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date: 26 February 2020

(p. xv) Select List of Abbreviations

(p. xv) Select List of Abbreviations

ADLs Activities of daily living

AEI American Enterprise Institute, Washington, DC (1943 ff.; http://www.aei.org)

AFDC Aid to Families with Dependent Children, USA (1935–1997; now TANF)

ALMP Active labour market policies (1990s ff.)

ATTAC The international anti‐globalization network ATTAC (1998 ff.; Action pour une Taxe Tobin d'Aide aux Citoyens = Association for the Taxation of Financial Transactions for the Aid of Citizens; http://www.attac.org/)

BRIC Brazil, Russia, India, & China

CCT Conditional cash transfer programme

CEE Central and Eastern European

CEPAL Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe, Santiago, Chile (= ECLAC; 1948 ff.; http://www.eclac.org/)

CPF Central Provident Fund, Singapore (1955 ff.; http://mycpf.cpf.gov.sg)

CPS Centre for Policy Studies, London (1974 ff.; http://www.cps.org.uk/)

CV Coefficient of variation

CWED Comparative Welfare Entitlements Dataset (http://www.sp.uconn.edu/~scruggs/wp.htm)

DC Defined contribution

DRG Diagnosis related group

ECJ European Court of Justice, Luxembourg (1952 ff.; http://curia.europa.eu)

ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, Santiago, Chile (= CEPAL; 1948 ff.; http://www.eclac.org/)

ECM Error correction models

EFTA European Free Trade Association, countermovement to founding the EEC [EU] in 1957 (1960 ff.; http://www.efta.int/)

EITC Earned Income Tax Credit, USA (also EIC; 1975 ff.; in UK: Working Tax Credit)

EPL Employment protection legislation

ESA Event structure analysis

ESF European Social Fund, Brussels (EU; 1957 ff.; http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/esf/index_en.htm)

EU European Union as of Maastricht Treaty 1992, Brussels (EEC [European Economic Community] or EC [European Community]; 1957–1992; http://europa.eu/index_en.htm)

(p. xvi) EUR The Euro currency (also €; accounting currency 1999–2001; in circulation as of 2002, 2009 in 16 Member States)

Eurostat Statistical Office of the European Communities [European Union], Luxembourg (1953 ff.; http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat)

GATS General Agreement on Trade in Services (1995 ff.; under WTO; see http://www.wto.org/)

GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (1947 ff.; see now WTO http://www.wto.org/)

GDP Gross domestic product

GNP Gross national product

GP General (medical) practitioner, UK

GPA Global Program on AIDS, UN (but see also WHO; 2001 ff.; http://www.un.org/ga/aids/ungassfactsheets/html/fssgcall_en.htm and http://www.unaids.org/en/default.asp)

HMO Health Maintenance Organization, USA

HRS Health and Retirement Study, USA (http://hrsonline.isr.umich.edu/)

IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development = World Bank (WB), Washington, DC (1946 ff.; with IMF one of the two Bretton Woods institutions founded in 1944; http://www.worldbank.org/)

ICSID International Center for the Settlement of Investment Disputes, Washington, DC (1966 ff.; WB founded arbitration institution devoted to investor‐state dispute settlement; http://icsid.worldbank.org/ICSID/)

IDA International Development Association, Washington, DC (1960 ff.; grant‐making or interest free credit‐providing branch of the WB; via http://www.worldbank.org/)

IEA Institute for Economic Affairs, London (1955 ff.; http://www.iea.org.uk/)

IFC International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC (1956 ff.; member of WB Group, financing investment in private sector in developing countries; http://www.ifc.org/)

IFI International financial institutions

IGO International governmental organizations

ILO International Labour Organization [and Office], Geneva, Switzerland (1919 ff.; http://www.ilo.org/)

IMF International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC (1944 ff. http://www.imf.org/)

INGO International non‐governmental organizations

IO Intergovernmental organizations

ISI Import substitution industrialization

ISSP International Social Survey Programme (1984 ff.; http://www.issp.org/)

KMT Kuomintang, China

LDC Less developed country

LDP Liberal Democratic Party, Japan

LIS Luxembourg Income Study, Luxembourg (1983 ff.; http://www.lisproject.org/)

(p. xvii) LTC Long‐term care

MIGA Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, Washington, DC (1988 ff.; WB Group; http://www.miga.org/)

MLSG Minimum Living Standard Guarantee, China (and South Korea)

NDC Notional defined contribution

NHI National health insurance

NHS National Health Service, UK (1948 ff.; http://www.nhs.uk)

NICS Newly industrialized countries

OECD Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris (1961 ff.; dates back to Marshall Plan 1948–1951; http://www.oecd.org)

OMC Open Method of Coordination, EU (Lisbon Strategy; 2000 ff.)

OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, Vienna (1960 ff.; http://www.opec.org)

PAYG Pay as you go

PPP Purchasing power parity

QCA Qualitative comparative analysis

SCIP Social Citizenship Indicators Programme (http://www.snd.gu.se/sv/catalogue/series/55)

SD Standard deviation

SERPS State Earnings‐Related Pension Scheme, UK (1978–2002; replaced 2002 by State Second Pension)

SHARE Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (http://www.share‐project.org/)

SOCX Social Expenditure Data Set (OECD; http://www.oecd.org/els/social/expenditure)

SOE State‐owned enterprise

TANF Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, US (1997 ff.)

TRIPS Trade‐related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (1994 ff.; under WTO; see http://www.wto.org/)

TSCS Time‐series cross‐section

UN United Nations, New York (1945 ff.; http://www.un.org)

UNDP United Nations Development Program, New York etc. (1965 ff.; http://www.undp.org/)

UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris (1946 ff.; http://portal.unesco.org/)

USD US Dollars (US$)

WB World Bank; Washington, DC (1946 ff.; see also IBRD; with IMF one of the two Bretton Woods institutions founded in 1944; http://www.worldbank.org/)

WHO World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland (1948 ff.; http://www.who.int/en/)

(p. xviii) WTC Working Tax Credit, UK (2003 ff., predecessor 1999–2003 WFTC with ‘F’ standing for families; see also EITC, USA)

WTO World Trade Organization, Geneva, Switzerland (1993 ff.; http://www.wto.org)

US AID United States Agency for International Development, Washington, DC (1961 ff.; originates with Marshall Plan 1948–1951; http://www.usaid.gov/)