 524
Augustine of Canterbury, 515
Augustine of Hippo, Saint, 4, 16, 23, 38, 97, 115, 116, 213, 219, 220, 238, 239, 272, 278, 281, 283, 284, 294, 295, 301, 396, 397, 398, 400, 415, 440, 458, 502, 503, 505, 506, 532, 542, 554
Augustinians, 103, 228, 239, 298, 325, 366
Auxerre, 308, 328
Avignon, 3, 228, 306, 391
Avranches, 263, 312
Baghdad, 80, 93, 422, 491
Bains (Brittany), 135, 142
Bakhtin, Mikhail, 35
Balderich, bishop of Utrecht, 311
Baldwin, John, 335
baptism, 2, 6, 35, 177, 331, 343, 344, 348, 441, 442, 480, 483, 492, 493, 499, 502, 503, 504, 505, 506, 533, 534, 539,
Barcelona, 193, 194, 196, 283
Bari, 221, 310
Bartholomew of Lucca, 25
Bartholomew the Englishman, 332
Bartlett, Robert, 36, 52, 193, 316
Bartolome Carranza, 560
Basil of Caesaria, 382
Bathilde, Saint, 220
Baumstark, Anton, 232
Bavaria, 135, 478, 482, 486, 503, 557
Bede, the Venerable, 24, 115, 116, 121, 236, 295, 296, 473, 474, 475, 515, 520, 555
Beguines, 36, 228, 379, 398, 404, 406,
Bela, king of Hungary, 426
Belgium, 309
bells, 28, 139, 157, 172, 260, 266, 349, 504
Benedict Biscop, 520
Benedict of Nursia, 7, 220, 221, 382
Benedict VIII, Pope, 521
Benedict X, Pope, 522
Benedictines, 8, 46, 296, 367, 382, 388, 391
Benevento, 310
Benjamin of Tudela, 205
Bentley, Michael, 45
Berend, Nora, 424
Berger, Peter, 188
Bernard of Caux, 330
Bernard of Clairvaux, Saint, 127, 212, 223, 230, 238, 276, 298, 379, 382, 384, 386, 387, 398, 404, 417, 426, 429, 441, 444, 526
Bernard of Septimania, 495
Bernardino of Siena, 229
Bernardus Sylvestris, 426
Berthold of Regensberg, 174
Besançon, 309
Bethlehem, 100, 203, 401
Beverley (Yorkshire), 211
Béziers, 449
Bianchi, 36, 161
Bible, 25, 30, 47, 66, 71, 76, 94, 132, 140, 155, 205, 209, 222, 234, 235, 237, 238, 255, 276, 281, 289-293, 348, 369, 385, 388, 389, 415, 420, 422, 424, 427, 428, 440, 445, 452, 453, 473, 475, 480, 491, 494, 503, 553, 555, 556, 557, 558
Biernoff, Suzannah, 276
Biller, Peter, 556
Binski, Paul, 64
bishops, 4, 5, 6, 10, 15, 17, 80, 86, 100, 101, 118, 120, 123, 136, 142, 150, 154, 162, 167, 168, 169, 170, 173, 175, 176, 191, 192, 194, 195, 197, 207, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 227, 242, 255, (p. 565) 256, 259, 260, 261, 263, 265, 266, 267, 293, 311, 312, 314, 341, 343, 345, 379, 380, 391, 415, 422, 441, 445, 447, 457, 461, 462, 463, 466, 467, 468, 473, 476, 477, 479, 480, 492, 498, 499, 519, 528, 532, 535, 537, 538, 539, 540, 542, 543, 560
Bisson, Thomas N., 316
Black Death, 149, 177, 345, 391, 464, 469
Blanche of Castile, 381
blasphemy, 161, 363, 364, 366, 368, 371, 554
Bloch, Marc, 31, 44, 51
Bobbio, 138, 139
Boethius, 369
Bohemia, 15, 71, 118, 122, 125, 223, 226, 437, 451, 452, 523
Boleslav I, duke of Bohemia, 118, 122, 125
Boleslav II, duke of Poland, 523
Bologna, 81, 150, 152, 335, 466, 517
Bolton, Brenda, 468
Bonaventure, Saint, 225
Boniface V, Pope, 474
Boniface VIII, Pope, 1, 13, 14, 316, 391, 469, 517, 519, 528, 561
Boniface, Saint, 116, 425
Books of Hours, 178, 274
Bornstein, Daniel, 36, 342
Bosnia-Herzegovina, 201
Bossy, John, 35, 43, 47, 48, 49, 51, 55, 77, 342, 551
Boudet, Jean-Patrice, 350
Bourdieu, Pierre, 34, 48, 52
Brabant, 151, 332, 403
Braga, 189, 190
Bras, Gabriel Le, 31, 33
Brentano, Robert, 38, 193
Brescia, 441, 466
Bridget of Sweden, 229, 401, 407, 409
Bridgettines, 377
Bristol, 169
Brittany, 134, 340, 344, 345, 347, 350, 497
Brown, Peter, 9, 17, 35, 38, 45, 46, 52, 116, 206, 342
Bruges, 151, 152
Brun, bishop of Cologne, 311
Bruno de Segni, 238
Bruno of Querfurt, 121, 309
Buc, Philippe, 187
Buddhism, 77, 82
Bulgaria, 118, 141, 515
Bull, Marcus, 36, 201
Burchard of Worms, 533, 539
bureaucracy, 3, 81, 82, 129, 154, 187, 192, 223, 224, 225, 316, 469, 537
Burgess, Clive, 171
Burgundy, 65, 136, 141, 204, 437, 461, 462, 463, 476, 479, 493
burial, 167, 173, 176, 218, 219, 291, 292, 313, 314, 378, 533
Bury St Edmunds, 136
Bynum, Caroline Walker, 36, 54, 410
Byzantium, 3, 51, 60, 78, 83, 84, 93, 115, 117, 118, 122, 132, 133, 135, 136, 141, 158, 229, 230, 308, 336, 420, 444, 447, 477, 491, 551
Caesar Baronius, 26
Caesarius of Arles, 5
Caesarius of Heisterbach, 161, 264, 366, 367, 368, 418, 463
Caldwell Ames, Christine, 541
Calixtus II, Pope, 442, 522, 526
Camaldoli, 135, 136, 223, 388
Camille, Michael, 426
Campania, 468
candles, 139, 150, 266, 340, 341, 348, 351, 503
canon law, 4, 14, 16, 31, 36, 129, 168, 176, 187, 188, 190, 192, 313, 314, 335, 439, 459, 515–528, 532, 534, 535, 538, 539
canonization, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 343, 346, 347, 517, 553, 555
Canossa, 467, 524, 554
Canterbury, 115, 136, 141, 195, 212, 214, 223, 262, 263, 264, 276, 520
Cappadocia, 134, 136
Cardeña, 134, 135, 140
Carey, John, 325, 328, 334
Carlo Borromeo, 553
Carloman, king of the Franks, 8, 482, 483
Carolingians, 8, 14, 79, 117, 122, 125, 133, 134, 136, 138, 140, 142, 189, 213, 221, 233, 235, 237, 242, 243, 255, 259, 272, 296, 306, 309, 311, 312, 313, 314, 384, 437, 459, 461, 465, 480, 481, 482, 483, 485, 486, 490–514, 516, 520, 522
Carthusians, 70, 207, 277
Casagrande, Giovanna, 178
(p. 566) Cassian, 133
Castile, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 102, 105, 106, 107, 108, 135, 142, 384
Catalonia, 108, 137, 309, 458, 461, 464, 469
Cathars, 13, 223, 265, 357, 364, 387, 443, 445, 446, 448, 460;
see also heresy; inquisition
cathedrals, 12, 63, 64, 65, 67, 69, 71, 100, 101, 104, 150, 167, 170, 172, 189, 190, 191, 212, 262, 263, 308, 309, 311, 317, 331, 378, 418, 457, 458, 460, 464, 466, 467, 477, 484, 486, 498, 499, 543, 556
Catherine of Siena, 229, 405
Cauzons, Thomas de, 27
Celanova, 135, 139, 141, 143
celibacy, 86, 127, 188, 192, 196, 306, 335, 378, 557
Cesare Baronio, 556
Chadwick, Henry, 51
Chalcedon, 477, 516
Chalon-sur-Saone, 813, 213
Châlons-sur-Marne, 437
charity, 4, 43, 49, 83, 148, 150, 151, 153, 154, 157, 158, 178, 213, 225, 226, 283, 294, 296, 301, 332, 345, 381, 446, 461, 497, 498, 533, 543
Charlemagne, 8, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 223, 308, 310, 349, 421, 476, 481, 482, 483, 486, 490, 491, 492, 493, 494, 495, 496, 497, 498, 499, 500, 501, 502, 503, 504, 505, 506, 517, 519, 520, 522, 551;
see also Carolingians
Charles II, king of Naples, 227
Charles IV of Bohemia, 71, 72
Charles Martel, 481, 490, 496
Charles the Bald, 230, 484
Chartres, 69, 230, 325, 418
Chenu, Marie-Dominique, 32, 440
child oblates, 378, 496, 497
Childeric III, Merovingian king, 480
China, 77, 79, 80, 82, 84, 85, 327
Chola Empire, 79
Christian, William, 342
Christianization, 17, 24, 25, 33, 38, 160, 167, 219, 222, 223, 474
Christine of Markyate, 378
church courts, 13, 16, 185–200, 531, 535, 537;
churchwardens, 168, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 343
Cicero, 272, 309
Cistercians, 8, 9, 46, 127, 133, 161, 210, 212, 223, 226, 230, 264, 298, 379, 380, 381, 382, 383, 384, 385, 386, 387, 388, 390, 391, 398, 418, 425, 426, 462, 463
Cîteaux, 212, 382, 385, 386, 387, 388, 449
Città di Castello, 193, 194
Clare of Assisi, saint, 227
Clare of Montefalco, 228
Clement III, Pope, 526
clergy, 1, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 33, 35, 36, 45, 46, 80, 85, 86, 101, 116, 124, 126, 127, 148, 149, 152, 153, 154, 155, 157, 160, 161, 162, 166, 167, 168, 169, 172, 173, 174, 176, 188, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 202, 207, 208, 210, 214, 221, 222, 223, 236, 254, 256, 258, 271, 273, 274, 305, 306, 307, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 325, 327, 331, 333, 334, 335, 336, 340, 341, 342, 343, 345, 348, 349, 350, 351, 352, 359, 360, 361, 365, 366, 370, 378, 380, 389, 403, 437, 438, 439, 440, 441, 443, 445, 452, 458, 459, 460, 466, 478, 482, 483, 493, 494, 497, 498, 499, 501, 503, 515, 516, 517, 519, 521, 522, 528, 532, 535, 536, 537, 538, 539, 540, 541, 542, 543, 553, 554, 555, 556, 557, 558, 559, 560, 561
clerical marriage, 11, 307, 378, 438
Clermont, 99, 127, 310, 416, 525, 527
Clichy, 479
Clothar II, Merovingian king, 479, 480
Clovis, king of Gaul, 115, 473, 477, 478
Cluny, 8, 46, 136, 141, 142, 213, 297, 298, 382, 384, 385, 416, 461, 521
Cnut, king of Denmark, Saint, 125
Coimbra, 195
Colle Castellano, 137
Collinson, Patrick, 49
Columba, Saint, 220
Comaroff, John, 53
communion, 13, 153, 167, 236, 258, 265, 272, 275, 301, 344, 345, 396, 400, 408, 446, 452, 524, 533, 536, 537, 540, 555
Compostela, 203, 210, 214, 222, 384
confession, 12, 85, 153, 155, 167, 176, 228, 254–270, 271, 272, 273, 282, 293, 296, 301, 326, 327, 332, 333, 345, 360, 365, 370, 503, 533, 534, 536, 537, 541, 542, 543, 551, 554, 555
(p. 567) confraternities, 12, 13, 15, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 158, 159, 161, 162, 171, 177, 178, 296, 343, 346, 378, 499, 553
Congar, Yves, 31
Conques, 204, 208, 212, 221, 222
Conrad of Eberbach, 382, 383, 384, 386, 387, 391
Conrad of Marburg, 225, 329
Constance, 16, 154, 266, 267, 441, 451, 537
Constantine, 4, 24, 114, 118, 205, 207, 219, 465, 473, 478, 491, 518, 519
Constantinople, 5, 70, 83, 84, 136, 203, 207, 476, 477, 491, 516, 520
conversion, 3, 5, 6, 12, 23, 45, 51, 80, 82, 109, 114–130, 210, 212, 220, 238, 272, 306, 379, 384, 385, 389, 415, 422, 426, 427, 473, 475, 492, 493, 515, 518, 520, 551;
Cooper, Kate, 51
Corbeil, 309
Corbie, 139, 143, 496
Corsica, 93
Cortona, 150, 151, 152, 161, 469
Counter-Reformation, 201, 550, 553, 557, 560
Coventry, 155
Coyroux, 378, 387
Crossley, Paul, 69
crucifixion, 68, 70, 71, 98, 173, 174, 179, 221, 229, 230, 234, 244, 282, 291, 300, 398, 401, 403, 404, 407
crusades, 97, 99, 100, 101, 103, 108, 118, 126, 127, 128, 152, 203, 222, 229, 369, 378, 417, 422, 424, 444, 445, 448, 449, 452
Csordas, Thomas, 53
Cumans, 426, 429
Cunegond, Saint, 222
Cuthbert, archbishop of Canterbury, 214
Cyprian, bishop of Carthage, 294
Cyrillus (Constantine), missionary, 118
d’Avray, David, 187
Dagobert I, Merovingian king, 480
Damascus, 93, 104, 212
Damasus, 219
Daniel of Winchester, bishop, 122
Dante Alighieri, 349
Davies, Wendy, 457
Davis, Natalie Zemon, 34, 158, 159
de Certeau, Michel, 414
Deanesly, Margaret, 32, 37, 39
Delaruelle, Etienne, 32, 34
Delphine of Sabran, Saint, 227
Delumeau, Jean, 17, 33, 34, 160, 342, 551, 554
Denmark, 119, 121, 122, 123, 125, 127, 128, 174, 195, 332, 426, 523
desert, 7, 8, 132, 133, 136, 205, 377, 524
Devil, 6, 220, 224, 290, 296, 298, 413, 414, 448, 451, 493, 503, 558
Devroey, Jean-Pierre, 143
Dhuoda, Frankish noblewoman, 272, 273, 495, 542
Dinan, 340, 341
Dolan, John, 551
domestic space, 5, 33, 171, 172, 178, 179, 193, 277, 279, 280, 334, 535, 552
Dominic of Osma, Saint, 225, 331, 332, 389
Dominicans, 31, 32, 154, 224, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 325, 326, 327, 329, 330, 332, 333, 336, 340, 349, 367, 369, 380, 387, 389, 390, 402, 426, 427, 450, 517, 541, 558, 560
Donatism, 6
Dorothea of Montau, 407
doubt, 342, 357–373
Douglas, Mary, 45, 47
Drogo, 248, 249
Drythelm, 295, 296
Dubois, Pierre, 423
Duccio, 63, 161
Duchesne, Louis, 232
Duffy, Eamon, 173, 342, 348
Dundesert, Co. Antrim, 133
Dunster, 173
Durand of Osca, 445, 446, 447
Durham, 195, 210, 535
Durkheim, Emile, 31, 44, 45, 47, 51, 157, 414
Eadmer, 310
Eberwin of Steinfeld, 444
Ebo, bishop of Reims, 259
Edessa, 93, 203
Edgar, king of England, 485
Edmund, king of East Anglia, Saint, 222
Edward I, king of England, 14
Edwin, king of Deira, 474, 475
Egbert, archbishop of York, 504
(p. 568) Egypt, 80, 95, 98, 108, 205, 278, 382, 476
Eichstätt, 463, 469
Einhard, 421
Eligius, Saint, 425
Elisabeth of Schönau, 407, 409
Elizabeth I, queen of England, 498
Elizabeth of Hungary, Saint, 225
Ely, 136
Elzéar of Sabran, Saint, 227
emotions, 18, 38, 39, 148, 262, 276, 346, 366, 396–412
Engen, John van, 35, 36, 39, 342
England, 14, 15, 25, 32, 33, 36, 37, 38, 44, 45, 114, 115, 116, 119, 121, 123, 129, 133, 136, 141, 156, 166, 168, 170, 172, 173, 175, 177, 178, 190, 193, 194, 195, 203, 208, 310, 325, 329, 381, 452, 458, 461, 462, 463, 464, 468, 475, 485, 498, 504, 515, 520, 523, 535, 538, 540, 541, 542, 551, 552, 556, 558, 560
Enlightenment, the, 26, 28, 39, 202, 297, 358, 361, 554
Ephesus, 477
Erik, king of Sweden, Saint, 125
Eriugena, 437
Essen, 462
Estonia, 128, 425
Eucharist, 11, 12, 60, 63, 70, 71, 173, 178, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 239, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 265, 275, 293, 343, 344, 359, 364, 391, 401, 405, 418, 441, 442, 453, 515, 533, 534, 536, 537
Eudes of Chateauroux, 423
Eudes Rigaud, archbishop of Rouen, 194
Eudo of Aquitaine, 490
Eugenius III, Pope, 385, 387, 526
Eusebius of Caesaria, 23, 24, 25, 473
Evagrius, 132
Evans-Pritchard, Edward E., 47, 48, 52
Evora, 195
excommunication, 196, 266, 366, 445, 519, 524, 531, 533, 535, 537, 540
exempla, 36, 225, 268, 313, 336, 343, 367, 370, 418
Fanjeaux, 389
Farfa, 138
Fassler, Margot, 69
Fátima, Portugal, 201
Febvre, Lucien, 31, 361
Fécamp, Normandy, 207
Felix Hemmerli, 348
Ferdinand II, king of Aragon, 14, 94, 98, 557
Ferdinand III, king of Castile, 98
Ferrara, 380
Finnian, 256, 257, 258
Flagellants, 155, 157, 228, 346, 407, 450
Flanders, 99, 151, 332, 486;
see also Low Countries
Fleury, 419, 521
Fliche, Augustine, 307
Flint, Valerie, 342, 495
Florence, Tuscany, 150, 161, 195, 369, 457, 460, 466, 467, 468
folklore, 33, 34, 35, 36, 336, 342, 343, 351, 494, 534;
see also magic; witchcraft
Fonte Avellana, 388
Fontevrault, France, 212, 223, 377, 379, 388
Foucault, Michel, 39, 49, 53, 414
Fra Dolcino, 451
France, 1, 13, 15, 27, 28, 29, 30, 35, 36, 43, 44, 99, 129, 137, 139, 151, 152, 160, 161, 166, 167, 171, 172, 191, 193, 194, 195, 201, 203, 204, 208, 211, 212, 226, 227, 229, 242, 263, 265, 273, 274, 275, 276, 278, 281, 310, 325, 329, 346, 349, 362, 380, 384, 388, 389, 390, 398, 417, 419, 423, 444, 446, 447, 448, 449, 453, 486, 493, 517, 528, 539, 551, 552, 553, 557, 558, 561
Francia, 78, 142, 309, 461, 491, 497, 539
Francis of Assisi, Saint, 224, 225, 226, 227, 230, 300, 331, 332
Franciscans, 108, 154, 161, 224, 225, 226, 227, 229, 300, 325, 327, 332, 333, 336, 344, 370, 382, 387, 389, 390, 398, 421, 450, 451, 458, 460, 461, 517, 559
Francisco Xavier, 553
Frankfurt, 243, 244, 245, 492, 520, 559
Franks, 4, 6, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 117, 134, 140, 259, 272, 294, 423, 461, 465, 476, 477, 478, 479, 480, 481, 482, 484, 485, 490, 491, 493, 496, 497, 498, 500, 504, 505, 515, 516, 520, 533, 537, 541, 542, 543
Fraticelli, 461
Frazer, James, 44
(p. 569) Frederick Barbarossa, Holy Roman Emperor, 203
Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, 226, 361, 452
Freedman, Paul, 464
Freising, 135
French, Katherine, 552
Friedrich I, bishop of Eichstätt, 195
Fulbert of Chartres, 230
Fulcher, bishop of Chartres, 316
Fulda, 134, 142, 296, 312, 496, 499, 501
Fulk V, count of Anjou, 214
Gabriel Biel, 550
Gaul, 5, 6, 115, 201, 214, 220, 293, 294, 384, 476
Gautier de Coincy, 230
Geertz, Clifford, 34, 48, 49, 50, 52, 53
Geiler von Keyserberg, 346
Gelasius I, Pope, 477, 478, 483, 519
Gellner, Ernest, 49, 50, 52, 187
Gellone, 496, 497
Genoa, 188
Gentilly, 491
Geoffrey Chaucer, 426, 429
Gerard of Abbeville, 460
Gerard Segarelli, 451
Gerbert of Aurillac, 309
Germain of Auxerre, 220
Germany, 27, 29, 30, 46, 118, 119, 121, 122, 123, 125, 126, 152, 161, 179, 193, 195, 310, 391, 404, 461, 462, 463, 493, 539, 550, 552, 553, 554, 556, 558, 559
Gertrude the Great, 401, 405
Ghaerbald, bishop of Liège, 492, 495, 498, 503
Gibbon, Edward, 26, 77
Giles of Rome, 1, 2, 3, 10, 14, 18, 565
Ginzburg, Carlo, 35, 51
Giovanni Boccaccio, 349, 426
Girolamo Savonarola, 229
Gluckman, Max, 45
Gniezno, 120, 125
Gnosticism, 4, 24, 292, 448
Godescalc, 242, 243
Godric of Finchale, 213
Goodich, Michael, 36
Goody, Jack, 45
Goslar, 437
Goths, 97, 476, 493
Gramsci, Antonio, 335, 336
Granada, 94, 95, 96, 98, 102, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 551
Grande Chartreuse, 388
Grandmontines, 381
Gratian, 190, 315, 327, 460;
see also canon law
Gregorian reforms, 10, 76, 126, 186, 188, 189, 195, 305–320, 438
Gregory I, Pope, 115, 515, 516, 520
Gregory II, Pope, 490, 515, 516
Gregory III, Pope, 490
Gregory V, Pope, 521
Gregory VII, Pope, 414, 427
Gregory VII, Pope, 10, 99, 189, 306, 310, 316, 317, 413, 428, 516, 519, 522, 523, 524, 525
Gregory IX, Pope, 224, 225, 364, 390, 449
Gregory of Nyssa, 213
Gregory of Tours, 4, 5, 23, 201, 220, 256, 416, 473, 479, 555
Gregory the Great, 60, 63, 70, 140, 221, 239, 255, 256, 293, 294, 295, 297, 328, 382, 384, 397, 415, 425, 473, 532, 542, 543
Greif, Avner, 188
Grundmann, Herbert, 29, 440
Guarda, 195
Guglielma of Milan, 451
Guibert de Nogent, 25, 203, 305, 314
Guibert de Tournai, 333, 421
Guillaume de Nogaret, 13, 528
Guillaume Durand, 237, 312
Guntram, Frankish king, 479
Gurevich, Aron, 35
Gwent, 138
Hadrian I, pope, 498, 520
Hageneder, Othmar, 440
Hagiography, 51, 136, 217–237, 331, 365, 556
Halesowen, 464
Halitgar of Cambrai, 534
Hall, John, 188
Hamburg-Bremen, 119, 120, 121, 122
Hamilton, Sarah, 38, 531
Harald Bluetooth, king of Denmark, 125
Harald Finehair, king of Norway, 125
Harald Klak, king of Denmark, 119
(p. 570) Hartmann, Wilfried, 539, 540
Harun-al-Rachid, 421
Hattin, 93
Hatto, archbishop of Mainz, 539
Hazelton, Roger, 272
Heaven, 71, 218, 219, 230, 277, 290, 291, 293, 294, 367
Hedwig (Jatwiga), queen of Poland, Saint 128, 226, 227
Heinrich Kramer, 349, 558
Heinrich of Trier, 309
Helfta, 401, 402, 406, 407
Hell, 124, 290, 291, 294
Heloise, 261, 262, 388
Henry I, king of England, 25
Henry II of Saxony, Saint, 222
Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor, 521
Henry II, king of England, 208, 262, 316, 325
Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, 10, 316, 413, 517, 523, 554
Henry V, king of England, 300
Henry VIII, king of England, 560
Henry of Le Mans, 439, 442, 460
Henry of Livonia, 425, 428
Henry Suso, 229, 300, 367, 550
heresy, 4, 13, 15, 26, 29, 35, 36, 45, 46, 76, 83, 127, 155, 162, 167, 176, 185, 195, 223, 225, 228, 229, 238, 265, 266, 323, 324, 329, 330, 331, 335, 350, 357, 358, 359, 361, 363, 364, 385, 387, 388, 389, 413, 416, 418, 421, 428, 430, 436–453, 458, 460, 481, 482, 527, 528, 531, 535, 537, 539, 541, 560;
Herlihy, David, 149, 459
Herman of Tournai, 387
Hermann Billung, 486
Hermann von Breitenlandenberg, bishop of Constance, 266
Herrad of Hohenberg, 378, 388
Hervé Nédellec, 326
Hezilo of Hildesheim, 522
Hieronymous Bosch, 297
Hilary of Poitiers, 220
Hildebert, bishop of Le Mans, 214
Hildegard of Bingen, 378, 388, 407, 409
Hilduin, abbot of Saint-Denis, 141
Hilton, Rodney, 30
Himerius, bishop of Tarragona, 516
Hincmar of Reims, 141, 236, 308, 483
Hodgson, Phyllis, 409
Holland, 176, 332, 552, 559;
see also Low Countries
holy men, 5, 35, 46, 78, 219, 221, 223, 224, 340, 341, 503
Honorius Augustodunensis, 213, 309, 312
Honorius III, Pope, 390, 430, 449, 526
Hospitallers, Order of, 378, 388
hospitals, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 154, 155, 156, 158, 161, 162, 177, 226, 379, 460
Hrabanus Maurus, 311
Hucbald of Saint-Armand, 309
Hugh of St Victor, 309, 328, 370
Hugh, bishop of Lincoln, Saint, 207
Hugh, count of Tours, 259
Huguenot, 159, 160, 552, 556
Humbert de Romans, 333
Hume, David, 44, 53
Humiliati, 388, 445, 446
Hungary, 102, 119, 122, 125, 223, 225, 226, 227, 228, 310, 424, 426, 429
Hus, Jan, 15, 451, 452
Hussites, 230, 451, 452
Iberia, 3, 14, 15, 29, 37, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 109, 115, 127, 129, 134, 135, 136, 142, 143, 152, 167, 172, 178, 191, 195, 196, 204, 259, 294, 310, 325, 333, 384, 385, 415, 419, 420, 421, 424, 429, 476, 478, 479, 490, 551, 552, 553, 555, 558, 559, 560, 561
Ibn Jubayr, 105
Iceland, 123, 175
Ignatius Loyola, 272, 281, 282, 283, 284, 552, 553
Ignatius of Antioch, 292
images, 15, 36, 38, 53, 60–75, 129, 155, 169, 174, 225, 228, 230, 232, 234, 240, 262, 309, 331, 343, 347, 385, 401, 403, 408, 415, 419, 426, 427, 532
India, 77, 78, 79, 84, 203, 205
Innes, Matthew, 136
Innocent II, Pope, 440
Innocent III, Pope, 13, 189, 224, 306, 316, 331, 389, 437, 445, 446, 448, 449, 468, 517, 519, 521, 526, 527, 528
(p. 571) Inquisition, 13, 27, 185, 225, 227, 268, 323, 324, 330, 342, 343, 347, 361, 364, 389, 443, 449, 450, 531, 537, 541, 542, 555, 558, 560
Investiture Contest, 9, 14, 33, 122, 438, 525, 535
Ireland, 6, 116, 117, 133, 142, 201, 212, 220, 254, 256, 257, 258, 267, 294, 384, 429
Isabel I of Castile, 94, 98
Italy, 14, 29, 38, 60, 64, 115, 129, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 141, 142, 151, 152, 156, 161, 177, 178, 193, 194, 195, 204, 214, 258, 293, 294, 308, 310, 325, 369, 380, 383, 388, 391, 438, 444, 445, 447, 449, 458, 459, 461, 462, 464, 465, 466, 467, 468, 476, 482, 486, 490, 491, 501, 519, 523, 525, 526, 539, 541, 558
Jacobus de Voragine, 228, 350, 351
Jacques de Thérines, 462
Jacques de Vitry, 333
Jacques Fournier, bishop of Pamiers, 265
Jaeger, C. Stephen, 309
Jakob Sprenger, 558
James I of Aragon, 100
James, William, 29, 44
Jan van Eyck, 65
Japan, 77, 79
Jaspers, Karl, 77
Jean Beleth, 237
Jean Crespin, 556
Jean d’Abbeville, 191, 196
Jean Gerson, 194, 229, 274, 317, 368, 370
Jean, duc de Berry, 65
Jerome, Saint, 25, 213, 220, 382
Jerusalem, 45, 93, 94, 98, 99, 100, 103, 104, 127, 155, 202, 203, 205, 206, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 263, 282, 295, 420, 421
Jesus Christ, 4, 6, 11, 60, 63, 64, 67, 68, 70, 71, 96, 98, 99, 100, 120, 129, 140, 149, 150, 153, 154, 155, 161, 162, 167, 169, 172, 175, 177, 179, 205, 208, 212, 221, 222, 225, 228, 229, 230, 232, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 242, 243, 244, 245, 256, 259, 271, 272, 275, 276, 280, 281, 282, 283, 284, 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 296, 299, 300, 301, 324, 329, 331, 333, 341, 344, 346, 347, 349, 357, 364, 368, 369, 382, 383, 389, 391, 396, 398, 400, 401, 402, 403, 404, 405, 406, 407, 408, 409, 413, 414, 417, 422, 430, 439, 443, 445, 447, 448, 450, 451, 452, 458, 460, 473, 476, 481, 483, 484, 491, 494, 500, 503, 505, 506, 517, 532, 542, 553, 556
Jews, 12, 14, 24, 37, 95, 101, 102, 103, 104, 162, 205, 349, 351, 357, 359, 385, 389, 397, 413, 414, 415, 416, 417, 418, 419, 421, 422, 423, 424, 425, 426, 427, 428, 429, 430, 480, 482, 539, 551, 552, 557, 558, 559
Joachim of Fiore, 399, 450
Joan of Arc, 229
Jogaila (Jagiello), duke of Lithuania, 128
Johan Boland, 556
Johann Lagenator, 350
Johannes Geiler, 368
Johannes Nider, 229
Johannes Pauli, 370
Johannes Tauler, 550
John Bale, 26
John Calvin, 77, 159, 550, 552, 554, 556, 558, 559
John Chrysostom, 220, 415
John Duns Scotus, 362
John Foxe, 26, 556
John Gower, 273
John of Capistran, 229
John of Damascus, 420, 422
John of Freiburg, 333
John of Gaunt, 15
John of Ivry, 312
John of Rupecissa, 399
John of St Pierre, 330
John Oldcastle, 453
John Pecham, archbishop of Canterbury, 329, 331
John Scot Eriugena, 238
John the Carthusian, 277
John XII, Pope, 521
John XIX, Pope, 521
John XXII, Pope, 14, 460, 559
Jolly, Karen, 342, 348
Jonas, bishop of Orléans, 483
Jordan of Saxony, 390
Juan Manuel, 97
Julian of Brioude, 220
Julian of Norwich, 403, 407, 410
Jumne, 122
Jung, Jacqueline, 68
Jungmann, Joseph-Andreas, 232, 233, 234
Justinian, Roman Emperor, 115, 516
(p. 572) Kant, Emmanuel, 44
Karlstein, 71
Kenelm of Winchcombe, Saint, 153
Kieckhefer, Richard, 349
King Henry I of Germany, 118
Kinship, 7, 38, 44, 45, 78, 153, 154, 157, 402, 551
Kümin, Beat, 171
La Salette, 201
Ladurie, Emmanuel Le Roy, 35
laity, 1, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 39, 44, 45, 64, 84, 126, 142, 148, 149, 153, 155, 157, 160, 161, 167, 168, 169, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 179, 191, 192, 194, 236, 274, 296, 306, 307, 308, 311, 329, 340, 343, 344, 346, 365, 366, 368, 438, 458, 459, 470, 482, 483, 498, 503, 505, 506, 531, 536, 537, 538, 539, 541, 542, 543, 553, 554, 556, 557
Lanfranc of Bec, 141
Laon, 25, 262, 308, 309, 325
Lapidus, 82
Lateran, First council of (1123), 527
Lateran, Second council of (1139), 440, 527
Lateran, Third council (1179), 310, 331, 444, 445, 446, 448, 527
Lateran, Fourth council of (1215) 12, 76, 85, 153, 167, 168, 189, 193, 195, 196, 224, 265, 306, 315, 331, 335, 343, 357, 362, 368, 387, 418, 422, 449, 527, 536, 537, 538, 553
Lazio, 135
Le Goff, Jacques, 33, 34, 35, 297, 315, 325, 494
Le Puy, 86, 101, 204, 230
Le Tart, 387
Lea, Henry Charles, 27
Lechfeld, 80
Leo I, Pope, 518
Leo III, Pope, 520
Leo IX, Pope, 522
Leprosy, 162, 225, 378, 379, 413
Lérida, 191, 196
Lett, Didier, 36
Levi, Giovanni, 35
Levi-Strauss, Claude, 45
Ley, Hermann, 361
Leyser, Henrietta, 388
Leyser, Karl, 46, 517
libraries, 9, 140, 520, 556
Licinius, 24
Liemar, archbishop of Bremen, 522
Lienhardt, Godfrey, 47
Limoges, 204, 210
Lincoln, 172, 174, 193, 194, 207
literacy, 7, 32, 45, 54, 63, 64, 84, 85, 86, 178, 179, 207, 272, 311, 316, 329, 330, 341, 366, 399, 429, 445, 532
Lithuania, 114, 128, 129
Little, Lester K., 33, 46
liturgy, 3, 8, 30, 36, 63, 69, 71, 83, 84, 139, 140, 142, 158, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 178, 191, 210, 218, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238–253, 290, 293, 294, 296, 301, 305, 306, 307, 310, 311, 312, 313, 314, 316, 317, 340, 341, 345, 346, 348, 379, 384, 385, 402, 469, 470, 479, 480, 483, 484, 486, 499, 504, 515, 520, 531, 534, 535, 537, 539, 540, 553, 557
Loche, 309
Lollardy, 15, 207, 213, 230, 364, 451, 452, 453
Lombardy, 135, 310, 445, 460, 465
London, 32, 167, 174, 179, 422
Lorca (town), 105
lordship, 1, 7, 11, 107, 191, 316, 317, 457, 458, 459, 460, 461, 462, 463, 464, 465, 468, 469, 470, 497, 498, 500
Lorsch, 134, 135, 140
Lothar I, Carolingian king, 308, 484, 495
Louis IX, king of France, Saint, 226, 229, 273, 381, 390
Louis of Anjou, Saint, 227
Louis the German, 297, 484, 486
Louis the Pious, 119, 141, 259, 297, 312, 484, 485, 486, 495, 542
Lourdes, 201, 202, 209
Low Countries, 36, 176, 380, 398, 404, 493, 499
Lübeck, 127
Lucca, 467
Lucius III, Pope, 445
Luckmann, Thomas, 188
Ludham, Norwich, 173
Ludolf of Saxony, 281
Ludwig IV, Holy Roman Emperor, 559
Lugo, 195
Lund, 122
Lyon, 158, 159, 160, 218, 223, 259, 445, 446
(p. 573) Maastricht, 155
Mâcon, 479
Macy, Gary, 185, 188
Magdeburg, 486
magic, 17, 24, 31, 47, 160, 260, 342, 343, 348, 349, 350, 415, 420, 423, 482, 494, 495, 503, 504, 533, 540, 543, 558;
see also folklore; witchcraft
Magyars, 80, 118, 119, 424
Mahmud of Ghazni, 80
Mainz, 118, 120, 195, 310, 312, 437, 520, 538, 539
Malinowski, Bronislaw, 44
Mamertus, bishop of Vienne, 503
Marburg, 225, 226
Marco Polo, 426
Marcus Aurelius, 272
Margaret Ebner, 406, 407, 408
Margaret of Antioch, Saint, 150, 172, 174, 175, 176, 349, 350
Margaret of Hungary, 226, 227
Margery Kempe, 191, 281, 400, 402, 403, 405, 407
Marguerite Porete, 228
Marie of Oignies, 401
Marienburg, 127
Marittima, 468
marriage, 6, 7, 11, 12, 36, 44, 45, 86, 96, 102, 105, 153, 175, 187, 192, 257, 258, 267, 279, 290, 331, 335, 378, 379, 380, 404, 406, 409, 428, 440, 441, 491, 500, 515, 516, 533, 535
Marrou, H.-I., 532
Marseille, 133, 461
Marsilio Ficino, 370
Marsilius of Padua, 559
Martín Fernández, bishop, 191
Martin I, Pope, 520
Martin Luther, 230, 301, 328, 550, 554, 555, 558, 559
Martin of Tours, 220
martyrdom, 51, 61, 63, 70, 96, 116, 120, 140, 173, 206, 218, 219, 221, 222, 223, 256, 263, 292, 293, 382, 439, 444, 448, 451, 502, 505, 520, 556
Mary, the Virgin, 45, 47, 63, 64, 65, 69, 104, 154, 158, 159, 160, 161, 172, 174, 175, 177, 178, 191, 201, 207, 208, 222, 223, 230, 276, 301, 340, 341, 344, 346, 347, 348, 351, 369, 388, 401, 402, 408, 418, 494
Mary Magdalene, 172, 206, 276, 388
mass, 14, 32, 34, 39, 48, 63, 139, 173, 174, 179, 197, 202, 203, 210, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238–253, 273, 275, 283, 294, 295, 296, 298, 300, 301, 311, 312, 313, 314, 332, 340, 344, 345, 348, 350, 351, 364, 391, 401, 484, 492, 497, 533, 540
Matfried, count of Orléans, 259
Matthew Paris, 95, 425, 426
Matthias Flacius Illyricus, 26, 556
Matthias Tanner, 556
Maubuisson, 381
Maurists, 28
Mauss, Marcel, 31, 44, 45, 46
Mauthner, Fritz, 361
Maximilian, Holy Roman Emperor, 301, 349
McCaskie, Tom, 49
McCormick, Michael, 308
McLaughlin, Megan, 36
McNamer, Sarah, 276
Mecca, 104, 211
Mechthild of Hackeborn, 299, 404
Mechthild of Magdeburg, 299, 406
medicine, 36, 66, 162, 209, 274, 326, 327, 332, 377, 553;
see also hospitals
Meister Eckhart, 228, 229, 230, 299, 300
Meldon, 171
Melfi, 310
Melun, 309
mendicants, 12, 13, 46, 64, 108, 153, 154, 157, 159, 161, 177, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 325, 326, 327, 329, 330, 331, 332, 336, 340, 369, 379, 380, 382, 389, 390, 441, 450, 460, 541, 542, 551;
see also specific orders
Merlo, Grado G., 335
Merovingians, 5, 117, 142, 201, 478, 479, 480, 482, 484, 486, 490, 491
Methodius, missionary, 118
Miccoli, Giovanni, 441
Michaud-Quantin, Pierre, 333
Miesco, duke of Poland, 118
Milan, 14, 293, 438, 451, 523
miracle collections, 209, 212, 293, 343, 348
(p. 574) miracles, 28, 36, 123, 140, 153, 158, 203, 204, 206, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 219, 220, 221, 223, 224, 225, 226, 228, 229, 230, 293, 340, 341, 343, 344, 347, 348, 350, 351, 352, 365, 377, 418, 427, 495
Modena, 283, 466
Moeller, Bernd, 156, 550
Molesme, 385, 387, 388
monasteries, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 18, 37, 77, 84, 116, 117, 122, 123, 129, 132–147, 149, 167, 191, 193, 194, 211, 221, 264, 296, 308, 367, 377–395, 460, 461, 462, 463, 464, 466, 467, 468, 469, 478, 484, 486, 496, 497, 500, 517, 521
Mongols, 80, 82, 327, 424, 425, 426
Montaillou, 35, 265, 267
Monte Cassino, 137, 349, 382
Montecatini, 467
Mont-Saint-Michel, 203
Moore, Robert Ian, 46, 52, 76, 188, 315
Moorman, John, 33
Moravia, 118
Morghen, Raffaello, 440
Morocco, 85, 108, 109
Mudejars, 102, 103, 104
Muhammad, 95, 96, 98, 104, 420, 421, 422
Muir, Edward, 158
Münster, 561
music, 3, 155, 237, 296, 334, 496
Muslims, 37, 78, 79, 80, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 93, 95, 96, 97, 98, 100, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 114, 152, 153, 162, 211, 228, 229, 230, 272, 297, 299, 300, 301, 357, 363, 369, 384, 389, 396–411, 413, 414, 419, 420, 421, 422, 423, 424, 427, 428, 429, 430, 490, 491, 497, 551, 552, 556, 557, 558
mysticism, 37, 78, 82, 550, 555, 558
Naples, 227, 468
Naumburg, 67, 68
Needham, Rodney, 52
Netherlands, 152, 156, 193, 552, 553, 554, 557, 558, 559, 560;
see also Low Countries
Nicea, 4, 473, 477, 516
Nicholas Eymeric, 329
Nicholas I, Pope, 515, 516
Nicholas II, Pope, 522
Nicholas of Lyra, 428
Nicholas of Strasbourg, 367
Nikephoros Phokas, Byzantine emperor, 136
Nikephoros, Byzantine Emperor, 136, 141
Nîmes, 310
Nirenberg, David, 52
Nithard, 484, 485
Noblat, Limousin, 208
Norbert of Xanten, 223, 387
North, Douglass, 188
Norway, 119, 123, 125
Nun Cotton, 381
nuns, 149, 154, 157, 161, 208, 211, 212, 214, 220, 226, 228, 229, 256, 366, 367, 368, 369, 377, 378, 379, 380, 381, 382, 383, 384, 386, 387, 388, 389, 390, 391, 463, 486, 496, 498, 504, 539, 555
Obazine, 378, 387, 388
Oberman, Heiko, 156, 550
Odilo, Abbot of Cluny, 136
Odo of Cambrai, 416
Odo of Cluny, 385
Ohtricus, 309
Olaf Haraldsson, king of Norway, Saint, 124, 222
Olav Tryggvason, king of Norway, 123, 124
Olof, king of Sweden, 119
Olomouc, 195
Ong, Walter, 45
Orderic Vitalis, 25
Origen, 238
Orléans, 325, 437
Orosius, 23, 24
Orvieto, 466
Ostrogoths, 115
Oswald, bishop of Worcester, 543
Oswald, king of Northumbria, Saint, 222
Oswy, king of Northumbrians, 474
Otloh of St Emmeram, 367
Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, 80, 465, 521
Otto III, 120, 122, 462
Otto, Italian cardinal, 191
Ottobono, Italian cardinal, 191
Ottonians, 118, 119, 222
Oxford, 32, 47, 152, 329, 452
(p. 575) paganism, 5, 24, 25, 76, 114, 116, 117, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 126, 127, 128, 129, 160, 169, 206, 207, 221, 259, 342, 351, 359, 365, 384, 413, 414, 420, 421, 424, 425, 426, 427, 428, 429, 430, 448, 449, 475, 476, 483, 490, 493, 495, 497, 503, 505, 506, 521, 539, 551, 556
Palestine, 80, 101, 127, 310, 551, 553
Pantin, William A., 32
Paolo Sarpi, 561
papacy, 3, 9, 10, 13, 14, 16, 26, 29, 30, 99, 108, 128, 186, 188, 189, 190, 192, 223, 224, 227, 305, 306, 307, 384, 390, 391, 436, 437, 438, 440, 444, 446, 449, 453, 460, 465, 468, 491, 516, 517, 518, 519, 520, 521, 522, 523, 524, 525, 526, 527, 528, 533, 556, 559, 560, 561
Paris, 12, 13, 80, 136, 138, 141, 170, 175, 195, 228, 229, 241, 242, 243, 261, 274, 275, 309, 314, 325, 326, 328, 335, 370, 378, 380, 389, 441, 449, 479, 483, 491
parish, 10, 11, 12, 15, 64, 65, 84, 150, 153, 156, 157, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 176, 177, 178, 179, 194, 196, 197, 265, 266, 308, 311, 313, 315, 329, 331, 336, 340, 341, 344, 351, 418, 425, 427, 460, 526, 539, 540, 554, 556
Paschal II, Pope, 522
Patarines, 13, 438, 439, 441, 445, 460
Patmos, 133, 138
Patrick, Saint, 220
patronage, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 45, 46, 63, 71, 78, 82, 86, 97, 99, 134, 141, 152, 153, 155, 191, 219, 220, 221, 222, 226, 228, 379, 380, 381, 384, 459, 460, 461, 463, 495, 497, 500, 505
Paul the Deacon, 308
Paulinus, archbishop of Aquilea, 258, 261, 267
Paulinus, bishop of York, 6
Pavia, 143, 476
Pelagius II, Pope, 255
Penance, 84, 153, 201, 203, 204, 209, 211, 212, 235, 254–270, 294, 313, 388, 448, 485, 503, 534, 536, 537, 542, 543;
see also confession
Perugia, 226
Peter Abelard, 261, 262, 309, 311, 388, 442
Peter Damian, 212, 239
Peter Lombard, 324, 326, 328, 358
Peter Martyr, inquisitor, Saint, 227
Peter of Bruis, 439, 442
Peter of Pisa, 308
Peter the Chanter, 335, 427
Peter the Venerable, 213, 239, 316, 385, 416, 421, 429, 442
Peter Zwicker, 323, 324, 330
Peterborough, 207
Petronilla of Chémilly, 379
Philip Augustus, king of France, 316
Philip II, king of France, 203, 417, 429
Philip IV, king of France, 1, 13, 14, 452, 517, 528, 561
Piacenza, 310
Piasca, 139
Piedmont, 135, 159, 437, 451
pilgrimage, 14, 45, 77, 79, 95, 99, 100, 103, 104, 105, 172, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 218, 221, 222, 227, 229, 230, 293, 377, 384, 385, 401, 403, 422, 423, 459, 483, 519, 528, 552, 553;
see also relics; saints
Pilton, 172
Pippin, Carolingian king, 259, 480, 481, 482, 483, 490, 491, 496, 497
Pisa, 108, 308, 457, 527
Pistoia, 152, 460, 466
Plato, 238, 295, 370, 398
Poitiers, 204, 220
Poland, 15, 29, 118, 119, 120, 122, 125, 128, 193, 194, 223, 523, 552, 553
Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna, Saint, 218
Pons de Léras, 379
Ponthieu, 204
Pontigny, 462
Portugal, 93, 134, 189, 195, 201, 552, 558
Power, Eileen, 29
Praemonstratensians, 223, 378, 380, 387, 444, 464
Prague, 71, 72, 118, 120, 121, 195, 323, 325, 451, 452
Prataglia, 134, 135, 136
prayer, 6, 8, 9, 12, 17, 33, 36, 64, 70, 103, 139, 140, 155, 171, 179, 204, 218, 220, 230, 232, 235, (p. 576) 236, 242, 243, 256, 258, 262, 271, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281, 282, 284, 290, 293, 294, 296, 300, 301, 312, 313, 314, 316, 317, 327, 344, 345, 346, 349, 366, 382, 384, 385, 391, 398, 401, 409, 453, 462, 473, 477, 480, 482, 484, 492, 495, 496, 497, 498, 499, 504, 554
preaching, 8, 12, 13, 36, 37, 69, 99, 123, 126, 167, 173, 174, 178, 187, 223, 225, 228, 255, 256, 264, 265, 271, 313, 327, 329, 331, 332, 336, 340, 344, 346, 350, 368, 369, 370, 398, 385, 388, 389, 402, 404, 415, 418, 419, 421, 425, 441, 442, 445, 482, 495, 499, 536, 537, 554, 556;
see also Exempla
Prémontré, 387, 388
Pribislav of Mecklenburg, 126
processions, 3, 148, 150, 151, 152, 154, 155, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 173, 235, 256, 341, 346, 450, 457, 503, 553
Prodi, Paolo, 558, 560
Prosper of Aquitaine, 25
Prouille, 389, 390
Prudentius, 424
Prüm, 136, 139, 140, 194, 491
Pseudo-Dionysius the Aereopagite, 398
Purgatory, 294, 298, 300, 453
Putnam, Robert, 155
Pyrenees, 136, 201, 265, 490, 493
Quintilian, 272
Radda, Chianti, 177
Radegund, Saint, 220
Raimondello Orsini del Balzo, count of Lecce, 70
Ranke, Leopold von, 27, 28
Rathbod, archbishop of Trier, 539
Ravenna, 17, 476, 524
Reccard, Visigothic king, 477, 478
Redon, 134, 135, 136, 142, 497
Reformation, 10, 13, 16, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 35, 38, 45, 156, 159, 162, 166, 168, 179, 230, 301, 361, 453, 550, 551, 552, 553, 554, 555, 556, 557, 558, 559, 560
Reggio, 460, 466
Reggio Emilia, 460
Regino of Prüm, 538, 539, 540, 543
Reichenau, 137, 140, 296, 486
Reims, 141, 204, 236, 259, 308, 309, 527
Reisbach, 310
relics, 46, 54, 60, 61, 63, 70, 71, 101, 118, 135, 207, 208, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 256, 260, 308, 340, 341, 348, 351, 352, 363, 365, 377, 385, 466, 486, 491, 495, 499, 500, 501, 502, 505, 520;
see also pilgrimage; saints
reliquaries, 61, 63, 69, 70, 139
Remigius of Auxerre, 309
Reuter, Hermann, 361
Reynolds, Susan, 14
Riccoldo da Monte di Croce, 369
Richard Fishacre, 329
Richard I, king of England, 203
Richard of Capua, 523
Richard of St-Vanne, 211
Richard Poore, 195
Richard Rolle, 399, 405
Rifreddo, 381
Ripoll, 137
ritual, 17, 37, 45, 46, 48, 49, 53, 63, 69, 77, 82, 83, 85, 100, 101, 109, 139, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 154, 155, 157, 158, 159, 160, 186, 187, 191, 201, 202, 206, 209, 221, 228, 234, 236, 237, 239, 240, 242, 243, 244, 245, 254, 259, 260, 264, 266, 267, 273, 292, 311, 316, 342, 344, 349, 350, 351, 416, 417, 447, 493, 500, 503, 551, 554, 558;
see also liturgy; processions
Robert Bellarmine, 561
Robert Grosseteste, 194, 368
Robert Guiscard, 517, 523
Robert Holcot, 427
Robert of Arbrissel, 223, 379, 388
Robert of Torigny, 25
Robert of Uzès, 399
Robert Reynes, 345
Robertson, John, 361
Robinson, I. S., 310
Rocamadour, 230
Rodulf Glaber, 522
Roman Empire, 5, 7, 24, 26, 38, 78, 114, 115, 116, 117, 129, 223, 256, 377, 415, 424, 473, 476, 481, 486, 505, 517, 518, 522, 550, 551
(p. 577) Rome, 3, 5, 14, 28, 60, 63, 70, 99, 100, 114, 135, 137, 153, 158, 161, 189, 203, 210, 211, 213, 214, 219, 222, 233, 235, 255, 256, 292, 293, 309, 310, 363, 378, 382, 391, 441, 442, 446, 452, 465, 468, 469, 476, 491, 516, 517, 519, 520, 521, 522, 523, 524, 525, 526, 527, 528, 532, 556, 560
rood screens, 173, 345
Rosenwein, Barbara, 46, 141, 142
Rosier-Catach, Irène, 234
Rouen, 194, 219, 430
Royaumont, 381
Rubin, Miri, 36, 49, 234
Rufinus of Aquileia, 23
Rule of St Benedict, 139, 213, 214, 382, 383, 384, 542
Rupert of Deutz, 237, 417
Russia, 35, 118, 127, 336, 553
Rutebeuf, 427
sacraments, 3, 6, 10, 11, 12, 67, 78, 84, 153, 167, 176, 234, 237, 239, 240, 243, 244, 245, 246, 254, 266, 300, 312, 326, 327, 343, 344, 345, 346, 357, 362, 366, 420, 440, 442, 457, 515, 536, 553, 554, 555;
Sahagún, 134, 135, 136
Sahlins, Marshal, 48, 52
Said, Edward, 50
Saint-Gall, 134, 140, 142, 496, 497, 499
Saint Nazarius, 135
Saint-Denis, 143, 204, 381, 461
Saint-Germain-des Prés, 138
Saint-Germain-des-Prés, 136, 139
Saint-Michel-sur-Orge, 172
saints, 3, 5, 26, 28, 45, 46, 52, 61, 63, 64, 71, 78, 84, 104, 125, 140, 148, 153, 154, 157, 159, 160, 162, 172, 173, 175, 176, 179, 201, 203, 204, 206, 207, 209, 211, 212, 213, 217–237, 268, 275, 293, 296, 311, 340, 341, 347, 348, 351, 363, 365, 369, 377, 385, 425, 451, 459, 466, 470, 481, 496, 498, 500, 501, 502, 505, 520, 552, 553, 554, 556;
see also pilgrimage; relics
Saint-Riquier, 204, 211, 496
Saint-Séverin, Paris, 172
Saint-Vincent de Mâcon, 142
Salah al-Din (Saladin), 93
Salamanca, 191, 195
Salerno, 468
salvation, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 12, 15, 16, 18, 33, 177, 196, 203, 255, 272, 300, 331, 334, 378, 388, 396, 403, 409, 414, 425, 437, 439, 449, 450, 451, 458, 480, 482, 485, 490, 496, 505, 528, 531, 534, 537, 554
Salzburg, 195
San Damiano, 390
San Félix of Cisneros, 139
San Ginés de la Jara, 104
San Martino, Tuscany, 177
San Vincenzo al Volturno, 137
Sancho I Ramirez, king of Aragon, 523
Sant Joan de les Abadesses, 137
Santa Giulia di Brescia, 138
Santiago de Compostella, 172, 203, 210, 211, 384
Sardinia, 93
Sassanids, 78
Scandinavia, 29, 37, 79, 80, 117, 122, 135, 167, 221, 226, 308, 398, 404, 420, 424, 464, 465, 467, 539, 552, 553
schism, 3, 13, 14, 16, 460, 522, 527
Schmitt, Jean-Claude, 34, 35, 36, 335, 342
scholasticism, 82, 190, 239, 296, 297, 326, 358, 360, 363, 371, 398, 427, 532, 550
Scotland, 6, 310, 332
Scribner, Robert W., 45
Scriptoria, 9, 139, 140, 377
Segni, 469
Sempringham, 377, 388
senses, 10, 38, 141, 148, 149, 204, 205, 237, 238, 239, 240, 242, 243, 245, 278, 282, 351, 396, 397, 398, 399, 400, 409, 410, 418
Serenus, bishop of Marseille, 63
Sicard of Cremona, 237, 312
Sicily, 93, 204, 424, 429, 517
Sidonius Apollinarius, 415, 476
Siena, 63, 161, 229, 391, 522
Sigebert of Gembloux, 25
Siger of Brabant, 359
Sigibert, Anglo-Saxon king, 474
Sigismund, king of Hungary, 16
Silvanès, 388
Simeon Stylites, 5, 219, 383
(p. 578) Simony, 11, 192, 380, 438
Siricius, Pope, 516
Slavs, 80, 118, 120, 121, 122, 128, 424, 425, 428, 497
Soissons, 230, 259, 260, 482
Song dynasty, 80
Southern, Richard, 32, 45
Spengler, Otto, 77
Spiegel, Gabrielle, 54
St Petersburg, 127
stained glass, 64, 65, 69, 385
Stefan of Landskron, 370
Stefan of Novara, 309
Stephan of Landskron, 366
Stephen (Istvan), king of Hungary, 119
Stephen Langton, 195
Stephen of Obazine, 212
Stephen, Saint, 222
Strasbourg, 31, 368, 484
Stubbs, William, 44
Stutz, Ulrich, 459
Suger, abbot of Saint-Denis, 381
Sulpicius Severus, 133
Sutri, 522
Sweden, 119, 120, 123, 125, 127, 169, 195, 229, 391, 408
Sweyn Estrithson, king of Denmark, 523
Switzerland, 134, 176, 348, 442, 554, 558
Sylvester II, Pope, 520
Synods, 191, 193, 194, 195, 196, 309, 310, 516, 520, 531, 536, 537, 539, 554
Syria, 80, 105, 106, 205, 476
Szczecin, 323, 324
Tallinn, 127
Tang Empire, 79, 85
Tarragona, 5
Tassilo, duke of Bavaria, 482
Taunton, 172
Teitr, 123
Tellenbach, Gerd, 307
Templars, 103, 127, 388
Teresa of Avila, 553, 555
Terpstra, Nicholas, 551
Tertullian, 293
Teutonic Order, 127, 128, 226
Theoderic, king of Ostrogoths, 476
Theodoret, 23
Theodosius, Roman emperor, 260, 476, 516
Theodulf, bishop of Orleans, 495
theology, 3, 4, 6, 10, 12, 15, 16, 17, 18, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 35, 50, 52, 66, 77, 148, 156, 162, 166, 187, 190, 228, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 241, 243, 297, 298, 306, 323, 324, 325, 326, 328, 329, 335, 349, 351, 358, 359, 364, 369, 370, 389, 396, 418, 450, 452, 533, 534, 551, 553, 554, 555
Thietmar of Merseburg, chronicler, 120, 121, 126
Thomas à Kempis, 281
Thomas Aquinas, Saint, 47, 97, 227, 298, 349, 358, 363, 389, 460
Thomas Beckett, archbishop of Canterbury, Saint, 15, 212, 223, 262, 263, 264, 267, 316, 325
Thomas Cromwell, 208, 560
Thomas of Cantilupe, bishop of Hereford, Saint, 343
Thomas of Celano, 224
Thomas of Chobham, 335
Thomas Scotus, 361
Thomas Spofford, bishop of Hereford, 191
Thomas, Keith, 45, 342
Thompson, Augustine, 36, 342
Thuringia, 225, 314
Tierney, Brian, 335
Tilley, Christopher, 65
Tinkle, Theresa, 419
tithes, 10, 11, 16, 168, 186, 192, 327, 345, 381, 385, 387, 460, 461, 462, 463, 497, 505, 533, 539, 543
Toledo, 98, 100, 107, 167, 189, 190, 477, 478, 560
Toulouse, 204, 222, 227, 389, 442, 443, 447, 496
Tournai, 155
Tours, 133, 135, 142, 204, 219, 220, 222, 256, 259, 309, 310, 384, 473, 477, 527
Toynbee, Arnold, 77
Tréguier, Brittany, 175
Trent, 33, 38, 331, 360, 391, 553, 555, 560, 561
Trier, 5, 260, 267, 538, 539
Tripoli, 93
Troeltsch, Ernst, 29
Troia, 310
Turieno, 143
Turkey, 80, 101, 421
(p. 579) Turner, Victor, 52, 210
Tuy, 195
Tylor, Edward, 44
Umayyads, 97, 98, 420
universities, 81, 83, 129, 190, 311, 325, 328, 358, 389, 398, 452, 517;
see also scholasticism
Uppland, 169
Uppsala, 195
Urban II, Pope, 99, 127, 189, 202, 204, 310, 421, 522, 525
usury, 161, 195, 416, 417, 482
Valladolid, 191
Vallombrosa, 388
Valmagne, 388
Vatican, Second Council of (1962–65), 32, 233
Vauchez, André, 148, 185, 186, 188, 224, 227, 553
Venantius Fortunatus, 220
Venice, 108, 150, 158, 162, 167, 203, 221, 277, 332, 560, 561
Vera, 105
Verdun, 461
Verona, 193, 445, 466, 476, 532
Vich, 309
Vienna, 65, 366, 370
Vienne, 160
Vikings, 119, 122, 124, 133, 309, 461
Vincent Ferrer, Saint, 340, 341, 343, 344, 345, 346, 347, 350, 419
violence, 102, 103, 117, 126, 157, 159, 161, 227, 256, 258, 260, 267, 310, 416, 421, 424, 426, 428, 446, 448, 449, 464, 535, 556
Visconti dukes of Milan, 14
Visigoths, 97, 98, 115, 415, 476, 477, 478, 480, 482, 486, 516
Visions, 201, 206, 220, 230, 239, 280, 295, 297, 298, 367, 398, 399, 400, 401, 402, 403, 404, 405, 406, 409, 410, 448, 450, 485, 555
Vladimir of Kiev, 83
Vovelle, Michel, 34
Vratislav of Pommerania, 126
Walberswick, 171
Waldensians, 13, 223, 323, 357, 364, 388, 446, 447, 453
Waldo of Lyon, 223, 445; see also Waldensians
Wales, 133, 136, 138, 142
Walsingham, Norfolk, 208
Walter Hilton, 398
Walter Map, 133
Walter Simon, 36
Walton, Lancashire, 344
wealth, 4, 7, 8, 9, 13, 14, 15, 27, 78, 79, 86, 116, 118, 119, 121, 122, 123, 124, 138, 141, 143, 149, 150, 151, 170, 171, 173, 175, 176, 188, 202, 343, 377, 387, 388, 422, 426, 427, 429, 461, 536
Wearmouth-Jarrow, 520
Weber, Max, 29, 48, 49, 77, 156, 187, 550, 553
Wells (town), 170
Wenceslas, king of Bohemia, Saint, 71, 118, 125, 222
Westminster, 171, 172, 174, 176, 195, 300
Whitby, 116, 377
Wickham, Chris, 141, 465
Widukind, chronicler, 119
William I, king of England, 523
William of Champeaux, 262, 309
William of Norwich, Saint, 417, 430
William of York, Saint, 153
William Peraldus, 359, 370
William, archbishop of Sens, 263
Willibrord, Saint, 425
wills, 36, 149, 150, 154, 169, 170, 171, 174, 300, 343, 347, 484
Wilsnack, Brandenburg, 208
witchcraft, 35, 162, 229, 349, 350, 558;
see also magic; folklore
Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 52
Wolfgang of Regensburg, 309
women, 29, 78, 102, 104, 106, 107, 109, 149, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 178, 196, 203, 208, 210, 214, 229, 255, 256, 257, 268, 271, 274, 276, 297, 334, 340, 342, 349, 351, 362, 365, 377, 378, 379, 380, 381, 382, 383, 384, 387, 388, 390, 391, 396, 398, 399, 400, 401, 403, 405, 408, 418, 423, 427, 495, 496, 531, 534, 535, 555, 558;
see also nuns
Worms, 35, 501, 523, 524, 525, 526, 534
(p. 580) Wratislav, duke of Bohemia, 523
Würzburg, 309
Wyclif, John, 15, 452, 453, 461
Yatton, 173
Yuan Ts’ai, 81
Yvette of Huy, 379
Zacharias, Pope, 490
Zamora, Spain, 177
Zenobius, saint, 457
Zita, saint, 175
Zurich, 176, 441
Zwickau, 323
Zwingli, 77