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date: 17 February 2020

(p. 557) Index

(p. 557) Index

Abraham, Henry 520
academics/academia viii–ix, 25n.15, 36, 55, 70, 75, 103, 112, 114, 116, 149, 210, 295–6, 299, 352, 485–6, 496, 541, 545–6, 550n.1, 551n.9
access to courts vi, 149, 152, 154, 156, 161–2, 165nn.7 and 9
accountability 48, 59, 257, 260, 276, 325, 381, 394, 402
ACLU, the 9
activists 8, 10–15, 17, 21–3, 25nn.8 and 16, 300 see also interest groups and party activists
Acts
Amendatory Act of 1802 444
Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act (AEDPA) (1996) 152
Bakeshop Act of 1895 277–8
Bankruptcy Amendments and Federal Judgeship Act of 1984 77
Civil Justice Reform Act (1990) 141
Civil Rights Act of 1964 152, 469
Clean Air Act of 1963 112
Court of Appeals Act (1891) 182n.2
Defense of Marriage Act 280
Ethics Reform Act of 1989 77
Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA) 156
Federal Employee Liability Act (FELA) 178
Gun Free School Zones Act (1990) 389
Judicial Circuit Act of 1866 444
Judiciary Act of 1789 3, 165n.7, 274, 385–6
Judiciary Act of 1869 77
Judiciary Act of 1869 410, 444
Judiciary Act of 1919 77
Judiciary Act of 1925 169, 182nn.1–2
Judiciary Act of 1939 77
Judiciary Act of 1954 77
Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Act 389
Patient Protection and Affordable Health Care Act (ACA) (2010) 186, 199nn.1 and 6, 353, 432
Prison Litigation Reform Act (PLRA) (1996) 152
Sherman Act 549
Social Security Act 548
Speedy Trial Act of 1974 190
Voting Rights Act 182n.1, 280, 310
Adams, John Quincy 273
administration 74–5, 393, 427, 466–7, 544–5 see also bureaucrats
Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts 71, 92, 142, 157, 165n.16
affirmative action 36, 129, 361, 418
Africa 451, 502n.2
agency preferences 466–7
agenda-setting 365–6, 404, 410, 420
role of law clerks in 100, 106–7, 171–2, 181–2
on the U.S. Supreme Court 169, 174–81, 182 and n.5, 183n.7, 259
cue theory of 174–5, 179
process for 169–76
Aid to Families with Dependent Children 391
Alabama 55, 356n.9
Alito, Samuel 58, 212, 314–15, 353
appointment of 29, 41
opinions of 432
Allen, M.D. 423, 449–50
Alliance for Justice 10
Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADA) 141
American Bar Association (ABA) 31, 33, 55, 91
American Civil Liberties Union Women’s Rights Project 362
American Constitution Society (ACS) 181, 352
Americans for Democratic Action (ADA) 34, 261
American Lawyer 90
American Revolution, the 276
amicus 115, 411, 422 see also amicus curiae and briefs, amicus
“anchoring” 489–90
Anderson, J.M. 91
Anti-Federalist Papers, the 460
Anti-Monopoly League, the 36
appeal vi, 136, 139, 153 see also appeals and judicial review and petitions, for certiorari
decision to 154–6, 190
likelihood of an 139, 179
odds of winning an 155
rates of 133, 154, 160, 162
rights to an 138, 165n.8, 200n.13
standing to 150
winning an 156
appeals 159, 162–3, 164 and nn.3–4, 186, 291, 489
number of 160, 162
statutory 169–70, 182n.1
appellate courts vi, 3, 6, 12–13, 138–9, 140, 142, 149–51, 155, 157, 161–4, 222, 232n.11, 259, 274, 294–5, 328, 353, 362, 365, 368, 406, 550 see also State courts, of appeal and U.S. circuit courts and U.S. courts of Appeals and U.S. Supreme Court
access to see access to courts
courtroom proceedings in see courtrooms, proceedings in, appellate courts
federal 13, 191
intermediate vi, 149, 151–2, 157, 293, 328, 346, 365
multi-member 136, 158–9, 176, 509, 515 see also courts, multi-member and three-judge panels
appellate panels 150
appellate review vi, 150, 326 see also judicial review
appointment (of judges) 3–4, 6, 14, 38, 42, 282, 400 see also confirmation (of judges) and nomination (of judges)
age of 13
challenged 36, 93 see also nomination (of judges), challenged
and Congress 74, 78
and diversity 17, 20–1, 38–9, 410, 412n.4
and ethnicity 17, 20–1, 38–9
factors influencing 37–42, 43nn.2–3, 137
to federal courts 30, 71–4, 79–81, 296, 372, 409
to federal courts of appeals 5–6, 17–20, 22, 24n.6, 26n.22, 73–4, 93–4
and ideology 15–16, 37, 40–2, 43n.3, 81, 137, 322, 407, 409–10
to lower federal courts v, 4, 6, 8, 12–13, 15–17, 21–4, 93–4, 409
monitoring of the 10, 23
and partisanship 34, 93, 409
and the president v, 3–5, 11, 13, 16–23, 24n.6, 26n.22, 29–34, 37–42, 51, 71–4, 78–81, 83, 85, 87–8, 93–4, 286, 288, 303, 312–14, 325, 353, 400, 406, 407–11, 444, 529
Democratic presidents 11, 16–17, 20, 26n.22, 70–1, 137, 303, 312–14, 353
Republican presidents 11, 16–17, 20, 26n.22, 70–1, 137, 303, 312–13, 351, 353, 410, 529
politics of 4–9, 15, 23–4, 30, 36, 74, 407
process of 3, 14–15, 21, 23, 74, 93, 137, 296, 353
and the Senate v, 3–4, 7, 15, 21, 23, 24nn.1 and 6, 25n.16, 29, 31–4, 37, 40, 42, 71, 74, 93–4, 314, 372, 407–8
to state courts v, 53, 306 see also state courts, elected
to U.S. Circuit Courts 80, 88
to U.S. Courts of Appeals 410
to U.S. District Courts 6, 21, 24n.1, 72, 74, 79, 87, 94
to the U.S. Supreme Court v, 4, 13–14, 29–42, 43n.2, 104, 407–8
pre-nomination stage 32–3
archival materials 101
Argentina 266, 330
Arlen, J. 501
Army Corps of Engineers 465
Arnold, Thurman 288
Aron, Nan 10, 12
arraignment 190
Ashenfelter, O. 137
Attorney General, the 410, 469
Auburn Database, the 540
authority 175, 220, 273, 282, 394, 540
enforcement vii, 391, 400, 427n.1, 468–9, 497
judicial 101, 110, 272, 388, 391, 433, 443–5, 468, 500
legal 170, 399, 492, 540
political 381–2, 385, 401, 443, 445–6, 465
Bailey, Michael 35, 81, 231n.2, 239, 258, 262–4, 267n.7, 516
Baird, V.A. 445
Barclay, Scott 385
bargaining and negotiation vi, 114, 133, 135, 140–1, 208, 328488
“bargaining in the shadow of the law” 133
Barghothi, A.J. 64n.18
Barnes, Jeb 389–94
Barrow, D.J. 81
Bartels, B. 7, 231n.7, 240, 442, 553n.25
Baum, Lawrence vii–ix, 132, 137–9, 181, 183n.67, 311, 390, 471
Bayesian Markov Chains 35, 512–13, 531
Bebchuk, L.A. 132
“behavioral equivalence” 303
“behavioral jurisprudence” 290, 293–4, 517, 523
behavioralism 288, 291–6, 303, 538–9, 551n.3
Behuniak-Long, S. 367
Bell, L.C. 5, 7
bench memos 108–9, 118n.5, 159
Benesh, Sarah viii, 107, 545, 552nn.15 and 24, 553n.25
Bentsen, Lloyd 314
Berdejó, C. 50, 52, 64n.13, 325
Bergara, M. 263
Bickel, Alexander 9, 280
Bill of Rights, the 520–1
Binder, S. 7
Biographical Directory of Federal Judges 101
Bird, Rose 48
Black, Ryan C. 108, 176–7, 208, 326, 366, 384, 517
Blackmun, Harry 106, 108–9, 115, 172, 176, 208–9, 286–7, 300, 312, 351, 353, 420–1, 518
papers of 179–80, 183n.6
Blacks/African Americans 20–1, 39, 291–2, 297, 418, 423, 442, 469, 493–4 see also defendants, black/African American and judges, race of and race
Blackstone, Bethany 389, 405
Blackstone, William
Commentaries on the Laws of England 214
blue slip, the 93
Blumberg, A. 135
Boddery, Scott vii
Bohte. J. 404
Bolivia 63n.1, 65n.25
Bond, J.R. 538
Bonica, A. 56, 59, 516
Bonneau, C.W. 49, 55–7, 59
Bopp, Jim 56
Bork, Robert 35–6, 41–2
nomination of 93
Born, Gary 117
International Civil Litigation in the Unites States Courts 117
Box-Steffenmeier, J.M. 371
Bowie, J.B. 137, 161, 239
Boyd, Christina vi, 133, 141, 296, 299, 366, 517
Boyd, Epstein and Martin
“Untangling the Effects of Sex on Judging” 299
Boyea, B.D. 50
Brace, P. 50, 181, 306, 550
Braden, George 112
Bradley, Craig M. 117
Braman, Eileen viii, 488, 498–500, 503n.13
Brazil 100
Bregnant, J. 502n.4
Brennan, William J. 115, 172, 206, 208, 214, 242, 306
Brenner, S. 180, 206
Breyer, Stephen 237, 312, 315
papers of 183n.6
Brickman, D. 450
briefs 213
appellate 161, 170
on certiorari 196, 366
conservative 366
filing of 174, 366
litigants’ 110, 197, 200n.19
preparation of 199
submission of 161
study of 198
Brisbin, R.A. 231n.7
Brooke, Edward 314
(p. 560) Brudney, James 295
Buccafusco, C. 488
burden of proof 187
Bureau of Immigration Appeals 159
bureaucrats 53, 101, 149, 370, 464–9, 472 and n.3 see also administration
Burger, Warren E. 106, 172, 206, 286–7, 300 and n.1
Burger Court, the 13, 208, 210, 212, 215, 552n.13
Burgess, John 551n.3
Burke, Tom 391, 394
Burton, Harold Hitz 114, 175, 510–11, 522–3, 525, 529
papers of 180
Bush, George H.W. 38
appointments by 16–20, 22, 41, 74, 93
nominations by 4–6, 72–3, 79–80, 87–8, 94, 313
confirmation of 5–6, 22
Bush, George W. 309, 353
administration of 5, 7, 23, 153
appointments by 17, 20, 22, 29, 37, 74, 78, 81, 410
nominations by 4–6, 23, 72–3, 79–80, 87–8, 94
confirmation of 5–6, 22
failed 43n.3
business 55, 115, 153, 321, 370, 399 see also interest groups, corporate
Butler, Pierce 31
Byrnes, James F. 510–11, 513, 522–3, 525
Caldeira, G.A. 58, 65n.21, 176, 178, 181, 247, 327, 366, 422, 424, 437, 439, 441, 445, 450
Calhoun, John 196
California 394n.4
constitution of 388
courts of 225, 305, 346
elections in 48
judges of 78, 140, 183n.67
voters of 388
Calvin, B. 139, 213
Cameron, C.M. 34, 222, 315, 328
campaign contributors/contributions 9–10, 25n.17, 49, 57–8, 60, 63, 64n.21, 249, 308, 313, 346, 355n.7, 361, 371–3, 516
campaigns
expenditure on 56–7, 65n.21
presidential 10, 361
for Supreme Court justices 407
Canada 96, 100, 515, 541
Canes-Wrone, B. 50
Cann, D. 59, 372
capital punishment 39, 42, 242, 305, 346, 356n.9, 367, 498 see also cases, types of, capital punishment
Cardozo, Benjamin ix, 330
careers 114–16 see also under judges and law clerks
Carp, R.A. 137, 409
Carruba, C.J. 259, 517
Carswell, Harrold G. 300n.1
Carter, Jimmy 41
administration of 26n.22
appointments by 13, 16–20, 93, 409
nominations by 4, 72–3, 79–80, 87–8, 93–4
Case, Clifford 314
case selection see cases, selection of
caseloads 96, 104, 107, 153, 158, 327, 540
of appellate court judges 91, 151, 157–8, 162–3
of circuit judges 91, 160
of district judges 91, 129
of federal court judges 70, 77, 91–2
of lawyers 135
of lower court judges 4
rising 157–8, 162
of state court judges 151
of trial court judges 129, 136
of U.S. Supreme Court justices ix, 129, 149, 196
cases
complex 180, 210–11, 214, 368, 392, 484, 501
conflation of 199n.6
coverage of 419–20 see also media, the
direction of 366
disposition of x
dismissal of 328
Establishment Clause 223
filing of vi, 130, 153, 160, 162, 176
going to trial 132
implications of 249
intervention in 361, 368–9
“landmark” 231n.2, 420
management of 158, 162, 189
“medium-N” groups of 392
merits of 190, 213, 328, 529
number dealt with by individual courts see courts, capacity of
“open and shut” 159
politically salient 161, 200n.21, 448, 452n.4
precedent-setting 226
(p. 561) processing of 141
selection of vi, 157, 164, 182, 260, 327–8, 364, 366, 411
sponsorship of 361–4, 369
termination of 131–2, 159–60, 187
by plea bargaining 131, 134–5, 140–1, 143, 187 see also plea bargains
procedural 160, 187
by settlement 131–3, 140–1, 143, 187 see also settlements
types of 169, 242, 310, 368, 463, 500
abortion 11, 129, 280, 313, 367, 387, 469–70
administrative regulation 54
affirmative action 129, 361
black lung 192
capital punishment 50–1, 305, 363, 367, 448
citizenship 152
civil liability 262
civil liberties, 137, 139, 175, 362–3, 365, 404, 408, 520–1, 525–7
civil rights 18, 25n.10, 137, 291–2, 404, 548
contract 278, 488
desegregation 25n.10, 129, 138–9, 144nn.7 and 8, 279–80, 291, 329, 362, 466, 468–9
discrimination (against minorities) 279
diversity 165n.7
draft dodging 290
due process of 509, 519–20, 523–4, 526, 528–9, 548
economics 137, 139, 153, 175, 279, 322, 408, 521, 526–7
election law 54, 303, 308, 310–11
employment 54, 151, 278
federal power 25n.13
flag burning 354, 470
freedom of speech 307–8, 387
gay rights 109, 423, 449–50
healthcare 361
housing 137
immigration 159, 517
incorporation 519, 523–4, 532n.8
individual rights 25n.13
labor 11, 137, 178, 192, 277–9, 295, 346
lgbt rights 362, 463
libel 222
medical malpractice 130, 134
negligence 492
non-consensual search and seizure 17–18, 222
patent 137
privacy 367, 384, 517
property 361, 487, 517
public interest 322
race discrimination 11, 19, 291, 362, 408
race relations 371
rape 292, 294, 496
religious liberty 129, 137
same-sex marriage 272, 351, 361–2, 385, 388, 462–3
securities fraud 137, 139
sex discrimination 111, 151, 299, 351, 362, 495
sex-salient 294, 384
shareholder liability 497
social security disability 192
states’ rights 19–20
tax 137
tort 63n.8, 152, 518
voting rights 129, 223, 297, 310
welfare 54, 392–3
women’s rights 362
worker’s conditions/rights 25n.9, 54
winning 164
Casper, J.D. 281, 389–91
Cato Institute, the 363
causality x, 372, 464, 483–4
Cavendish, Elizabeth 13
“cert pool”, the 172, 179
Chafee, Lincoln 314
Chaiken, S. 494
“chamberizing” 141
chambers 75, 113–14
“crosswind” 106, 110
“foxhole” 106, 110
Champlin, Alan 316n.1
Chang, Kelly 35, 516
charges (criminal) 130, 135, 330
Chase, Harold 33
Chase, Samuel 444
Chicago 246
University of 36
Law School 104
Chief Justice of the United States 14, 89, 173, 195–6, 205, 274, 300n.1, 328, 399, 423, 433, 530
Choi, S.J. 91, 96n.6, 139
choice viii, 483
judicial 294, 321, 323, 325, 329, 346, 354
Christenson, D.P. 371
circuit judges 51, 71, 78, 81, 93, 95, 118n.5, 151, 161, 163, 176–7, 196, 240, 287 see also U.S. Circuit Courts
ideology of 139, 232n.12
retirement of 82–6, 88
citizens 52, 57, 65n.23, 153, 186–7, 243, 306, 311, 411, 492, 495, 516 see also public, the
civil disputes see cases, civil
civil liberties 16, 137, 291, 305, 363, 365, 420 see also cases, types of, civil liberties
Civil War, the 279, 383, 385
Clark, Tom C. vi, 115, 383–4, 510–11, 522–3, 525, 529
Clark, T.S. 50, 54, 258, 263, 282, 329, 388, 394n.1, 425, 515, 517
Clawson, R.A. 418
Clay, Henry 196
Clinton, Bill 309, 421
administration of 7, 12, 24n.3, 26n.22
appointments by 16–20, 22, 410
nominations by 4–6, 72–3, 79–80, 87–8, 94
confirmation of 5–6, 22
Clinton, J.D. 509, 514
CNN 417
coalition formation 370
process of 100, 108–9, 113, 197, 208–10, 212, 214, 370
role of law clerks in 101, 108–9, 113–14
coalitions 212, 371, 382, 384–5, 387, 448, 521, 526
activity of 361
majority 205–12, 214–15, 383, 517
minimum winning 214
minority 211
partners in 370
“Coase Theorem”, the 487
coercion 135
Coffin, Frank 158
“cognitive illiberalism” 496
Cognitive Reflection Task (CRT) scores 491
Cohen, J. 408
collective action 228, 355n.2
Collins, P.M. vii, 36, 139, 213, 240, 249n.2, 410, 425
color-blind-society advocates 16
Colorado 50–1
marijuana referendum 59, 63n.10
Columbia 272
Columbia University 551n.3
Law School 104, 551n.3
communication 59, 544
communism 548
communities 51, 64n.12, 130, 138, 495
Comparato, S.A. 231n.1 and 5
Comparative Constitutions Project 540
competence 33
compliance vii, 186, 219, 327, 348–9, 391, 465, 467 see also noncompliance
computers/computing 296, 532
confidentiality 114
confirmation (of judges) see also appointment (of judges)
approaches to the see strategy, nomination/confirmation
factors influencing 6–7, 16, 21–2, 33, 35, 37
interest groups 7, 21–3, 26n.18, 36
and ideology/partisanship 6–7, 16, 21–2, 35, 93
to lower courts v, 4–7, 15–16, 21–3, 24nn.1 and 6, 25n.16, 26n.18, 92–4, 409
delays to 7, 21, 23
outcome of 7, 22 see also appointment (of judges), outcomes
and the president 21–2, 33, 41, 409
process of v, 4–7, 16, 24n.4, 29–36, 40–2, 92–4, 407–8, 421
blocking/stalling of 4–7, 15, 21–3, 24nn.1 and 6, 25n.16, 26n.18, 93–4 see also blue slip, the and filibusters
and the Senate v, 4–5, 7, 12, 15, 21–2, 24nn.1 and 6, 32–4, 37, 40–2, 71, 92–4, 315, 407–9
success rates of 21–2, 42, 410
to the U.S. Supreme Court v, 4, 24n.4, 29–36, 40–2, 58, 93, 343, 407–8, 421
conflict 179–80, 296, 300
institutional 381, 385, 387–91, 447
resolution of 177, 277
conflict of interest 65n.21, 153
Congress 3, 35, 77, 150, 162, 194–5, 231n.2, 255, 258, 265, 267n.5, 307, 384, 393, 404, 427, 470, 547
access to 10, 106
actions/activity of 9, 15, 104, 169–70, 182nn.1–2, 273, 281–2, 384, 386–7, 389–91, 443, 445
consultation with 32
(p. 563) Democrat dominated 383, 389, 549
limits upon 164n.4, 279, 383, 386, 549
members of see congressional members
powers of 279, 329, 386, 388–9, 412, 432–3, 443, 471
preferences of 154, 178, 232n.11, 263, 388, 390, 392, 403–4, 444, 547
and the president 42, 194, 412
and the public 435, 437–8, 444–5
Republican dominated 153
requirements placed upon 90
rules/legislation made by 150, 153, 157–8, 165n.7, 190, 273, 281, 391, 443, 464, 549
sessions of 23
staff of 102–3, 106
Congressional Quarterly
Guide to the U.S. Supreme Court 420
Constitution, the 3, 152, 242, 271, 273, 276–7, 279–80, 391, 401, 406, 412, 418, 444, 448
Amendments to 329, 388, 444, 464
2nd 25n.13, 245, 363
4th 117, 209, 521
6th 190
7th 190
11th 444
14th 25n.9, 278
17th 36
Article I
Section 8 3
Article II 3, 388, 406
Section 2 71
Article III 3, 71, 74, 76, 86, 386–8, 443
Section 1 90
Section 2 275, 444
appealing to 257
Commerce Clause, the 279
design of the 387
Establishment Clause, the 223
framers of the 3, 37, 190
interpretation of 32, 280, 282, 283n.3, 329, 332, 400, 422, 448
provisions of 170, 399–401, 432, 443
requirements of 34, 383
as the supreme law of the land 277
constitutional issues 36, 259, 272, 280, 283n.5, 365, 385–6, 433
constitutionalism 276
constitutionality 25nn.10 and 13, 55, 271, 382, 463
lack of 242
of laws 54, 186, 272, 445
constructivism 258
Cook, Beverly Blair 290–1, 298
Coombs, Clyde 289
Cooper, C.A. 425
Corley, Pamela C. 139, 210, 213–15, 226, 326, 553n.25
Costa Rica 272, 275
“counter-majoritarian difficulty”, the 276–7, 279–81, 283, 382, 384, 394, 461, 463
court governance 74
court system, the 294
design of 134
federal 186, 199
pressures on 143
structure of 150–1, 164
courtroom workgroups 52–3, 64n.15
courtrooms
behavior in 188
proceedings in
appellate courts 190–1
circuit courts 187, 191–4, 200nn.15 and 18
district courts 194
federal courts 186–7, 189, 191, 199
state courts 191
trial courts 187–90
U.S. Supreme court 194–7, 199, 200nn.16 and 20
removal from 191
rules of 192–4, 200n.21, 367
courts see also appellate courts and court system, the and federal courts and state courts and U.S. Circuit Courts and U.S. Courts of Appeals (p. 564) and U.S. District Courts and U.S. Supreme Court
access to see access to courts
backlogs in 190
capacity of 107, 157–8, 162–3
constraint of vi, 220, 261, 263, 329–30, 344, 350, 367, 443–6, 464, 516 see also decisions (legal), constraints upon
by budgetary means vi, 259, 282, 329
by means of oversight vi, 282
and the executive see under executive, the
issue agendas of 150
and the legislature see under legislature, the
legitimacy of see legitimacy, of courts
levels of 164
multi-member 151, 159, 192, 509, 514–15 see also three-judge panels
nature of 219, 289, 307
operation of 394, 451
power of 282, 460, 463–5, 469, 471
relatively strong 460
relatively weak vii, 460, 465
and the public see under public, the
role of 171, 271, 276–7, 280, 282, 461, 463, 467
staff of 101–2, 143, 157–8, 161
variation across 242, 372
Cover, A.D. 34, 304
Cox, Adam 297
“creativity effect”, the 488
crime 24n.3, 50, 549 see also defendants, criminal
cronyism 40
Cross, F.B. 223, 226, 231n.3
Cross and Tiller
“Judicial Partisanship and Obedience to Legal Doctrine” 321
Crowe, Justin 386
C-SPAN 194
Dahl, Robert 281–2, 382–5, 388, 390–1, 448, 460, 463
Daley, H.W.K. 189
Danelski, D.J. 33
Darley, J. 495
data viii, x, 16, 143, 304, 419, 450, 509, 514, 516–17, 519, 523, 530, 537, 539–40, 550, 552nn.14–15 and 24, 553n.24 see also opinion polls
availability of 142, 183n.6
censored 78
collection of viii, 142, 363, 508, 522
lack of 180, 332, 530
sets of 262, 296–7
Davis, J.W. 196
Davis, R. ix, 422
“dead list”, the 173
“deadline effect”, the 133
debate 36
decision-making 132, 153, 164, 186, 222, 241, 325, 464, 472, 483, 486–7, 489–94, 497–501, 502 and n.3 see also decisions (legal)
accuracy of 491, 494, 502
in appeals courts 223, 232n.11, 292, 363, 471 see also decisions (legal), by circuit courts
calculus 156
by defendants 134–5
discretion in 34, 52
ideological 136–8, 224
by lawyers 135
by litigants 132–3, 135, 154–5, 472
in lower courts see decisions (legal), by lower courts
models of 242
objectivity in 501, 502n.8
opportunities for 136
and partisanship vii, 137, 246 see also voting behavior (of justices), party/ideology driven
periods of 52–3
process of 100, 108, 163, 288, 422, 501
positive theory of 30
role of law clerks in 100, 108, 117
spending on 63
stages of vi, 365–7
understanding of 483–7, 489–94, 497–502, 508, 537–41, 546, 550
decisions (legal) vii–ix, 101, 188–90, 199, 280, 325, 366, 388, 490, 502, 537, 540, 548 see also outcomes (legal) and votes (of justices) and voting behavior (of justices) and opinion writing and opinions
to appeal 155 see also appeals and litigants, requests for review
attempts to influence 374n.2 see also interest groups and judges, influences upon
availability of x
by circuit courts 193–4
and case selection see cases, selection of
collective 355n.2
constitutional 259–60, 263, 271, 283n.1, 365, 392
constraints upon 220, 223–30, 231n.2, 237, 253, 255–6, 258–9, 263–4, 282, 293, 353, 516, 553n.25
by colleagues 293–5
by the law 293, 295, 490
self-imposed 219, 330, 445
by superiors 293–4
content of 501, 519, 539
controversial/adverse 132, 271, 388, 391, 432, 448, 472n.4
criticism of 245–6
defects in 149, 155, 163, 491
entering 154–5
factors influencing vi–vii, 117, 138–9, 219, 228, 231, 237–8, 241–9, 258, 288–98, 303, 305, 320, 326, 332, 343, 366–7, 369, 371–3, 405, 483, 489–94, 500, 516–21, 529, 550 see also decisions (legal), constraints upon and decisions (legal), by the U.S. Supreme Court, factors affecting and judges, influences upon and U.S. Supreme Court justices, influences upon and votes (of justices), factors influencing
apologies 492
background and experiences of a judge 287, 289, 291–3, 297–8, 483–4, 520–1
context/institutional setting 293
economics 320–1
electoral 49–54, 140, 144n.8, 214, 346–7
gender of a judge 138
law, the 236–7, 239–44, 246
non-rational ix
partisanship 306–11
personal 288–93, 295, 298, 304, 344
precedent 224–9, 231n.7, 240 see also precedent
preferences of judge 137–8, 222–4, 237–8, 244–5, 247, 255, 293, 305, 498–500
prospect of appeal 139, 326, 329, 467–8, 489
public mood/opinion 330, 348–9, 353–4, 425, 445, 447–8, 451nn.2–3, 515
race of judge 39, 138
in favor of the defendant 291, 354
in favor of the plaintiff 297
by federal courts 272, 351, 356n.16, 401, 465
going against the defendant 17
about granting review 171 see also judicial review and petitions, for certiorari, deciding upon
by higher courts 230–1
implementation of 465, 468–9
impact/implications of vii–viii, 228, 248, 364–6, 421–2, 460, 462, 464–7, 470–2, 515 see also judicial impact
interpretation of 392, 467
monitoring of 220
overturned 138–9, 175, 178, 181, 221, 229, 239, 293, 326, 328, 344, 348, 389–90, 444, 464, 468, 489, 540
published 160, 163
reapportionment 462, 470, 472n.1
reasons for 244–6, 248–9
records of 346
review of 149–51 see also judicial review
split 118n.4, 179, 182
statutory 259–60, 263–4
summary judgements 133
terms of
by majority 189
non-unanimous 240, 311, 510, 518 see also opinions, plurality
unanimous 189, 240, 311
by super majority 189
in trial courts 149, 155–6, 325, 356n.16
unpublished 139, 164
by the U.S. Supreme Court vii, 34, 56, 205, 210–11, 215, 222, 225, 227, 231n.4, 258, 260, 263–5, 280–2, 309, 327–9, 349, 353–4, 363, 366–7, 373, 392, 421–7, 432, 444–5, 449–50, 451nn.1 and 3, 452n.3, 463–4, 466–8, 470–2, 515, 539, 551n.4 see also decision-making, in the U.S. Supreme Court
changes in the nature of 29, 41
conservative 280, 309, 348, 409
liberal 225, 280, 348, 442, 446, 452n.3
number of 420
overriding of 260–1, 263–4, 356n.9
partisan 304, 309, 409
regarding which cases to hear 169, 174 see also under agenda-setting and judicial review and petitions
without a written opinion 296
decisions (non-legal) v–vi, 59, 156, 253, 259, 386, 441, 485, 491–2, 502nn.3 and 7, 541
defendants 133, 135, 143n.3, 164n.6, 496
black/African American 292, 294, 493
choices of 134 see also decision-making, by defendants
criminal 51–3, 137, 165n.8, 188, 191, 200n.8, 325
decisions against 17, 493
decisions in favor of 291, 346, 354, 493
sentencing of x, 50–3, 188–9, 294, 490
variation in 52–3, 137, 493
out-of-state 63n.8, 164n.6, 324–5
prior record of 130
Democratic Party, the 14, 16–17, 20, 26n.22, 308–9
Democrats 8, 11–12, 24nn.3 and 6, 309–14, 352, 433, 470, 548 see also appointment (of judges), and the president, Democratic presidents and judges, Democratic and U.S. Supreme Court justices, Democratic
conservative 311–12
judicial appointment preferences of 16–17
Southern 11–12, 311
demographics 39, 70, 82, 84, 450
departmentalism 280
Devins, Neal 311, 356n.13
disability 77, 96n.2
discuss list, the 172–3, 180–2, 366
Distlear, C. 181
district attorneys 64n.13
District of Columbia 71, 150–1
district judges 5, 71, 74, 78, 93, 95, 111, 117n.1, 129, 139, 142–3, 158
behavior of 139, 310
ideology of 139
preferences of 137, 297
retirement of 82–3, 85–7
role of 187
Southern 138, 291–2, 354
Djupe, P.A. 540
Domnarski, W. 520
Dorsen, Norman 114
double jeopardy 164n.3
Downs, A. 254
Driscoll, A. 65n.25
Ducat, C. 401
Dudley, R. 401
Durr, R.H. 445
Dwight, Theodore 551n.3
Dworkin, Ronald 242, 244, 248
Dwyer, C. 115–16
Dyke, A. 64n.14
Easterbrook, Frank 111
Easton, D. 434
“ecological validity” 502n.1
economics 70, 137, 277–9, 320–1, 387, 404, 470, 509 see also cases, types of, economics
institutional 293, 320–1, 330
economics (as an academic discipline) v–viii, x, 288, 321, 484, 487, 543–5
economists 76, 155, 323
Eggelilng, William S. 116
Eisenberg, T. 133, 137
Eisenhower, Dwight 41, 409
appointments by 13, 71
nominations by 4, 72–3, 79–80, 87–8, 94
Eisgruber, C.L. 280
Elder, H.W. 134
election law 54–6 see also cases, types of, election law
elections (national) 8–9, 14, 16, 23, 48, 308–10, 361, 445, 516 see also campaigns, presidential and politics, electoral
electorate, the see voters
elites 14, 16, 25n.17, 102, 106, 163, 311, 352, 420, 462
groups of 350–4, 356n.15
interests of 409
and judges vii, 345
Ely, John Hart
Democracy and Distrust 280
Emmert, C.F. 305
emotions 197, 225, 331
empiricism 16, 248, 539–41, 550, 551n.9
Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences 288
“endowment effect”, the 487–8
enforcement x, 282, 324, 391, 461 see also authority, enforcement and law, the, enforcing
environment, the 153, 404
environment/context vii, ix, 156, 289, 293, 326–7, 343–5, 354, 355 and n.2, 424, 466–7, 472, 490, 501
political 30–1, 49, 348–50, 355
environment, the 153, 404
Epp, Charles R. 9, 464, 471
Epstein and Knight
The Choices Justices Make 329
Epstein and Martin
“Does Public Opinion Influence the Supreme Court? Possibly Yes (But We’re Not Sure Why)” 330
equality 280, 351, 388, 408, 442, 517
equity 51
Eskridge, William N. 261, 389–90, 517
“esteem grantors” ix
ethics 55–6, 373, 427
ethnicity 38 see also Hispanics
and judicial appointments see appointment (of judges), and ethnicity
Europe 321, 325, 521
European Court of Human Rights 275
European Court of Justice (ECJ) 100, 105, 275
evidence 189, 191–2, 298, 368, 495–7, 502n.8, 503n.12, 526, 547
admission of 200n.11, 298
“aggregate” 520–1
“granular” 522
DNA 490
strength of 130, 188, 197
presentation of 187–8
relevance of 298–9
types of 187, 503n.11
executive branch, the 48, 255, 276, 280, 361, 364, 369, 399–400, 405, 410, 427, 437–8, 463 see also president, the
accountability of see accountability, of the president
administrative agencies of vii, 404
agents/agencies of 403, 410 see also Solicitor General (SG), the
challenges to 153–4
influence of 399–400
lawyers of vii see also Solicitor General, the
monitoring of 403
power of vii, 153, 274, 399–402, 406, 411, 471
limits to the 399, 401–3, 411
and the public see president, the, and the public
recourse to 10
role of 401
Expected Utility Theory 487
experiments viii, 483–9, 492–3, 497–9, 501, 502nn.1 and 5, 503n.13
external pressure 466, 468–9, 515–16, 520
Facebook 426–7
fairness 248–9, 440, 448
Fallin, Mary 64n.17
Family Trust Foundation 56
Farhang, Sean 391
Farnsworth, W. 499
federal courts v, 151–3, 186, 191, 225, 230, 274, 288, 326, 369, 391, 393, 406, 412n.1, 443, 472n.1 see also appellate courts and federal judges and trial courts and U.S. Circuit Courts and U.S. District Courts
access to see access to courts
appeal rates for 133
and Congress 61, 385–7, 390
composition of 96, 442
courtroom proceedings in see courtrooms, proceedings in, at the federal level
efficacy of 10
jurisdiction of 150, 164nn.2 and 5
litigation in 23
lower v, 3, 10, 12, 81, 86, 138–9, 154, 178, 214–15, 230, 239, 293, 306, 328–9, 343–4, 386, 461, 467, 472n.4 see also circuit courts and U.S. District Courts
age of judges on the 13
behavior of 221–3, 305, 309
disagreement amongst 106, 171, 176–7, 179, 240
expectations of vi
as final arbiter 13
following/constrained by higher courts 219–27, 229–31, 293, 329, 344, 467–8, 472n.4
and the general public 14
guidance for 209
law clerks at 108, 110
opinions of see opinions, of lower courts
preferences of 220
system of see court systems, federal
vacancies on 70, 74, 82, 87–8, 96 and n.3, 140, 143
variations across 134, 193, 242
federal courts of appeals judges 51, 104, 111, 117n.1, 118n.5, 139, 164, 305
federal judges ix, 15, 42, 92, 108, 115, 154, 181, 272–3, 296, 324, 352–3, 372, 442–3 see also circuit judges and district judges and federal judiciary, the and U.S. Supreme Court justices
campaigning of 42
candidates for being 90
challenges facing 70, 283n.2
concerns of 51
conservative 225
entering characteristics of 71–4
motivations of 70–1, 84, 86–9
performance of 71, 91, 388
salary of 90–1, 96n.4387–8
tenure of 70–1, 75, 78, 83–4, 87–9, 95, 296
Federal Judicial Center (FJC) 71, 86, 90, 101, 159, 165n.14
federal judiciary, the 9, 16–17, 83, 129, 137, 162, 199n.7, 273, 387, 409, 442–3, 463, 538 see also judiciary, the (as a branch of government) (p. 569)
expansion of the 288
influences upon the 399
power of the 277, 385–7, 391–3, 427n.1
transformation of 9
federal questions 171
Federal Rules of Appellate Procedure (FRAP) 154, 161
Federal Rules of Civil Procedure 9, 368–9
Rule 16 140
Federal Rule of Evidence 401 299
Federalist Papers, the 214, 381, 443, 460, 553n.25
Federalist Society, the 181, 353
Feeley, Martin 391
feminism 494–5 see also women
filibusters 6–7, 23, 24n.6, 25n.16, 93, 258, 407
Fischman, J.B. 517
Flemming, R. 404
Florida 186
courts of 199nn.2–3, 309
Ford, Gerald
nominations by 4, 72–3, 79–80, 87–8, 93–4
foreign policy and defense 401–2, 451
formalism 323, 519
Fortas, Abe 40
Founding Fathers, the 406, 416
Fox News 352, 417
France 63n.1, 272, 276, 323
Frank, Jerome 288
Frankfurter, Felix 112, 114, 267n.8, 510–11, 513–14, 521–3,