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date: 26 February 2020

(p. xv) Select List of Abbreviations

(p. xv) Select List of Abbreviations

ADLs Activities of daily living

AEI American Enterprise Institute, Washington, DC (1943 ff.;

AFDC Aid to Families with Dependent Children, USA (1935–1997; now TANF)

ALMP Active labour market policies (1990s ff.)

ATTAC The international anti‐globalization network ATTAC (1998 ff.; Action pour une Taxe Tobin d'Aide aux Citoyens = Association for the Taxation of Financial Transactions for the Aid of Citizens;

BRIC Brazil, Russia, India, & China

CCT Conditional cash transfer programme

CEE Central and Eastern European

CEPAL Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe, Santiago, Chile (= ECLAC; 1948 ff.;

CPF Central Provident Fund, Singapore (1955 ff.;

CPS Centre for Policy Studies, London (1974 ff.;

CV Coefficient of variation

CWED Comparative Welfare Entitlements Dataset (

DC Defined contribution

DRG Diagnosis related group

ECJ European Court of Justice, Luxembourg (1952 ff.;

ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, Santiago, Chile (= CEPAL; 1948 ff.;

ECM Error correction models

EFTA European Free Trade Association, countermovement to founding the EEC [EU] in 1957 (1960 ff.;

EITC Earned Income Tax Credit, USA (also EIC; 1975 ff.; in UK: Working Tax Credit)

EPL Employment protection legislation

ESA Event structure analysis

ESF European Social Fund, Brussels (EU; 1957 ff.;

EU European Union as of Maastricht Treaty 1992, Brussels (EEC [European Economic Community] or EC [European Community]; 1957–1992;

(p. xvi) EUR The Euro currency (also €; accounting currency 1999–2001; in circulation as of 2002, 2009 in 16 Member States)

Eurostat Statistical Office of the European Communities [European Union], Luxembourg (1953 ff.;

GATS General Agreement on Trade in Services (1995 ff.; under WTO; see

GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (1947 ff.; see now WTO

GDP Gross domestic product

GNP Gross national product

GP General (medical) practitioner, UK

GPA Global Program on AIDS, UN (but see also WHO; 2001 ff.; and

HMO Health Maintenance Organization, USA

HRS Health and Retirement Study, USA (

IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development = World Bank (WB), Washington, DC (1946 ff.; with IMF one of the two Bretton Woods institutions founded in 1944;

ICSID International Center for the Settlement of Investment Disputes, Washington, DC (1966 ff.; WB founded arbitration institution devoted to investor‐state dispute settlement;

IDA International Development Association, Washington, DC (1960 ff.; grant‐making or interest free credit‐providing branch of the WB; via

IEA Institute for Economic Affairs, London (1955 ff.;

IFC International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC (1956 ff.; member of WB Group, financing investment in private sector in developing countries;

IFI International financial institutions

IGO International governmental organizations

ILO International Labour Organization [and Office], Geneva, Switzerland (1919 ff.;

IMF International Monetary Fund, Washington, DC (1944 ff.

INGO International non‐governmental organizations

IO Intergovernmental organizations

ISI Import substitution industrialization

ISSP International Social Survey Programme (1984 ff.;

KMT Kuomintang, China

LDC Less developed country

LDP Liberal Democratic Party, Japan

LIS Luxembourg Income Study, Luxembourg (1983 ff.;

(p. xvii) LTC Long‐term care

MIGA Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, Washington, DC (1988 ff.; WB Group;

MLSG Minimum Living Standard Guarantee, China (and South Korea)

NDC Notional defined contribution

NHI National health insurance

NHS National Health Service, UK (1948 ff.;

NICS Newly industrialized countries

OECD Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris (1961 ff.; dates back to Marshall Plan 1948–1951;

OMC Open Method of Coordination, EU (Lisbon Strategy; 2000 ff.)

OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, Vienna (1960 ff.;

PAYG Pay as you go

PPP Purchasing power parity

QCA Qualitative comparative analysis

SCIP Social Citizenship Indicators Programme (

SD Standard deviation

SERPS State Earnings‐Related Pension Scheme, UK (1978–2002; replaced 2002 by State Second Pension)

SHARE Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (http://www.share‐

SOCX Social Expenditure Data Set (OECD;

SOE State‐owned enterprise

TANF Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, US (1997 ff.)

TRIPS Trade‐related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (1994 ff.; under WTO; see

TSCS Time‐series cross‐section

UN United Nations, New York (1945 ff.;

UNDP United Nations Development Program, New York etc. (1965 ff.;

UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris (1946 ff.;

USD US Dollars (US$)

WB World Bank; Washington, DC (1946 ff.; see also IBRD; with IMF one of the two Bretton Woods institutions founded in 1944;

WHO World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland (1948 ff.;

(p. xviii) WTC Working Tax Credit, UK (2003 ff., predecessor 1999–2003 WFTC with ‘F’ standing for families; see also EITC, USA)

WTO World Trade Organization, Geneva, Switzerland (1993 ff.;

US AID United States Agency for International Development, Washington, DC (1961 ff.; originates with Marshall Plan 1948–1951;