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date: 05 March 2021

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter provides an overview of the philosophers who influenced Jaspers when he tackled the conception of General Psychopathology. The introductory remark informs about how the systematic screening of Jaspers' philosophical quotes were gained and evaluated. The first section then deals with the methodological split between the humanities and natural sciences when approaching psychiatric patients. The influence of Dilthey, Weber and other philosophers on Jaspers' emerging position is laid out. The argument of his position that the methodological split is intrinsic to the nature of man is pointed out. The second passage describes Jaspers' polemic critique of Freud and his contrasting high appreciation of Nietzsche and Kierkegaard as those philosophers who were genuine in uncovering unconscious feelings and motives. Furthermore this chapter contains some statements of Jaspers against the establishment of psychoanalysis at Universities. Furthermore his contention is mentioned that the psychotherapeutic relationship is asymmetric and not resting with a hermeneutic process between patient and psychiatrist. The following section mentions Jaspers' critical stance towards and relationship with Heidegger. His judgement on Heidegger's existential philosophy as a closed therefore sterile system is pointed out. The political aspect of their relationship is briefly touched upon. The section on phenomenology reports on Jaspers' critique of Husserl's epoché. Instead of Husserl Hegel and his dialectics gain appreciation in Jaspers' discourse on phenomenology. Jaspers' critical view on the writings of some of the most prominent psychiatrist phenomenologists is discussed. In particular the metaphorical character of phenomenologists' writings is reported with examples. The section on Greek philosophers is briefly mentioned here. They were quoted by Jaspers in a non-systematic use according to reasons of utility. The concluding part deals with Jaspers thoughts about transcendence, i. e. thinking about the "encompassing" beyond existence of the individual person. This part is conceived by Jaspers as out of reach for scientific endeavors.

Keywords: Methodological dualism, essences, criteria of delusion, existence and existential guilt, controversies with psychosomatic medicine

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