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date: 15 December 2019

(p. 697) Subject Index

(p. 697) Subject Index

abdominal stoma 424–5
abdominoplasty 54, 146, 338–9
abduction 630
abnormal appearance see disfigurement
acceptance 28
acceptance and commitment therapy 556
Acid Survivors Foundation of Bangladesh 478
Acid Survivors Trust 77
acid violence 77
acne 126, 399–400
and body dysmorphic disorder 399–400
dermabrasion 127
psychosocial effects 400
actual vs. ideal body 606
adolescents 123–41, 440
acne see acne
appearance-altering techniques 134–5
cosmetic surgery 127, 134–5
dieting 134
muscle-building 134
body dissatisfaction 129–30
body esteem 133
boys see boys
chemotherapy-induced hair loss 427
dating 262–3
exercise effects 299
fat talk 132, 133, 258–60
girls see girls
healthcare needs 490–1
peer relationships see peer pressure; peer relationships
preference for attractive peers 127
social relationships 133
adornment 38, 43
adult appearance 142–59
adulthood 142–59
age-related differences 143–6
appearance 143
appearance investment 146
dieting, disordered eating and cosmetic surgery 145–6
satisfaction with appearance 143–5
predictors of appearance concerns 146–52
biological factors 147–8
psychological factors 149–51
sociocultural factors 151–2
advanced therapy medicinal products 85
advertising 113, 229, 451, 686–8
airbrushing 229, 443, 464, 542, 597
alternative images in 229–31
Changing Faces 478–9
cosmetic surgery 463
models in 462
unrealistic claims of 687–8
see also media
Advertising Standards Authority 451
affective components of body image 607
age-related differences 143–6, 153
appearance concerns 143
investment in appearance 146
satisfaction with appearance 143–5
dieting, disordered eating and cosmetic surgery 145–6
ageing 162
anxiety about 149–50
see also older adults
airbrushing 229, 443, 464, 542, 597
Alopecia Society 569
American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (ASAPS) 518
American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) 66, 330, 525
amputation 27–8, 110, 120, 274, 415–17
as bereavement 30, 415–16
and embodiment 28–30
lower limb 416
prosthetics 29, 80, 416–17
psychosocial adjustment 416
social stigma 416
upper limb 416–17
anabolic steroids 581, 583–4
anorexia 59, 218, 308, 322, 444
in cosmetic surgery patients 341
gender differences 181
media influences 460
negative stereotyping 311–12
prevalence 320
(p. 698) anti-ageing creams 146, 164, 687
anti-ageing procedures
blepharoplasty 146, 182, 333
chemical peels 334
facelifts 146, 333
fillers 53, 54, 330, 334, 523
rhytidectomy 146, 333
anxiety 92
about ageing 149–50
attachment 243
burn injuries 378–9
generalized 359–60
maternal 506
NICE guidelines 561
social 92, 100–1
social physique 296
Apert syndrome 355
Apligraf 84
appearance adjustment see psychosocial adjustment
appearance by design 42–4
appearance concerns 48–9, 91
age-related differences 50, 143
investment in appearance 146
satisfaction with appearance 143–5
characterization of 279–80
community setting 49–50
gender differences 50, 118
and health promotion 581–94
eating 584–6
ethical issues 589–90
evidence base 588
exercise see exercise
performance-enhancing drugs 583–4
screening 586–7
smoking 587, 588–9
impact of 104
internalization of 220, 255, 281, 599
joint management 57–9
lay expectations 51–2
media role 458–9, 597
medical/surgical management 51–5
and negative social experience 358
with no eating disorder 322–4
parents for children 125–6, 240–1
predictors of 146–52
biological factors 147–8
psychological factors 149–51
sociocultural factors 151–2
psychological management 55–7
reduction of 590–1
school-based interventions 531–50
treatment-related 414–38
unrealistic expectations 51–3
weight-related 320–9
appearance investment 146
appearance models 92–7
body shame and social anxiety 100–1
evolutionary theory 97–9
stigma and objectification 99–100
appearance preferences 117
appearance research see research
appearance schematic 225–6
appearance training 259
appearance-altering conditions 273–92
congenital see congenital conditions
coping strategies 276–7
physical location 275–6
psychosocial adjustment 277–8
self-concept 278–83
appearance and self 278–9
content 279–80
organization 280–3
self-rating 274
severity and distress 274–6
see also disfigurement
appearance-based rejection sensitivity 263
appearance-contingent self-worth 278–9, 281, 488
appearance-related information 286–7
appearance-related interventions 101–4
approach-based coping strategies 277, 286–7
arts-based/visual research 648–51
advantages and limitations 651
drama 651
drawings 650
photography 649
scrapbooking 650
video 649–50
Assessment of Body Image Cognitive Distortions 607–8
assimilation 461
atopic eczema 400–2
attachment anxiety 243
attention 284–5
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder 360, 374
attentional bias 101, 284–5
attractiveness 41, 94, 97, 124–8
association with success 473–4, 480
cultural differences 40–1, 218–19
definitions of 204–6
evolutionary advantage 41
ideals 218–19
and popularity 127
preferences 124–5
self-rated 262–3
(p. 699) as selling point 230–1
stereotype development 124, 125–6
women 124, 125, 419–20
averageness 98
avoidance 92, 575
avoidant attachment 243
avoidant coping 276
babies, visible differences 502–5
adjustment processes 364, 503–5
facilitation of 507
loss 503–4
reactions to appearance 503
search for cause/meaning 504
thoughts about baby's future 504–5
time for 505
understanding 503
discovery of 509–10
mental health needs of parents 505–6
parent-reported needs 506–7
bad bodies 16
Barbie-doll stereotype 175
bariatric surgery 52, 54, 66–7, 338
Beating the Blues 570
beauty see attractiveness
Beauty and the Beast 443, 475
‘beauty is good’ stereotype 124–5, 127
beauty myths 679, 686
Beckham, David 473
behavioural disengagement 277
behavioural practices
culturally specific 37, 38–9
relation to body dissatisfaction 608
beta-testing 572
Beyonce 219
Billboard Kids 479
binge eating 314, 325
biomedical technologies
sociological perspective 79–90
see also individual procedures
biovalue 86
birthmarks 355, 358
bisexuals 118, 194
body image 195
body satisfaction 195–6
romantic/sexual relationships 197
subculture 196–7
blepharoplasty 146, 182, 333
blogging 646–7
BMI 40, 126, 218, 309, 321
and body dissatisfaction 129–30, 147
bodily hybridity 86
body acceptance 537
Body Checking Questionnaire 608
body contouring surgery 66–7
abdominoplasty 146, 338–9
liposuction 134–5, 146, 337–8
body control 314–15
body decoration 39, 43
ornamental scars 43
body dissatisfaction 1, 2, 26, 92, 101
adolescents 129–30
antecedents to 177–80
breast and penis size 178–9
cultural factors 179–80
relationship status 180
self-esteem 179
and BMI 129–30
consequences 180–3
dieting see dieting
and desire for weight loss 255
and eating disorders 584
and exercise 295–6
media influence 130–1, 151–2, 179–80, 219–25
and peer pressure 254–5
psychological factors in 149–51
and smoking rate 587
and teasing 256–7
body dysmorphic disorder 48, 95, 119, 607
and acne 399–400
in cosmetic surgery patients 340–1
NICE guidelines 50
non-psychiatric treatments 340–1
body esteem 132, 133
negative 133
see also self-esteem
body experience 161
body fat 40
body fetishization 81
Body Gossip 112
body ideals 163
gender differences 175–6
men 176, 310
muscle tone 175
thinness see thinness
women 176
body image 2, 25–6, 32, 93, 94
affective components 607
and breast augmentation 335
burn injuries 379–80
cognitive measures 607–8
definition of 605–8
affective measures 607
behavioural measures 608
cognitive measures 607–8
global and site-specific satisfaction 606–7
(p. 700) development 161–6
dissatisfaction with see body dissatisfaction
effect of teasing 256–7
evaluation 103–4
and exercise 299
and family support 240–1
ideal-actual self-discrepancy 280
LGBs 195
management strategies 164
media influences 458–9
older adults 161–6
post-cancer 420
postpartum 147–8
school-based interventions 531–50
efficacy 535–7
examples 541–2
factors influencing success 537–41
school-based programmes 534–42
school-related problems 533
social comparisons 260–1
stereotypes 91
Body Image Assessment Scale 606
Body Image Avoidance Scale 608
Body Image Compulsive Actions Scale 608
Body Image Scale for Older Adults (BIS-OA) 166–8
body image scales 608–10
state vs. trait measurements 609–10
see also individual scales
body mass index see BMI
body modification 79, 308
footbinding 38, 110
painting 43
tattooing 43, 110
body monitoring 146
body reality 163
body satisfaction 143–5, 356–7, 598
actual vs. ideal 606
adolescents 129–30
age-related 143–5
and attachment anxiety 243
children 129
gender differences 144–5
body areas involved 177
rates of appearance 176
reasons for experiencing 182–3
global/site-specific 606–7
improvement by exercise 298–300
LGBs 195–6
post-mastectomy 423
promotion of 535
women 144
middle-aged 151–2
body shame 100–1, 220
body shape 128–35, 306–19
influences on preferences 130–3
media 130–1
neurochemistry and genetics 132–3
parents 131
peers 132
media ideal of 218–19
preference development 128–30
body size 218
and consumer appeal 230
diversity in media imagery 462
perceptions of 26, 119, 322–4
overestimation 323, 585
and smoking 587
and self-worth 321
body use, cultural differences 42
Botox® 330, 333–4, 520, 522
boys
appearance concerns 440–1
appearance-related social comparisons 261
body esteem 133
media influences on body satisfaction 131
muscle-building 134
peer pressure 254–5
preference for muscularity 129
school-based interventions 539–40
teasing 257
Brando, Marlon 473
breast augmentation 80–3, 87, 112, 146, 182, 334–7
adolescents 135
demographics 335
ethical issues 87
feminist perspective 81
history 80
as medical devices 85
postoperative complications 335–6
preoperative psychological status 335
psychosocial outcomes 335–6
safety concerns 81–3
silicone injections 80
and suicide 336–7
breast cancer 421–4
drama workshops 651
surgical procedures
lumpectomy 422–3
mastectomy 422
breast hypertrophy 66
breast prostheses 423
(p. 701) breast reconstruction 64–5, 422–3
and body image 423
decision-making aids 597
breast reduction 51, 54, 65–6, 182
psychosocial outcomes 54–5
breast self-examination 586
breast size 178–9
breast surgery 64–6
BREAST-Q© 68
British Association of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons (BAAPS) 330, 519
British Association of Dermatologists 399
British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgeons (BAPRAS) 53, 520
brothers, teasing from 242
buffering hypothesis 388
bulimia 59, 308, 322, 444
in cosmetic surgery patients 341
gender differences 181
media influences 460
prevalence 320
bullying 483–6
burn injuries 73, 119, 372–97, 449, 468–9
children 76
coping strategies 277
dressings 375
gender differences 374
mistaken assumptions 209
outcome factors 383–90
coping/social interaction skills 387–8
family and social support 388–90
injury characteristics 385
pre-burn vulnerabilities 384
pre-existing psychopathology 386–7
psychological distress post-injury 387
sociocultural factors 386
pressure garments 375–6
prevalence 373
psychological support 375
psychosocial adjustment 278
psychosocial impact 376–9
body image and self-esteem 379–80
depression and anxiety 378–9
emotions and behaviour 376–7
pain 377
post-traumatic stress disorder 377–8
social interactions and relationships 380–3
recovery 374–6
influences on 383–90
rehabilitation 375–6
resource-poor countries 73–4, 75
risk factors 374
scars 375, 385
severity 275
support groups 389
Burnell, Cerrie 687
Burns Camps 389
burns services 494–5
butch identities 191
Bystram, Theresa 10
social categorization of 12–13
café-au-lait patches 355
camouflage cosmetics 417
cancer
breast 421–4
drama workshops 651
surgical procedures 422–3
head and neck 417–21
body image re-integration 420
nurse-patient relationship 421
re-socialization 420
response to 419
social rehabilitation 420–1
skin 408–9
treatment 120
chemotherapy 426–8
Capgras syndrome 32
Care Quality Commission 488, 520
Care Standards Act (2000) 521
case series studies 621
case-control studies 621–3
cleft lip/palate 623–5
retrospective 622
celebrity 112
cell-based therapies 80
Centre for Appearance Research (CAR) 2, 3, 650, 659
CAR framework 561, 683–4, 689
cerebral palsy 27
Changing Faces 57, 73, 96, 219, 376, 381, 387–8, 449, 470, 552, 557, 597
advertising 478–9
Face Equality campaign 450, 472, 476–82
I-Face 560
school-based interventions 544, 545
chavs 11–12
celebrity 13
identification of 12
chemical peels 334
chemotherapy 426–8
hair loss 426–7
Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) 555, 558
(p. 702) children 123–41, 439–40
absorption of parental attitudes 241–2
anti-fat prejudice 128, 130
appearance-related social comparisons 261–2
congenital conditions see congenital conditions
disabled, rejection of 205
disfigurement 76
eating habits 131
exercise effects 299
feelings of rejection 244
healthcare needs 490
media influences
and body dissatisfaction 131
videos and books 457
overweight, teasing of 257
parents' concerns with appearance 125–6, 240–1
peer relationships see peer pressure; peer relationships
preference development
for attractive peers 126
body shape 128–35
facial attractiveness 124–8
reflection of parents' attitudes 241–2
self-image 129
sense of self 126, 133–4
social relationships 126–7, 133–4
toys, idealization of 218
weight-related appearance concerns 240–1
see also adolescents
China, footbinding 38
Cinderella and the Ugly Sisters 475
civic embodiment 32–3
class differences
exploitation in makeover shows 15, 16–17
reinforcement of 13
class structures 37
Cleft Lip and Palate Association (CLAPA) 477, 507
cleft lip/palate 64, 119, 354–5, 443
case-control study 623–5
counselling 507
cultural attitudes to 208
diet in pregnancy 208, 511
film-based education 508, 512–14
parental consultations 509–12
at time of discovery of cleft 509–10
causes 511
emotional needs 511–12
informational care needs 510–11
positive outcomes 363
prenatal diagnosis 502–3
quality of life 360
service user project 507–9
cleft services 493–4, 562
clothing 164
for exercise 301
cognition embodiment 31
cognitive behaviour
therapy (CBT) 56, 363, 552, 684
computerized 556, 570–1
effectiveness of 554–7
face-to-face group and individual sessions 554–5
limitations in school-based interventions 537
psoriasis 407, 555
self-help manuals and leaflets 555–6
third-wave approaches 556–7
vitiligo 402, 554
cognitive dissonance 541
cognitive function 360–1
cognitive measures of body image 607–8
cognitive processing 118
cognitive therapy 327
cognitive-processing models 225–7
cohort effects 613–14
collective knowingness 315
colostomy 424–5
commodification of human body 87
communication
appearance as 192, 442–3
and healthcare outcome 212–13
with patients 489–90
peer relationships 258
community engagement 210–11, 213
computer games 577
computer-assisted therapies 570–1
computer-based interventions 451, 568–80
design and evaluation 571–2
beta-testing 572
usability 571–2
ethical issues 574
Face IT program 573–4, 575–6, 596–7, 598
young people's version 576–7, 598
graphics and navigation 572–3
motivation and engagement 573–4
online support groups 560, 568–9
online therapy 568, 569–70
conduct disorder 374
confidentiality in online forums 642–3
congenital conditions 64, 353–71, 442
affecting appearance 354–6
head and neck 354–5
nervous system 355
vascular development 355
developmental adjustment 361–2
(p. 703) future research 364–5
interventions and clinical practice 363–4
prenatal diagnosis 502–3
protective factors and resilience 362–3
psychological adjustment 356–61
cognitive and developmental function 360–1
emotional functioning and health 359–60
psychosocial experiences and interactions 357–9
quality of life 360
self-perceptions and satisfaction with appearance 356–7
conscious embodiment 31–2
Constantine, Susannah 14–17
continuity of care 496
coping strategies 118, 276–7, 362–3, 534
approach-based 277, 286–7
avoidant coping 276
burn injury patients 387–8
hair loss 427
limitations in school-based interventions 537
problem-focused coping 276
corporality 24
correlational studies 614–15
cosmetic camouflage 93
Cosmetic Products (Safety) Regulations (2004) 522
cosmetic surgery 8, 51–5, 117, 330–49, 450–1
abdominoplasty 146, 338–9
adolescents 127, 134–5
advances in 476
advertising 463
aesthetic limits 481–2
age-related differences 145–6
alternatives to 526
breast augmentation see breast augmentation
costs of 330
definition 63, 517–19
demand for 119
dissatisfaction with outcomes 52
facial cosmetic procedures 331–4
gender differences 182
genitalia 339
liposuction 134–5, 146, 337–8
marketplace regulation 526
media endorsement of 331
middle-aged women 154
misperceptions 518
‘Mommy Makeovers’ 339
overseas see cosmetic tourism
patients' perceptions of 51
psychiatric disorders among patients 339–41
body dysmorphic disorder 340–1
eating disorders 341
psychological aspects 331
psychosocial outcomes 52
public perception 525–6
regulation of 517–27
cosmetic tourism 53, 524–5
Expert Group report 520–1
France 524
non-surgical procedures 522–4
principles 519
provider recommendations 521–2
public education/information 522
television programmes 459
see also individual procedures
cosmetic tourism 53, 524–5
cosmetics 43, 164
camouflage 417
use by adolescents 127
cost-utility analysis 68
counselling 506
film-based 508
craniofacial anomalies 64, 354–5
Apert syndrome 355
cleft lip/palate 64, 119, 208, 354–5
Crouzon syndrome 355
hemifacial microsomia 355
Treacher Collins syndrome 355
craniosynostoses 355
crash diets 585
Creutzfeld-Jakob disease, hazard with fillers 523
‘criminal types’ 475
criticism, familial 242
cross-sectional studies 614–15
Crouzon syndrome 355
cultural differences 8, 36–46, 203–16
attractiveness 40–1, 218–19
body use 42
community engagement 210–11, 213
health beliefs 213
morphology 39–40
peer relationships 265–6
physical attractiveness 40–1, 218–19
religious beliefs 206–8
study of 36
cultural knowingness 316
cultural myths 207–8
cultural norms 37–8, 79, 616
appearance 204–6
cultural relativism 38
cultural values 470
culturally sensitive interventions 211–13
culturally specific behavioural practices 37, 38–9
(p. 704) culture
concepts of 203–4
definition of 37
cyberspace see Internet
DALYs 72
Daniels, Susan 469–70
dating 262–3
Dean, James 473
depression 92
acne patients 400
burn injury patients 378–9
NICE guidelines 561
psoriasis patients 406
dermabrasion 127
Derriford Appearance Scale (DAS) 50, 248, 333
designed appearance 42–4
developmental adjustment 361–2
developmental function 360–1
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV 322
dialectical behaviour therapy 556
diaries 652
didactic teaching 535
dietary restriction 320–9
and overweight 325
dieting 117, 119, 132, 164, 180–1, 308, 444, 581
adolescents 134
age-related differences 145–6
and body dissatisfaction 584–5
crash diets 585
gender differences 180–1
harmfulness of 315
school-related problems 533
disability 26–8
family support 208–9
media influences 456, 458, 462
rejection of children with 205
social models 456
stigma 208, 209
disability-adjusted life-years see DALYs
discrimination 55, 99, 470
psoriasis patients 406
racial 472
see also stigma
disfigurement 1–2, 28, 72, 94, 681
adjustment to 208–10, 273–92
advantages of 76
assumptions regarding 209
bias against 471–2
bringing into public domain 478–9
burn injuries see burn injuries
causation theories 206–8
children 76
cultural attitudes 203–16
deliberate 75
dissemination of information 479–80
distress caused by 208–10
family support 244–5
individual culpability 207
low expectations 469–70
media influences 456, 458, 462
exclusion of 219
moral judgement 205–6, 208
negative connotations 458
perceptions of 212
post-cancer 418
post-traumatic see trauma
psychosocial effects 75–6
psychosocial interventions 482
retrospective studies 620–7
school-based interventions 483–6
severity and distress level 49–50
stereotypical presentations 219
see also congenital conditions; and individual conditions
disgust 13, 425
disordered eating see eating disorders
dissatisfaction with appearance see body
dissatisfaction dissonance-based activities 535, 537
distaste 14
diuretics 325
diversity
in appearance 531–50
in media imagery 462
Dracula 475
drama 651
drawings 650
dual processing model 505
dys-appearance 27
dyschromia 206
e-therapy see online therapy
Eating Attitudes Test 145
eating behaviour 119
eating in public 313–14
girls 133–4
regulation of 312–15
Eating Disorder Examination 607
Eating Disorder Inventory 262
eating disorders 59, 101, 119, 219, 308, 314–15, 320–9, 444, 581, 584–6
age-related differences 145–6
in cosmetic surgery patients 341
and family attachments 243
gender differences 181
and loss of self-esteem 133
media influences 460
school-based interventions 534–42
efficacy 535–7
examples 541–2
factors influencing success 537–41
school-related problems 533
and self-concept 282
and weight-related appearance concerns 324–6
see also dieting
Eating for Me 534
Eating Smart 534
eczema 274
atopic 400–2
psychological interventions 402
psychosocial effects 401
treatment 401–2
educative potential of media 463–4
Electronic-Targeted Intervention for Psoriasis (eTIPs) programme 407
email posts 639–40
email surveys 637
Embarrassing Bodies 525
embarrassment 126
embodiment 8, 23–35, 104–5
civic 32–3
cognition 31
conscious 31–2
definition 24
and disability 26–8
experience of 25–6
and limb amputation 28–30
minding 32
phenomenology 24–5
philosophical aspects 24
and rehabilitation 30–1
society 32
emotional impact
burn injuries 376–9
congenital conditions 359–60
emotional needs of parents 511–12
emotional venting 277
empowerment 534–5
enacted stigma 99
engineered skin see living skin
Epicel 84
epidermis 398
Equity and excellence: Liberating the NHS 213
ethical issues
breast augmentation 87
computer-based interventions 574
health promotion 589–90
online research 641–3
public involvement in research 664–5
tissue engineering 86
ethnic diversity
and health behaviour 209–10
see also entries under cultural/culture
ethnicity 203–16
and beauty ideals 218–19
concepts of 203–4
ethnocentrism 38
Everybody's Different 534
evolutionary advantage 41
evolutionary theory 97–9
exercise 119, 295–305, 443–4
appearance as motivator/barrier for 296–8, 582–3
and body dissatisfaction 295–6
clothing 301
environment for 300–1
gender differences 181
health effects 582–3
and improved body satisfaction 298–300
lack of 297
mirrors 300–1
older adults 164–5, 298
and social physique anxiety 296
type of 299–300
experimental methodology 615–17
Expert Group on the Regulation of Cosmetic Surgery: Report to Chief Medical Officer 517–18, 519, 520–1
extracorporeality 86
eye make-up 39
eyelid surgery 39
Face Equality at Work 479
Face Equality campaign 450, 472, 476–82
aims of 476–8
future planning 482
progress 478–82
Face IT program 573, 575–6, 596, 598
young people's version 576–7, 598
face transplants 2, 86, 87, 113, 475
face value judgements 93, 469, 472–6
beauty and success 473–4
medical and surgical progress 475–6
ugliness and failure 474–5
FACE-Q© 68
Facebook 154
facelifts 146, 333
facial cosmetic procedures 331–4
blepharoplasty 146, 182, 333
minimally invasive 333–4
rhinoplasty 127, 182, 331–2
rhytidectomy 146, 333
(p. 706) facial differences see visible differences
facial fillers 53, 54, 330, 334, 523
facial lipoatrophy 274
facial nerve palsies 49–50, 486
facial prejudice 469, 470
facial surgery 417–18
families 118, 239–52
future research 246–8
influence on body dissatisfaction 152
as information source 240–2
direct messages 240–1
modelling 241–2
teasing and criticism 242
interventions for 502–16
mother-daughter relationships 240, 247
relationships and interactions 243–4
sociocultural influences 245–6
support role 442
burn injury patients 382, 388–90
disability 208–9
disfigurement 244–5
see also parents
Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale IV 248
Family Environment Scale 248
Family Perception Scale 248
fantasy processing 228, 229
fat talk 132, 133, 258–60
fatalism 206–7
linguistic expressions 207
fathers, teasing by 242, 442
fatness 310–11
discrimination against 315
eating in public 313–14
fear of 322
as health issue 309
moral judgements on 311
negative media images 457
policing of 311–15
prejudice against 128, 130
regulation of eating 312–15
see also obesity
FearFighter 570
felt stigma 99
femininity
as bodily property 16
evolutionary advantage 41
failed 308
and slimness 307–8
feminist empowerment 534–5
femme identities 191
fillers see facial fillers
film-based education 508, 512–14
fitness levels 300
focus groups, online 638
food restriction see dietary restriction
footbinding 38, 110
France, cosmetic surgery regulation 524
Frankenstein 475
Frenchay After Burns 495
friends 253–4, 264–5
as emotional buffer 358
pressure from 264
shared body image concerns 259
support 264–5
fund-raising campaigns 688–9
gatekeepers 9, 110, 111
gay men 37, 118, 190–202
appearance 191
body image 195, 612
body satisfaction 195–6
coming out 191–2
communities 192–3
eating disorders 612
recognition 192
risks of 193–4
romantic/sexual relationships 197
subculture 196–7
see also LBGs
gaydar 192
gender differences 175–89
adjustment to visible differences 364, 419
appearance preferences 98
body dissatisfaction 144–5
antecedents to 177–80
body areas involved 177
consequences 180–3
rates of appearance 176
reasons for experiencing 182–3
body ideals 175–6
burn injuries 374
cosmetic surgery 182
dieting 180–1
exercise 181
gender power-relationships 309
gender-related appearance concerns 118
gendered aesthetics 307–8, 309
gendered bodies 80–3
General Medical Council (GMC) 521
general practitioners
informing about cosmetic procedures 523
perceptions of plastic surgery 51
generalized anxiety 359–60
genetic variation 39–40
genetics 132–3
genitalia, cosmetic surgery 339
German Romanticism 36
(p. 707) girls
appearance concerns 127
body esteem 133
eating behaviour 133–4
fat talk 132, 133
peer pressure 254–5
preference for thinness 129
sexual harassment 132
teasing 256–7
global body satisfaction 606–7
good taste 15
governmentality 16
grieving 503–4
grooming 39
group therapy
social skills training 557–8
guidelines for surgical procedures, UK 54
gyms, intimidating nature of 300–1, 443–4
gynaecomastia 182
HAART 120, 428–30
lipodystrophy 428
haemangioma 355, 359
hair loss 426–7, 441
coping strategies 427
wigs 427–8
hairstyling 164
head and neck cancer 417–21
body image re-integration 420
nurse-patient relationship 421
re-socialization 420
response to 419
social rehabilitation 420–1
head and neck, congenital conditions of 354–5
health
and body weight 309–11
correlates of 41
Health at Every Size (HAES) paradigm 311, 315–16
health behaviours 164–5
health promotion 315–16
and appearance concerns 581–94
eating 584–6
ethical issues 589–90
evidence base 588
exercise see exercise
performance-enhancing drugs 583–4
reduction of appearance concerns 590–1
screening 586–7
smoking 587, 588–9
health-related quality of life 54, 55, 67
healthcare professionals, interventions for 502–16
healthcare provision 111
gatekeepers 9, 110, 111
resource allocation 72–3, 111–12
resource-poor countries 71–8
UK 47–62, 486–501
burns services 494–5
cleft services 493–4
communicating with patients 489–90
inpatient care 490–1
organizational context 489
Outlook 57, 388, 495
outpatient care 491–2
positioning of psychological support 492–3
private sector 52–3
psychological context 487–9
public sector 53–4
Healthy Buddies 534, 539
height, manipulation of 44
hemifacial microsomia 355
Hepburn, Audrey 473
highly active antiretroviral therapy see HAART
HIV/AIDS 428–30
homosexual men see gay men
Hopkins Symptom Checklist 336
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale 50
How to Look Good Naked 17–19, 525, 598
humiliation 16–17, 20
hyper-vigilance 284
hyperkeratosis 403
hyperlipidaemia 404
hypervigilance 416, 417
hypnotherapy 407
I-Face 560
ideal-actual self-discrepancy 280
idealized bodies in media 457
identity 94
and appearance 205
sexual 198
social 25
imaginary audience 253
impairment 26–7
Implicit Association Test 98
Implicit Attitude Test 471
importance of appearance 149
infantilization of women 308
infants, preference for attractiveness 124–5
information processing 283–7
attention 284–5
interpretation 285–6
memory 286–7
inpatient care 490–1
intelligence, and masculinity 42
(p. 708) intention-behaviour gap 598–9
Interburns 71, 77–8
internalization
of appearance concerns 220, 255, 598
of ideals 149
International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (ISAPS) 518
Internet 457, 463–4
blogging 646–7
focus groups 638
online discussion forums 560, 639
breach of confidentiality 642–3
public vs private information 642–3
online research see online research
support groups 560, 568–9
therapy see online therapy
interpersonal challenges 552
interpersonal relationships see social relationships
interpretative bias 285–6
intersubjectivity 630
interventions see therapeutic interventions
intimacy issues 120
intrapersonal challenges 552
invalidity 26
INVOLVE 662
James Lind Alliance 653
jewellery 164
judgement
face value 93, 469, 472–6
beauty and success 473–4
medical and surgical progress 475–6
ugliness and failure 474–5
moral
disfigurement 205–6, 208
fatness 311
thinness 311–12
karma 207
Katie Piper: My Beautiful Friends 443
Katie Piper Foundation 496
Katona, Kerry 13
Klinefelter's syndrome 442
laser skin resurfacing 127
laxatives 325
Lee Spark NF Foundation 57
lesbian women 37, 118, 190–202
appearance 191
body image 195
body satisfaction 195–6
coming out 191–2
communities 192–3
recognition 192
risks of 193–4
romantic/sexual relationships 197
subculture 196–7
LGBT populations 612
Likert scales 606
lip-plates 205
lipoatrophy 428–30
lipodystrophy 428
liposuction 146, 337–8
adolescents 134–5
living skin 83–6, 87
longitudinal studies 613–14
looking glass self 32
Lord of the Rings, orcs in 475
loss, sense of 503–4
lower limb amputation 416
McMaster family assessment device 248
magazines 127, 310
idealized body images 459
models in 457
slimming 310
makeover shows 7, 14–19, 111
class distinctions 15, 16–17
friendship and caring 17–19
How to Look Good Naked 17–19, 525
humiliation 16–17, 20
mockery 15, 16–17, 20
Queer Eye for a Straight Guy 18
surveillance 15, 16, 18
What Not to Wear 14–19
malignant melanoma 408–9
marketing 112
masculinity
evolutionary advantage 41
intelligence 42
muscularity 42
mastectomy 422
and body satisfaction 423
breast reconstruction 64–5, 81
loss of femininity 422
psychological effects 81, 422
mate selection 98
characteristics for 41
media 112, 217–38, 444–5, 455–67, 686–8
advertising see advertising
appearance focus of 112–13, 217
body image perceptions 458–9, 597
change required 460–4
content 461–3
educative potential 463–4
media literacy 461
(p. 709) on children 457–8
clinical problems resulting from 460
content 218–19
disfigurement and disability 456, 458, 462
exclusion of 219
endorsement of cosmetic surgery 331
impact of 220–5, 597
men's body image concerns 131, 222–4
women's body image concerns 221–2
influence on body dissatisfaction 130–1, 151–2, 179–80, 219–20
magazines 127, 310
makeover shows see makeover shows
objectification 218, 456
reinforcement of class boundaries 10–13
representations of appearance 457–8
sexualized imagery 218, 222, 456
social networking 457, 597
sociocultural transmission of beauty ideals 151–2, 440
theories and explanations 456–7
see also individual TV programmes
media imagery 462
media literacy 461
media models 227–8
media processing 225–9
cognitive-processing models 225–7
social-comparison theory 227–9
Media Smart 535, 542
medical treatments 426–30
chemotherapy 426–8
HAART 428–30
Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) 83
melanin 398
memory, appearance-biased 286–7
men
adolescent see boys
appearance-related social comparisons 261
body dissatisfaction 144–5, 153
body areas involved 177
body ideal 176, 310
cosmetic surgery 182
exercising 181
gay see gay men
ideal body 218
media influences on body image concern 131, 222–4
penis size 178–9
psychosocial effects of disfigurement 76
self-esteem 179
self-objectification 220, 223
sexualized imagery in media 456
steroid use 181–2
see also adolescents; boys
menopause 440
and body dissatisfaction 148
mental health needs of parents 505–6
maternal anxiety 506
metabolic syndrome 404
microdermabrasion 127, 334
mind-body problem 31
mindfulness 327, 556
stress reduction 407
minding embodiment 32
mirror phase 25
mirrors 300–1
mockery 13, 15, 16–17, 20
modelling of behaviour 241–2
models 227–8
appearance 92–7
body shame and social anxiety 100–1
evolutionary theory 97–9
stigma and objectification 99–100
body size 230–1
low body weight 218
size zero 218
‘Mommy Makeovers’ 339
morphology, cultural differences 39–40
mother-child attachments 361–2
maternal anxiety 506
new babies 505
mother-daughter relationships 240, 247
Multidimensional Body-Self Relations
Questionnaire (MBSRQ)
Appearance Evaluation subscale 607
Appearance subscale 587
Body Areas Satisfaction subscale 607
muscle tone 175
muscle-building 134
muscularity 42, 223
food supplements 586
preference for 129, 131, 586
mutilation 75
My Beautiful Mommy 445
Myskin 84
nail disorders 403
National Institute for Health and Clinical
Excellence see NICE
necrotizing fasciitis 57
negative affect 150
negative valence 286
neo-primitive movement 43
neonate forms 40
attractiveness rating 41
neurochemistry 132–3
neurofibromatosis 119, 354, 355, 442, 360–1, 481
quality of life 360
(p. 710) New Horizons: A Shared Vision for Mental Health 492
NICE guidelines
anxiety and depression 561
body dysmorphic disorder 50
Improving Access to Psychological Therapies Programme 491–2
Nightmare on Elm Street 475
non-melanoma skin cancers 408
non-surgical cosmetic procedures 522–4
Botox 330, 333–4, 520, 522
facial fillers 53, 54, 330, 334, 523
tattooing 43, 110
non-verbal cues 247
normative discontent 176
nurse-patient relationship 421
obesity 230, 307, 309, 321
and dietary restriction 325–6
health risks 321
awareness of 326–7
negative attitudes in children 128
as social marker 11
and socioeconomic status 37–8
stigmatization 321
and teasing 132
see also fatness
obesity genes 326
obesogenic environment 324, 444
objectification of bodies 182–3
media influence 218, 456
models of 99–100
Objectified Body Consciousness Scale 100
older adults 117–18, 160–71
acceptance 163
appearance 160–71
body image 161–6
Body Image Scale 166–8
exercise 164–5, 298
health behaviours 164–5
physical limitations 162, 163
online research 636–44, 646–8
advantages and limitations 647–8
credibility and validity of data collection 640–1
email posts and archives 639–40
email/web-based surveys 637
ethical issues 641–3
opportunistic research 642–3
planned research 641–2
focus groups 638
online therapy 568, 569–70
advantages of 570
onycholysis 403
optimism 104
organogenesis 84
ornamental scars 43
otoplasty 127
Outlook 57, 388, 495, 543–4
outpatient care 491–2
overconsumption 324, 326
overestimation of body size 323
overseas cosmetic surgery 53
overweight 321
and dietary restriction 325
health risks 309, 321
awareness of 326–7
misperception of 323
stigmatization 321
and teasing 257
see also fatness; obesity
pain of burn injuries 377
parents
children's modelling of 241–2
concerns with children's appearance 125–6, 240–1
consultation with 509–12
at time of discovery 509–10
causes 511
emotional needs 511–12
informational care needs 510–11
emotional needs 511–12
influence on children's body shape preference 131
mental health needs 505–6
mother-child attachments 361–2, 505, 506
mother-daughter relationships 240, 247
psychological well-being 507
self-reported needs 506–7
service user project 507–9
teasing by 242, 442
see also families
patient expectations 51–2
resource-poor countries 74–5
patient and public involvement (PPI) 604, 653, 658–72, 673–4
agenda setting 662–3
challenges 666–7
dissemination of data 664
ethical issues 664–5
funding 664
good practice 667–8
impact of 668–9
issues for consideration 662
methodological aspects 661
personal perspectives 660–1, 665–6
public engagement 659
(p. 711) study design 663
user-controlled research 664
patient-reported outcome measures see PROMs
patronization 469
peer crowds 259–60
peer groups 259–60
peer pressure 254–6
and body dissatisfaction 254
teasing 126, 132, 152, 256–8
and thinness 255–6
peer relationships 118, 253–72
appearance training 259
and body dissatisfaction 132, 152
cultural differences 265–6
dating 262–3
friends 253–4, 264–5
importance of 253–4
positive vs. negative communication 258
preference for attractive peers 127
social comparisons 260–2
weight/appearance talk 258–60
peer support
burn injury patients 389
online discussion forums 560
peer support programmes 67
peer-shield 427
penis size 178–9
performance-enhancing drugs 583–4
person-centred therapy 559, 596
pessimism 104
Phantom of the Opera 475
Phoenix Society for Burns Survivors 390, 478
Photographic Figure Rating Scale 606
photography 649
Physical Appearance State and Trait Anxiety Scale (PASTAS) 195, 607
physical attractiveness see attractiveness
physical capital 11
physical location of flaws 275–6
physical status 27
Poland syndrome 64, 81
polydactyly 356
Porritt, Angela 509
port-wine stains 355, 358
positionality 95
positive adjustment 96–7
post-traumatic growth 384
post-traumatic stress disorder 277
burn injuries 377–8
visible differences in babies 506
pregnancy
and body dissatisfaction 147–8, 440
dietary causes of cleft palate 208, 511
effect on skin conditions 401
maternal anxiety in 506
‘Mommy Makeovers’ 339
physiological changes 143
prejudice 364
combatting 480–1
facial 469, 470
prenatal diagnosis 502–3
pride in appearance 96–7
private healthcare 52–3
problem-focused coping 276
PROCEED 213
PROMs 8, 68
proprioception 24
prosthetics 29, 80
breast 423
negative effects 417
post-amputation 426–7
protective factors 362–3
proxy variables 614
psoriasis 92, 126, 403–7, 486
coping strategies 277
discrimination 406
forms of 403
quality of life 405
reactions of others to 405–6
severity 275, 403–4
and stress 404–5
treatment 406–7
CBT 407, 555
Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) 404
Psoriasis Forum 568
psoriatic arthritis 404
psoriatic plaques 403
psychological adjustment 356–61
cognitive and developmental function 360–1
emotional functioning and health 359–60
psychosocial experiences and interactions 357–9
quality of life 360
self-perceptions and satisfaction with appearance 356–7
psychological health 324
psychological interventions 55–7, 443, 451
eczema 402
funding 58
psoriasis 407
uptake 58–9
see also individual treatments
(p. 712) psychological support
burn injuries 375
positioning of 492–3
psychological well-being 52, 54
psychology
of appearance 91–109
of body dissatisfaction 149–51
psychoneuroimmunology 404
psychopathology 92
psychosocial adjustment 273–92
amputation 416
appearance-altering conditions 277–8
burn injuries 278
coping strategies 276–7
disfigurement 482
information processing 283–7
attention 284–5
interpretation 285–6
memory 286–7
self-concept 278–83
appearance and self 278–9
content 279–80
organization 280–3
self-rating 274
psychosocial experience 357–8
psychosocial impact
acne 400
breast augmentation 335–6
breast reduction 54–5
burn injuries 376–9
body image and self-esteem 379–80
depression and anxiety 378–9
emotions and behaviour 376–7
pain 377
post-traumatic stress disorder 377–8
social interactions and relationships 380–3
cosmetic surgery 52
disfigurement 75–6
eczema 401
reconstructive surgery 54
psychosocial interventions 482
computer-based 568–80
effectiveness of 553
psychosocial services 67–8
purging/vomiting 325
Q-methodology 653
QALYs 68
qualitative studies 629–30
quality of life 360
and burn injury outcome 383–4
health-related 54, 55, 67
psoriasis 405
quality-adjusted life-years see QALYs
quantitative studies 629–30
Queer Eye for a Straight Guy 18
race see ethnicity; and entries under cultural
racial discrimination 472
RADAR 477
randomized controlled trials 553, 596
re-embodiment 30–1
reactions to visible difference 503
reconstructive surgery 8, 476
aesthetic limits 481–2
definition 63
psychosocial outcomes 54
Redford, Robert 468
reduction mammaplasty see breast surgery
Reflections 539, 541–2
regenerative medicine 83–6
rehabilitation 30–1
rejection
appearance-based sensitivity to 263
feelings of 244
relationships
romantic/sexual
and body dissatisfaction 180
LGBs 197
social 180
adolescents 133
children 126–7, 133–4
relaxation techniques 407
religious beliefs 206–8
fatalism 206–7
karma 207
repertory grid technique 30
research 101–4, 603–4
arts-based/visual 648–51
advantages and limitations 651
drama 651
drawings 650
photography 649
scrapbooking 650
video 649–50
biopsychosociocultural framework 103
conceptual framework 101–2
correlational and cross-sectional studies 614–15
longitudinal studies 613–14
methodological issues 605–19
definition of body image 605–8
experimental methodology 615–17
scale development 608–10
study populations 610–12
mixed methods 628–35
philosophy of 631–2
practical aspects 632–3
quantitative vs. qualitative studies 629–30
supporting arguments 630–1
novel methods 645–57
combination with established methods 652–3
development of 645–6
of dissemination 652
new technologies 646–8
user involvement 653
ongoing issues 654
online 636–44, 646–8
advantages and limitations 647–8
credibility and validity of data collection 640–1
email posts and archives 639–40
email/web-based surveys 637
ethical issues 641–3
focus groups 638
sampling and potential bias 640
retrospective studies 620–7
understanding of visible difference 680–3
user involvement 653, 658–72
agenda setting 662–3
challenges 666–7
dissemination of data 664
ethical issues 664–5
funding 664
good practice 667–8
impact of 668–9
issues for consideration 662
methodological aspects 661
personal perspectives 660–1, 665–6
public engagement 659
study design 663
user-controlled 664
residential camps 558–9
resilience 362–3, 442, 487
resource-poor countries 71–8
assistance for 77–8
financial resources 72–3
geography 75–7
infrastructure 75–7
patient demographics 75–7
patient expectations 74–5
prioritization 73–4
retrospective studies 620–7
rhinoplasty 127, 182, 331–2
history of 332
psychopathology 332
rhytidectomy 146, 333
ridicule 470
see also teasing
risk-taking behaviours 374
romantic/sexual relationships
and body dissatisfaction 180
LGBs 197
Rooney, Coleen 13
safety behaviours 55
salience 102–3
Saving Faces 57
SCARED syndrome 381
scars 274, 486
acne 399
burn injuries 375, 385
hypertrophic 375
negative connotations 372–3
ornamental 43
post-mastectomy 422
see also disfigurement
school re-entry programmes 558
school-based interventions 531–50, 597, 598
body image and eating disorder prevention 534–42
efficacy 535–7
examples 541–2
factors influencing success 537–41
delivery of 538–9
disfigurement 483–6
future directions 545–6
importance of 532–3
limitations 536–7
participants 539–41
peer-led 539
programme length 538
target groups 539–40
visible differences 543–5
promotion of acceptance 544–5
support for children 543–4
see also individual programmes
scopic economy 7, 11
scrapbooking 650
screening 586–7
self-appraisal
in children 126
negative 358
self-complexity 282
self-concept 278–83
appearance and self 278–9
content 279–80
organization 280–3
self-confidence 18, 163
self-consciousness 380–1
self-determination theory 297
(p. 714) self-disclosure 569
self-discrepancy theory 225–7
self-efficacy 571
self-enhancement 228
self-esteem 26
and body satisfaction 150, 179
burn injuries 379–80
in children 126, 133
media influences 459
self-help manuals/leaflets 555–6
self-image 28, 112, 205
breast augmentation 336
children 129
negative 418
positive 228, 266
scars 385
self-improvement 228
self-monitoring 165
self-objectification 100, 220, 609
media influences
men 223
women 221–2
self-perception 356–7
negative 359
self-presentation 162
concerns regarding 297
see also body image
self-schema theory 225
self-schemas 279
self-surveillance 81
self-views 357
self-worth
appearance-contingent 278–9, 281, 488
and body size 321
sense of self 126, 133–4
sexual behaviour 198
sexual dimorphism 98
sexual functioning 382
sexual harassment 132
sexual identity 198
sexual maturity and attractiveness rating 41
sexual orientation
and body satisfaction 179–80
coming out 192
recognition 192
sexual signalling 192
sexualized imagery in media 218, 222, 456
shame 607
body-related 100–1, 220
proneness to 244
silicone breast implants see breast augmentation
site-specific body satisfaction 606–7
Situational Inventory of Body Image Dysphoria (SIBID) 607
size zero 218
skin 398–9
ageing 588–9
colour 205–6
self-examination 586
skin cancer 408–9
skin conditions 119, 398–413
atopic eczema 400–2
psoriasis see psoriasis
vitiligo 99, 402–3
skin grafts 54, 84
allografts 84
autografts 84
skin transplants 84
sleep disruption in eczema 401
slenderness see thinness
slimming clubs 310
slimming magazines 310
slimness see thinness
smoking 581, 587
and body size perceptions 587
negative effects 588–9
and skin ageing 588–9
Social Adjustment Questionnaire 556
social anxiety 92, 100–1
social attractiveness 98
social cognitive interventions 534
social comparisons 126, 150–1, 227–9, 444
downward 280
media influence 456
misperceptions of weight 323
peer groups 260–2
upward 260–1
social divisions, reinforcement by appearance 10–12
social identity 25
social interaction skills
burn injury patients 387–8
training 56, 495, 575
social networking 457, 597
Facebook 154
Twitter 647
social physique anxiety 296
improvement by exercise 299
social relationships 180
adolescents 133
burn injury patients 380–3
children 126–7, 133–4
social skills 359–60, 363
social skills training 552, 557
group 557–8
post-cancer 420–1
(p. 715) social support for burn injury patients 388–90
social vulnerability 358
societal aspects of appearance 10–22
societal change 683–90
society embodiment 32
Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance
Questionnaire (SATAQ-III) 100, 130, 607
sociocultural factors in body image 151–2, 162
burn injuries 386
soft tissue fillers see facial fillers
somatic marker hypothesis 24
South Asia
family support for disability 208–9
religious beliefs 206–7
stem cell technology 85
stereotypes 364
attractiveness 124, 125–6
Barbie-doll 175
‘beauty is good’ 124–5, 127
body image 91
development of 125–6
facial attractiveness 124
steroids 134, 181–2, 325
Stichting Eigen Gezicht (Netherlands) 478
stigma
amputation-related 416
disability-related 208, 209
enacted 99
felt 99
models of 99–100
social 504, 532–3
weight-related 321
strength 41
stress
effects on skin 398–9
immune effects 404–5
and psoriasis 404–5
and vitiligo 402
study populations 610–12
age 611
ethnic composition 611–12
gender 611
LGBT 612
styling 39
suicidal ideation
acne patients 400
and body dysmorphic disorder 340
and breast augmentation 336–7
psoriasis patients 405, 406
and visible difference 359
support groups 553, 559–60
burn injuries 389
online 568–9
surgical treatments 415–25
abdominal stoma 424–5
amputation see amputation
breast cancer 421–4
head and neck cancer 417–21
surveillance 15, 16, 220
benign 18
and self-policing 16
Survivors Offering Assistance in Recovery (SOAR) 390
suspended sexuality 18
symbols 37, 39
symmetry 98
syndactyly 356
tanning beds 408
taste 14
tattooing 43, 110
teasing 126, 132, 152
at school 533
familial 242
peer pressure 256–8
weight-related 257
teeth, appearance of 43
television programmes
cosmetic surgery 459
idealized bodies in 457
makeover shows see makeover shows
see also media
text-messaging 647
The Body Project 541–2
theories of appearance 92–7
therapeutic interventions 683–4
appearance-related 101–4
CAR framework 561, 683–4
changing perspectives 561–2
cognitive behaviour therapy 56, 363, 552, 684
computerized 556, 570–1
effectiveness of 554–7
face-to-face group and individual sessions 554–5
limitations in school-based interventions 537
psoriasis 407, 555
self-help manuals and leaflets 555–6
third-wave approaches 556–7
vitiligo 402, 554
computer-based see computer-based interventions
congenital conditions 363–4
cost effectiveness 563
culturally sensitive 211–13
current service provision 552
(p. 716) effectiveness of 551–67
evidence base 562–4
family-based 502–16
individual 684–6
person-centred therapy 559, 596
pitfalls 598
psychological 55–7, 443, 451
eczema 402
funding 58
psoriasis 407
uptake 58–9
psychosocial 482
computer-based 568–80
effectiveness of 553
randomized controlled trials 553, 596
residential camps 558–9
school re-entry programmes 558
social skills training 552, 557
group 557–8
post-cancer 420–1
societal 686–90
stakeholders in 599
support groups 553, 559–60
think aloud studies 572
thinness 40, 175
adolescents 129
challenging interventions 541
cultural currency of 308
cultural preferences 129
and femininity 307–8
media influences on desire for 222
moral judgements on 311–12
peer desire for 255–6, 259
policing of 311–15
positive media images 457
regulation of eating 312–15
as selling point 230
social pressure for 256
see also dieting
tissue banks 84
tissue economies 85, 87
tissue engineering 83–6
commercial exploitation 85
ethical issues 86
tissue transplantation 80
psychological effects 86
tissue-based therapies 80
toys, idealization of 218
transferability 630
trauma 119, 372
burn injuries see burn injuries
impact of 373
scars see scars
Treacher Collins syndrome 355
treatment-related appearance concerns 414–38
medical treatments 426–30
surgical treatments 415–25
tummy tuck see abdominoplasty
Twitter, use in research 647
typology 95
ugliness 470
association with failure 474–5, 480
enemies/villains 475
see also disfigurement
UK
cosmetic surgery regulation 519–20
Equity and excellence: Liberating the NHS 213
healthcare provision 47–62, 486–501
burns services 494–5
cleft services 493–4
communicating with patients 489–90
inpatient care 490–1
organizational context 489
Outlook 57, 388, 495
outpatient care 491–2
positioning of psychological support 492–3
private sector 52–3
psychological context 487–9
public sector 53–4
National Burn Care Review 494
UK Eating Disorders Association 584
ultraviolet light 398
eczema 401
psoriasis 407
unattractiveness 125
underclass 11–12
understanding of visible difference 503, 680–3
United Kingdom see UK
upper limb amputation 416–17
USA
Children's Access to Reconstructive Evaluation and Surgery (CARES) Act 64
healthcare provision 63–70
body contouring surgery 66–7
breast surgery 64–6
congenital conditions 64
psychosocial services 67–8
Reconstructive Surgery Act 63–4
Women's Health and Cancer Rights Act (WHCRA) 64–5
user-controlled research 664
valence 103
vascular anomalies 355
video 649–50
(p. 717) vignettes 652
visible differences 273–92
adjustment processes 364, 503–5
burn injuries 73, 119, 372–97
cause and meaning 504, 511
computerized CBT, Face IT program 573, 575–6
congenital conditions 64, 353–71
disfigurement see disfigurement
prenatal diagnosis 502–3
school-based interventions 543–5
promotion of acceptance 544–5
support for children 543–4
skin conditions 119, 398–413
social stigma 504, 532–3
therapeutic interventions see therapeutic interventions
treatment-related 414–38
understanding of 503, 680–3
see also individual conditions
visual codes 10–11, 14
visual dot-probe task 284
vitamin D 398
vitiligo 99, 402–3
CBT 402, 554
Vitiligo Society 477
Volksgeist 36
Wan, Gok 14, 17–19, 598
web-based surveys 637
weight 119
children's attitudes to 128
dissatisfaction with 177
healthy vs. unhealthy 309–11
ideal 218
individual responsibility for 310
moral aspects of 309–11
overestimation of 323
political gendered aesthetics of 307–8
as social indicator 38
underestimation of 323
see also obesity
weight gain 307
weight loss 119
bariatric surgery 52, 54, 66–7, 338
body contouring surgery 66–7
and body dissatisfaction 255
and health promotion 315–16
as motivator for exercise 296–7
weight-control behaviour
children's modelling of 241–2
see also dieting; exercise
weight-related appearance concerns 320–9
children 240–1
and disordered eating 324–6
weight-related teasing 257
What Not to Wear 14–17
class distinction in 15
format 14–15
wheelchair access 32–3
wigs 427–8
women
adjustment to visible differences 419
adolescent see girls
age-related differences 143
appearance-based rejection sensitivity 263
appearance-related social comparisons 260–1
attractiveness 124–5, 419–20
bisexual 194
body dissatisfaction 144
body areas involved 177
middle-aged women 151–2
and sexuality 382
body ideal 176
breast cancer 421–4
breast size 178–9
chemotherapy-induced hair loss 426–7
cosmetic surgery 182
dieting 180
effects of disfigurement 209
facial attractiveness 124–5, 419–20
ideal body 218
infantilization of 308
lesbian see lesbian women
media influences on body image concern 221–2
menopause 148, 440
mother-daughter relationships 240, 247
objectification in media 456
pregnancy see pregnancy
psychosocial effects of disfigurement 75–6
self-esteem 179
self-objectification 221–2
sexualized imagery 218, 222, 456
weight dissatisfaction 179
see also adolescents; girls
Woodall, Trinny 14–17
working class, mockery of 15
yummy mummies 440