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date: 22 November 2019

(p. 821) Subject Index

(p. 821) Subject Index

accident benefits391
and development of395–6, 603
expanded concept of work injury398, 405
expansion of coverage396–8
as first social insurance programme391–4
conflict explanation394
employers' role394
extension of civil law liability393–4
political motivations394
structural explanation392–3
and sequence of social insurance programme introduction391–3
activation, see labour market activation
affirmative action programmes716
Africa:
and trade unions209
and unemployment insurance434
AIDS, and developing countries714
Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC, USA)46, 50, 51
alienation, and commodification514
American Association for Labor Legislation39
American Enterprise Institute (AEI)47
Americans with Disabilities Act416
Amsterdam, Treaty of (1997)294, 295
Argentina578
and employment programmes651
and minimum wage653
and pension reform647
and poverty649
and social expenditure649 see also Latin American welfare states
Asia, and welfare regimes577–8 see also East Asia; South-East Asia
associational welfarism30
Association for the Taxation of Financial Transactions for the Aid of Citizens (ATTAC)306
Atlantic Charter (1941)7, 41, 84–5
Atlas Economic Research Foundation47
Australia:
and accident benefits395
and child benefits470
and disability provision412
and education503
and employment-related risk179
and ethnic diversity279
and family policy143
political philosophy, influence of148
reform of146–7
and female employment176
and fertility176
and income inequality533
and long-term care381, 385
and origins of welfare state38
old age pensions68
and pension policy134–5
and service sector176
and sickness benefits402
and social assistance450
and social expenditure126, 133
and taxation348
of benefits128–129
and unemployment insurance421, 428 see also English-speaking countries
Austria:
and accident benefits395, 396
and child benefits471
and disability provision413, 416
and education501–2
and health care371 (p. 822)
and income inequality532
and long-term care382
and pension reform610, 611, 613
and social assistance451
and social expenditure126, 130
and taxation of benefits129
and structural reforms613
and unemployment insurance423, 426, 427–8 see also Western Europe welfare states
authoritarianism and the welfare state228–9, 239, 619, 623
and the developing world328
and East Asia661–2, 708–9
and Eastern Europe662, 673–4, 676, 678
and European monarchies4, 62, 64, 353, 394, 399, 604, 708
and Latin America209, 239, 649–50
neoliberal view of46
and state-centred theories198
and the Third Way54
banking crisis697, 698–9 see also global economic crisis (2008–9)
basic income456–7, 700–1
basic needs20–21, 23–25, 28, 171–172, 673
Belarus, and welfare state change678, 682 see also Former Soviet Union (FSU)
Belgium:
and accident benefits395–6
and childcare469
and disability provision413, 417
and education498, 502
and postage stamps with welfare motifsxxii
and social assistance451
and social expenditure, net levels of130
and structural reforms613
and unemployment insurance423, 424, 426, 427 see also Western European welfare states
Beliefs in Government (BiG) project244–5
benefits system:
and activation policy438–9
and benefit levels94–5
and child benefits469–71
and conservative criticism of50–1
Beveridge Report (1942)42, 79, 705
bibliography, citation analysis2–3
Bismarckian welfare states
origins of35–6, 64–5, 602–4
autonomy of social insurance
funds603–4
Catholic social doctrine604
distrust of state and market solutions603–4
employers' role603
friendly societies602–3
ideological compromise158
industrialization64, 602
protraction of democratization505
and post-war period42–3, 83–84, 605–8
characteristics of607–8
children607
economic perspective607
expansion and extension605
fragmentation605
inequality606
institutional features605–6
social outcomes606
Blair-Schroeder Document (1999)53
Bolivia:
and pension reform647
and social expenditure649 see also Latin American welfare states
Brazil578
and conditional cash transfer programme651
and health care653
and pension reform647
and social assistance460
and social expenditure649 see also Latin American welfare states
Bretton Woods financial system97
collapse of10
Bulgaria579
(p. 823) and welfare state change677 see also Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)
Canada:
and child benefits471
and childcare468
and education498, 503
and ethnic diversity279
and long-term care381, 385
and social assistance451
and social expenditure133
and taxation348
of benefits128–129
and unemployment insurance426, 428 see also English-speaking countries
capabilities:
and positive liberty28
and satisfaction of basic needs20–1
capitalism:
crisis of718–20
and democracy183–4
and distributive politics, see under redistribution see also varieties of capitalism
career ladders, and activation policy443
care in the community, and long-term care383
care work:
and defamilialization467–8
features of380
and gender256–9, 260–1
and migrant labour260, 282–3
and pension entitlements363
and social policies260–1 see also long-term care
cash-for-care schemes, and long-term care383–4, 385
Catholicism268–9, 271, 272
and corporatism268
and education502, 504–505
and family policy146, 272
as impediment to welfare state development271, 273, 621
and Latin America628
and Pentecostalism266
and political parties269, 271, 274–5
and postage stamps with welfare state motifsxxvi–vii
encyclicalsxxix
and social doctrine271, 275, 604, 704, 709
and social rights, the genesis of704
and subsidiarity36, 269, 450
as type of welfare state616
and unions269, 282
and welfare state origin and expansion 4, 66, 110–11, 269
Central and Eastern Europe (CEE):
and challenges facing681
and communist welfare states672–4
and European Union accession679–80
and family benefits680–1
and gender issues683
and health care681
and labour market reform681
and pension reform680
and poverty681
and social assistance681
and social insurance680
and transitional welfare losses675
and unemployment insurance680
and welfare regimes684–5
relationship to European norms685
and welfare state change671–2, 674, 675–7, 686
characteristics of681–2
conflicting international and domestic pressures676–7
impact of globalization676
international financial institutions676
liberalization676, 677
limitations of reforms675–6
path dependence676
transition period675 see also individual countries
Centre for Business and Policy Studies (Sweden)48
Centre for Policy Studies (CPS, UK)48
Charity Organization Societies38
child benefits469–71
childcare:
and activation policy442
and enrolment rates469
and family policy143, 145, 146, 147, 148, 151 (p. 824)
public expenditure on468–9
and women's employment258
children:
and child poverty474–5, 536–7
employment strategy537
redistribution strategy537
and child well-being475–7
and experience of families465
and politicization of childhood148
Children's Bureau (USA)39
Chile578
and anti-poverty programme651
and education652
and health care652–3
and minimum wage653
and pension reform363, 515, 647, 648, 692
and poverty649
and social expenditure649 see also Latin American welfare states
China:
and constraints on social policy development
absence of democracy666
lack of fiscal capacity666–7
lack of social solidarity667–8
and economic reform665
and health care667
and Housing Provident Fund665
and individualistic social protection664–5
and inequality664–5
and Minimum Living Standard Guarantee460
and pension reform667
and postage stamps with welfare motifsxxvii
and poverty664–5
and social assistance460
and social expenditure657
and trade unions209
and welfare state development89 see also East Asia
Christian democracy265, 269–70, 276
and Catholic social doctrine604
Christianity:
and philanthropy37
and welfare state development265
impact of denominational differences267–8, 268–9 see also religion
citizenship:
and basic citizenship model700–1
and conservative approaches to welfare state52
definition of701
and gender263
and immigrants281
and intellectual roots of welfare state33–4
and social citizenship42
and social rights511
and welfare state21
citizen's income21, 22–3, 700
civil servants, and origins of welfare state33
class:
and conflict theory229
and electoral systems272–3
and political-class coalitions272–4
and welfare attitudes244
climate change697
and developing countries715
implications of716–18
coalitional politics, and distributive politics184, 187–9
cognitive turn158
Cohesion Fund (EU)294
Cold War, and development of welfare state7–8
collective bargaining206
Colombia, and social expenditure649 see also Latin American welfare states
commodification:
and alienation514
and education507–8
and family care work386
and United States287
communism, collapse of10, 86
communist welfare states672–4
Comparative Welfare Entitlements Dataset (CWED)517, 519
compensation thesis, and globalization320–1, 329–30
concertation, and social governance205
conditional cash transfer programmes (CCTs)
(p. 825) and developing countries715
and Latin America651
conditionality:
fairness argument for22
and International Monetary Fund loans310, 312–13
paternalist argument for21
and reciprocity22
and Third Way54
and welfare state programmes21
and workfare50–1, 695–6
conflict theory229
conservatism:
and attitude towards welfare state49
and contrasted with neoliberalism49
and critique of welfare state45–6, 49–52
citizenship52
difficulty in attributing49–50
impact on civil society and private sector50
influence of51–2
restructuring of benefit systems50
social consequences50
workfare50–1
conservative welfare state571
and luck egalitarianism25
consultation, and social governance205
convergence:
and disability provision411, 412
and economics156–7
and European Commission617
and globalization324, 477
and health care372, 377
and housing policy490
and long-term care390
and social expenditure335
and sociology155
and welfare regimes579–80
convergence theory228
coordination, and social administration162–3
corporatist theory:
and retrenchment563–4
and union and employer impact198
Costa Rica:
and health care652, 653
and minimum wage653
and social expenditure649 see also Latin American welfare states
credit policy, and housing489–90
crisp-set qualitative comparative analysis, and research methodology110
Croatia579
Cyprus, and disability provision417
Czech Republic579
and child benefits471
and disability provision417
and social expenditure, effects of tax system129
and welfare state change677 see also Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)
decentralization162
and education506–7
and Italy625
and Spain626
decommodification253
feminist view of512
measurement of516–17
and social rights513–14
democracy:
and capitalism183
varieties of184
and distributive politics see under redistribution
democratization708, 709
and origins of welfare state6
demographic changes12–13
and long-term care387–8
and old age pensions360–1
Denmark:
and accident benefits396, 397
and activation policy439, 442, 458, 459
and changes in welfare system599
and childcare468
and disability provision413, 417
and education500–1
spending on498
and employment-related risk178
and health care371
and income inequality532
and origins of welfare state68
early extensive coverage69
old age pensions68 (p. 826)
risk prioritization70
and poverty reduction536
and service sector176
and sickness benefits400
and social assistance456, 457
minimum income454
and taxation349
of benefits128–129
tax protests350
and unemployment insurance421, 425, 426, 427, 429 see also Nordic countries
dependency culture, and conservative criticism of welfare state50
dependent learning, and developing countries710
deregulation10–11
and capital markets595
and Eastern Europe86, 675, 682
and education systems501, 681
and employer associations210
and labour markets203, 207, 364, 561, 608, 708
and Latin America645 See also privatization, retrenchment
developing countries:
and challenges to well-being714–15
novel policy solutions715–16
and climate change717, 718
and cluster analysis of welfare regimes711–14
proto-welfare states711–13
and lessons from European welfare states
international environment710–11
nature of industrialization706–7
nature of interests707–8
role of ideas709–10
role of institutions708–9
and long-term care381
and social safety nets460
and unions and employer associations208–10
and welfare effects of globalization326–8
developmental state709
Director's Law hypothesis161
Disability Discrimination Act (UK)416–17
disability provision406
convergence of411, 412
diversity of411
and employment measures415–17
activation programmes418
financial incentives417
flexible work417, 440–441
quota systems416
sheltered employment416
supported placements416–17
training centres416
work capacity415, 417–418
and European Union411–12
and future of419
and models of disability406
capitalism408
individual model407
social model407–9
and origins and development of409–11
England409
Germany410
Sweden410
United States410–11
and public expenditure on412–13
pressures on budgets417–18
and reforms of, budgetary pressures417–18
and rights-based approach418–19
and social exclusion408
and social inclusion408–9
and structural dependency of disabled people408
and United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2008)406, 419
and work-centred eligibility definitions413–15
domestic service, and migrant labour282–3
Dominican Republic, and pension reform647 see also Latin American welfare states
duration effects, and unemployment430
Earned Income Tax Credit (USA)344–5, 439, 458, 640
East Asia:
and challenges facing:
changes in gender relations669 (p. 827)
de-familialization669
demographic changes669
labour market changes669
transition to post-industrialism669
and constraints on social policy development665–8
and dynamic nature of policy regimes668
and East Asian exceptionalism657–9
arguments against658–9, 668
Asian/Confucian values657
economic aims of social policy658
weakness of political left657–8
and future of social policy reform670
and inclusive social insurance model659–60
democratic pressures660–3
economic development663
national identity663–4
and individualistic social protection664–5
absence of democracy666
lack of fiscal capacity666–7
lack of social solidarity667–8
and industrial relations209–10
research interest in656
and public pension coverage354
and social capital investment96
and social expenditure657
and social investment strategy95–6
and social policy expansion, factors affecting
democratic reform662, 668
economic growth with equity659, 663, 665, 667, 668
fiscal capacity666, 669, 670
and welfare regimes577–8
and welfare state expansion88–9
Eastern Europe:
and collapse of communism (1989)86
and communist welfare states672–4
and health care371
and trade unions209
economic crises, and retrenchment561–2 see also global economic crisis (2008–9)
economic growth:
and climate change717–18
and impact of global economic crisis718–19
and impact of welfare state541–5, 550–1
econometric analyses543–4
economic externalities of social programmes540, 544–5, 551
endogenous growth theory540, 542, 545
historical trends542–3
inconclusiveness of studies of543–4
negative impact541
neoclassical growth models541–2
quantitative studies544
tax structure effects544
and welfare state expansion155
and wellbeing718
economics:
and sociology157
and welfare state156–7
education:
and activation policy443, 496
and decentralization506–7
and economic growth542, 545, 551
and education regimes:
Belgium, France, Ireland and Netherlands502
English-speaking countries and Japan503
expenditure496–8
Germany and Austria501–2
hierarchical cluster analysis498–500
Mediterranean countries502
Northern Europe cluster500
relationship with welfare regimes503–4
Scandinavia500–1
and equality495
and expenditure on496–7
net levels of497–8
relationship with social spending497
tertiary education498–9
and future research on508
and historical foundations of systems504
business-labour balance of power506
religious heritage505
and income distribution495
and comparative welfare literature494–5
and Latin America651–2
and private benefits495
and social citizenship496
as social investment496, 507
and social policy, relationship with494, 495–6
as social right496, 508
and state-church conflict271, 505
efficiency, and economic perspectives on welfare state156
electoral system:
and distributive politics190–1
and middle class272–3
and political institutions231
and welfare state outcomes238
El Salvador, and pension reform647 see also Latin American welfare states
embedded liberalism320–1
employer associations:
and developing countries208–10
and industrial relations, cross-national variations203
and influence in social policy areas:
collective bargaining206
health care208
labour market policy206–7
pension policy207–8
organization of200, 201
free-rider problem200
research on196
role of196, 197, 210
and social governance, forms of205
and theories of impact of:
corporatist theory198
Europeanization thesis199
globalization thesis199
institutional theories199
modernization theory197
power resource theory197–8
state-centred theories198–9
varieties of capitalism approach198
veto player theorem199 see also industrial relations
employment:
flexibility see flexible work
and impact of welfare state546–50, 551
direct effects of social policies547–8
empirical studies546
employment protection regulations547
future research on550
inconclusiveness of studies of546–7
labour market institutions548–9
Latin America547–8
neoclassical economic framework546
regional variations547
unemployment benefits546–7
wage bargaining institutions546, 548–50
employment policy:
and disability provision: see disability provision, and employment measures
and family policy142, 143, 144, 145–6, 147, 150, 151
maternal employment473–4 see also labour market activation; labour markets
employment protection522
and activation policy442
and employment consequences of547
employment rates12, 182, 445
and activation438, 444–6
and age of children466
and childcare147, 473–4
and education443
and employment protection442
and full employment87
and income inequality533–4
of older adults354, 446
high, roads to446
and social security contribution level, effects of547
of women257–8, 438, 442, 477–8
equal to men592
and work hours465–6
of young people445–6 (p. 829)
endogenous growth theory540, 542, 545
English-speaking countries:
and American exceptionalism640–2
and cluster analyses634–5
comparisons between630–1
differences from Europe640–2
and family of nations perspective on633–4, 636–7
and identification as cluster:
empirical evidence for633
Esping-Andersen's influence632–3
family of nations perspective633–4, 636–7
as recent development631–2
regime perspective632–3, 634
shared national attributes633–4
underdevelopment of literature632
and inequality640
and policy resemblances637
and redistribution638–40
and regimes analysis634
gender635
policy differences634–5
political economy635–6
and residual social policy638
and social rights638
and taxation639–40 see also individual countries
epistemic communities313
equality:
and education495
and European Union social policy293–4
and family policy142–3
and immigration policy31
and luck egalitarianism24–6
and power relations26–7
and relational equality26–7
and social expenditure135–8
and strong meritocracy24
and taxation344–5
and welfare state23–7 see also inequality; redistribution; gender
equal opportunity
comprehensiveness591–2
and distinctiveness, loss of172
as egalitarian objective24
and liberal parties/liberalism225, 262
Estonia:
and disability provision417
and welfare state change677 see also Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)
ethics, and the welfare state19–20
and equality23–7
immigration policy31
luck egalitarianism24–6
relational equality26–7
strong meritocracy24
and intergenerational justice31
and liberty27–31
capabilities28
choice and diversity30–1
moralized conception of29–30
negative liberty27–9
paternalism30
positive liberty28
and needs20–3
capabilities20–1
conditionality21–2
means testing23
reciprocity22
right to satisfaction of21
satisfaction of basic needs20–1
ethnic diversity13, 278–9
and extent of279
and impact on welfare states285–7
growth of extreme-right parties286
hostility to transfers to immigrants285–6
and multicultural policies283–4, 285
and racialization of welfare287–90
Italy289
Sweden289–90
United Kingdom288–9
United States287–8
and social spending284–5
and weakening of welfare state285
ethnic minorities:
definition of279
deprivation among280
and inclusion/exclusion280–1
and migrant labour in welfare sector282–3
and racialized exclusion281–2
and racialized working poor281–2 (p. 830)
ETHNO programme114
eugenics38
Eurobarometer244
European Adjustment Fund for Globalization294–5
European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund294
European Commission:
and convergence617
and disability provision419
and health care303
and long-term care costs388
and social policy293, 296, 298
and Third Way54
European Court of Justice302, 376
and social policy303, 396
European integration8, 10–11
and bounded varieties of welfare305
and Central and Eastern Europe679–80
and differential impact of304–5
and partisan effects on welfare state222
and social dimension of296–7
and Southern European reforms624, 625–6
and union and employer impact199
and welfare regimes579–80
European Monetary Union11
European Regional Development Fund294
European Round Table201
European Social and Economic Council205
European Social Fund294, 296
European Social Survey244, 249
European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC)201
European Union292–3
and activation policy437, 458
and Central and Eastern Europe679–80
and disability provision411–12
eastern enlargement of11
and family policy, features of143–4
and global economic crisis305
and Growth and Stability Pact302
and health care303, 369, 375–6
and labour law298
and migration290
and national welfare state policies301–4
bounded varieties of welfare305
conservation critiques, influence on51
differential impact304–5
direct effects301–2
European Court of Justice rulings303–4, 376, 396
indirect effects302–3
secondary effects of economic integration302–3
unintended effects303–4
and social dimension of European integration290, 292, 296–8, 300–1
and social expenditure:
private sector128
public expenditure126–7
and social inclusion458–9
and social policy97
distributive dimension of294–5
equality293–4
evaluation of298–9
forms of299–300
future trends305
health and safety294
integration of293
Open Method of Coordination295–6
Social Action Programmes293
social regulation293–4
working conditions294
and transnational expertise41
European Values Surveys244
event history analysis119
event structure analysis, and research methodology114–15
Fabian Society65
fairness:
and activation policy436–7
and conditionality22
familialism142, 146, 572
and Southern Europe622–3, 627–8
families, and long-term care provision384–5
support measures for carers385
family policy462
and activation policy442–3
and attitudes towards family139
and Australia143
political philosophy148
reform of146–7 (p. 831)
and communist welfare states674
and conceptualization of family:
economic141, 150–1
ideological141
political141
as social institution150–1
sociological141
contexts of:
children's experience of families465
decline in fertility463–4
expansion of service economy140–1
family change139, 463–5
industrialization and nation-building140
lone parent families464–5
male breadwinner model140, 463, 465, 466
mothers' employment465–6
European Union approach to143–4
and factors affecting:
international organizations148
labour market developments147
new social risks148–9
political philosophy147–8
social integration149, 151
and familial relationships462
and family, state and market relations, axes of151
and family change139, 463–5
and France142
reforms145–6
and future of welfare states701–2
and gender257
and Germany142
labour market effects147
reforms145
and lone parent families464–5
and mothers' employment:
childcare468–9
maternity leave469
support for467–9
and OECD143–4
outcomes of:
child poverty474–5
child well-being475–7
fertility471–3
maternal employment473–4
public expenditure on:
childcare468–9
children467
families with children467
parental leave469, 473–4
purpose of462
reforms of144
Australia146–7
factors encouraging150
France145–6
Germany145
Sweden144–5
United Kingdom145
and religion147, 262, 272
and risks of family transformation176, 179, 181
and Scandinavia142–3
scholarship on141
development of141–2
narrow focus of141
and state engagement with family:
egalitarian model142–3
male breadwinner/female homemaker model142
non-interventionist143
pro-family and pro-natalist142
and Sweden, reforms144–5
and tax and benefit policies469–71
and tax system129–30
third age of, features of150
and United Kingdom143
labour market effects147
reforms145
Third Way148
and United States143, 144
Fascism, and welfare state7 n5, 27, 85, 87, 425, 619 see also authoritarianism
federalism:
and distributive politics191–2
and education506
and timing of social programmes392
and welfare state outcomes237–8
feminism:
and critique of welfare state10, 52
and decommodification512
and family policy141–2 (p. 832)
and gender studies252–3
incorporation into mainstream scholarship254, 264
and regimes analysis253–4 see also gender
fertility:
decrease in176, 463–4
and family policy outcomes471–3
Financial Instrument for Fisheries Guidance (EU)294
Finland:
and accident benefits396
and activation policy439, 441, 443
and changes in welfare system599
and childcare468, 469
and disability provision413, 417
and education500–1
and origins of welfare state66, 70, 76
and postage stamps with welfare motifsxxvii
and sickness benefits400–1
and taxation349
and unemployment insurance421, 426, 427 see also Nordic countries
fiscal welfare121
flexible work12, 145, 418, 620, 681
and activation policy440–1
and disability provision417
Former Soviet Union (FSU):
and communist welfare states672–4
and gender issues683
and welfare state change672, 674–5, 678, 682–3, 686 see also individual countries
France:
and accident benefits396
and activation policy439, 440, 441–2, 443
and child benefits471
and childcare468, 469
and disability provision413, 416
and education502
spending on498
and employment-related risk179
and ethnic minority policies283–4
and family policy142, 176
reform of145–6
and fertility rates471
and health care371
and income inequality532
and long-term care381, 386
and origins of welfare state36–7, 602–3
post-1945 developments43
and pension reform610, 613
and Plan de Sécurité Sociale43
and poor relief63, 450
and religion275
and social assistance451, 454, 459
and social expenditure126, 130, 133
and structural reforms613
and taxation of benefits129–30
and tax protests350
and unemployment insurance69, 421, 424, 425, 426, 427 see also Western European welfare states
free-rider problem, and organization of capital and labour200
French Revolution705
friendly societies67, 602–3
functionalism:
and social policies173
and welfare state development92–3, 228
fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis, and research methodology110–11
gender:
and care work256–9
economic vulnerability of women259
long-term care384
social policies260–1
and communist welfare states673–4
concept of252–3, 254–6
and employment257–8
childcare availability258
occupational segregation259
and English-speaking countries635
equality, politics of262–4, 282, 292, 294, 309, 344, 512
East Asia669
Eastern Europe679, 683
Nordic model587, 589, 591
Southern Europe624, 625, 626
and family models257
and gendered division of labour256, 257, 259 (p. 833)
and incorporation into mainstream scholarship254, 264
and Nordic model589
and politics of welfare states261–4
anti-feminism264
citizenship263
gendered actors263
left-right differences261–2
regimes analysis261
women's impact on263–4
and post-communist welfare regimes683
and social rights512, 514
and taxation344
and welfare regimes253–4, 261–2, 572–3
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)310
General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS)310
Germany:
and accident benefits395, 396
and activation policy439, 440, 441, 459
and disability provision413, 416, 417
development of410
and education501–2
spending on497
and employment-related risk179
and family policy142
labour market effects147
reform of145
and female employment176
and health care371
regulation of374
and long-term care381, 382, 383
and old age pensions353
pension reform610, 611, 693
and origins of welfare state35–6, 602–3
post-1945 developments42–3
and poor relief63, 450
and racialized exclusion281
and sickness benefits398–9
and social assistance451, 454, 456, 457
and social expenditure126, 130, 133
and social insurance:
Bismarck's reforms64
international influence of66
motives for implementing65
reasons for leading role in developing66–7
and social market economy42
and structural reforms612–13
and taxation of benefits129–30
and unemployment insurance423, 425, 426, 427
and welfare reform610 see also Western Europe welfare states
Gini coefficient530
global economic crisis (2008–9)698–9
and activation policy447
and European Union305
and impact of14–15, 100–1, 719–20
globalization:
and convergence324, 477
and emergence of global economy10–11
first era of5
welfare consequences of323
and health care376
and impact on social democrats52
indirect welfare consequences of322–3
and Latin America653–4
and less developed countries (LDCs)326–8
and national cleavage dimensions330
and partisan effects on welfare state222, 324–5
and recent research on welfare effects of329–30
and social expenditure342
and social policy477
and tax competition348
and tax system323, 328
and union and employer impact199
and welfare regimes579–80
and welfare state change318–19
compensation thesis320–1, 329–30
evidence for impact on324–6
first era of globalization323
institutional mediation321–2, 325
race to the bottom thesis319–20
and welfare state development93
Global Program on AIDS (GPA)376
governance:
and climate change717
and social administration163 see also social governance
government overload hypothesis244–5
graduate tax695
grandfather clauses, and retrenchment557
Great Depression6
and impact of77
and unemployment insurance423–5
coverage423–5
replacement rates425
Greece:
and child benefits470
and childcare468
and disability provision412
and education, spending on497
and health care371
and social expenditure126
and social insurance620
and welfare reform627 see also Southern European welfare states
Green New Deal719
Guatemala, see also Latin American welfare states
Hamas276
Hartz IV Act (Germany, 2005)427
Health and Retirement Study (HRS, USA)379
health and safety, and European Union social policy294
health care:
and Central and Eastern Europe681
and challenges facing377
and comparison as policy instrument377
and economic growth545
and European Union303, 369, 375–6
and expenditure on367
convergence of372
growth of371–2
partial privatization372
reasons for growth of372
and globalization376
and health care state368
development of369–70
and health care systems370–1
convergence377
national health services370, 371
patterns of regulation371
private systems371
social insurance systems370–1
stakeholders371
and international health governance376–7
and international health issues377
international regulation of375
and Latin America645, 652–3
and medical profession369
and origins and development of health policy368–70
regulation of374–5
Germany374
United Kingdom374
United States374–5
and role of states377
and significance of health issues367
and Southern Europe621
trends in provision of373–4
decline in hospital beds373
growth in health employment373
privatization373–4
role of primary care374
and union and employer association influence208 see also long-term care
Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs, USA)375
Heritage Foundation47
Hizbullah276
Hong Kong577
and constraints on social policy development:
absence of democracy666
lack of fiscal capacity666
lack of social solidarity667–8
and individualistic social protection664–5
and inequality664
and Mandatory Provident Fund665
and social expenditure657 see also East Asia
housing479–81
(p. 835) conceptual framework for480–1
double meaning of481
and dual capital-cum-service nature of481–2, 491, 492
and global economic crisis15
and home ownership482
competitive advantages over renting492
decline in485
explanation of491–3
familialization of accommodation485
growth of491
household economy492
public policy towards485
social insurance function491, 493
upper limit on482–5
wealth accumulation492
and market complexity480
and policy instruments485–8
convergence490
credit market intervention489–90
distributive impact490–1
public expenditure488
regulation of private rented sector488
rent controls488
provision of481–5
public interest in479
and rental accommodation482
public policy towards485
and rented housing479
state's role in480
difficulty in assessing480
welfare focus on479
disappointing outcome of479–80
human capital:
and activation policy443
and economic growth545
Human Development Index171
human rights, and disability provision418–19
Hungary579
and child benefits471
and disability provision412
and family benefits680–1
and welfare state change677 see also Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)
Iceland68
and childcare468
and disability provision413
and social expenditure126 see also Nordic countries
ideas:
and developing countries709–10
and institutional change47, 56
and Nordic model589
and origins of welfare state705
role of55–7
and welfare state development99–100
immigrants and immigration:
and citizenship281
definition of279
and deprivation among280
and East Asian attitudes664
and equality31
and impact on welfare states285–7
growth of extreme-right parties286
hostility to transfers to285–6
and inclusion/exclusion280–1
and migrant labour in welfare sector282–3
long-term care386–7
and multicultural policies283–4
and racialization of welfare287–90
Italy289
Sweden289–90
United Kingdom288–9
United States287–8
and racialized exclusion281–2
and racialized working poor281–2
scholarly neglect of278
and significance for welfare systems279
and United Kingdom288–9 see also ethnic diversity
impact studies98
Import Substitution Industrialization (ISI), and Latin America646
Incapacity Benefit (UK)413
incentives:
and economic perspectives on welfare state156
and effects of welfare provision134
and pension programme design134–5
income distribution:
and education495 (p. 836)
and impact of social policy:
inequality532–5
poverty535–8
and measurement of527–8
and outcomes of programmes98
and provision of access to services529
and social expenditure135–8, 343
private provision136–8
and taxation344–5 see also inequality; redistribution
India:
and social assistance460
and trade unions209
Indonesia577
industrialization:
and developing countries706–7
and family policy140
and origins of welfare state3, 4, 5, 35, 63, 175, 602–3, 704–5
industrial relations and social governance204–5
and concertation205
and consultation205
and self-administration205
and self-regulation205
and unilateral state intervention204–5 see also employer associations; trade unions
inequality526
and developing countries715
and English-speaking countries640
and impact of social policy on526–7, 538
data requirements531–2
difficulties in measuring528–9
income measurement527–8
programme size531
programme structure531
redistribution532–5
and measures of:
Gini coefficient530
P90-P10 percentile ratio530
and old age pensions365
and poverty529–30
and redistribution532–5
reduction of526, 538
and social expenditure343
and sustainability of welfare states698
inflation, and impact of welfare state541
insider-outsider theory48
and social policy161–2
and Southern Europe162, 619, 627
Institute for Economic Affairs (IEA, UK)47
Institute for Public Policy Research (UK)54
institutional change, and ideas47, 56
institutionalism, and union and employer impact199
institutions:
and developing countries708–9
and origins of welfare state705
intellectual roots of the welfare state32–5
and Australia38
and changes across time34
and citizenship33–4
and complexity of32, 34–5
and France36–7, 43
and Germany35–6, 42–3
and knowledge sharing33
and meaning of welfare state32–3
and modern nation state33
and New Zealand38
and post-1945 developments41–4
features of post-war welfare state43–4
Keynesian welfare state43, 552
political consensus43, 44
as project of social democracy43
re-moralization of welfare44
pre-existing traditions of amelioration33
and Sweden39–40
and transnational policy development40–1
and United Kingdom37–8
post-1945 developments41–2
and United States38–9
and welfare creep33
Inter-American Development Bank647
interest groups:
and pluralist theories of politics228
and retrenchment of welfare state221–2
interests:
and developing countries707–8
and origins of welfare state705
intergenerational justice31
Intergovernmental Organizations (IO):
definition of306
and democratic deficit317
and impact on social policy306–7, 314–17
changes in ideas316, 710–11
hard vs soft law315–16
ideas and information313–14
overestimation of317
political context307–8
resources312
standard setting312–13
upward national influences316–17
and International Labour Organization311–12
budget of312
governance structure311
policy focus311
and International Monetary Fund309–10
budget of312
changes in ideas of316
conditional loans310, 312–13
democratic deficit317
governance structure310
role of309–10
and OECD311
budget of312
changes in ideas of316
governance structure311
policy focus311
protests against306
and World Bank308–9
budget of312
changes in ideas of316
components of309
democratic deficit317
governance structure308–9
policy focus309
policy mechanisms309
and World Trade Organization310–11
governance structure310–11
social policy effects310
internal markets30–1
International Association for Labour Legislation41
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)309
International Center for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID)309
International Development Association (IDA)309
international environment:
and developing countries705–6
and origins of welfare state705–6
International Finance Corporation (IFC)309
International Labour Organization (ILO)10, 311–12
budget of312
and collective bargaining206
and establishment of6
and governance structure311
and internationalization of social security78–9
and Philadelphia Declaration (1944)41, 85
policy focus of308, 311
and postage stamps with welfare motifs xxvi
and social safety nets460
and transnational policy development41
international law, and post-war development of85
International Monetary Fund (IMF)10, 97, 307, 309–10
budget of312
and Central and Eastern Europe676
and changes in ideas of316
and conditional loans310, 312–13
and democratic deficit317
and governance structure310
and policy focus of308
role of309–10
international organizations, and welfare governance97 see also Intergovernmental Organizations (IO)
international political economy, and transformation of10–11
International Sanitary Conference375 (p. 838)
International Social Survey Programme (ISSP)248, 351
International Survey Program244
Ireland:
and accident benefits395, 396, 397
and child benefits470
and education502
and long-term care385
and old age pensions357, 358
and religion275
and social assistance451
minimum income453, 456
and social expenditure126, 133
and taxation349
of benefits129
and unemployment insurance425, 428 see also English-speaking countries
Islam276–7
Italy:
and accident benefits395
and disability provision412
and education502
spending on497
and family policy176
and fertility176
and health care371
and immigration289
and income inequality532, 533
and migrant labour282
and pension reform134, 625, 693
impact of ageing population361
and religion267
and social expenditure, net levels of130
and social insurance620
and unemployment insurance425, 427
and welfare expansion620
and welfare reform625 see also Southern European welfare states
Japan577
and child benefits471
and developmental state709
and education503
spending on497, 498
and family policy176
and fertility176
and immigration, opposition to664
and inclusive social insurance model
democratic pressures660–1, 662–3
economic development663
national identity663–4
and long-term care381, 383
and sickness benefits399
and social assistance451, 454
and social expenditure657
and social policy development659–60
and taxation348
of benefits129 see also East Asia
journals, welfare state research in2
Kazakhstan, and welfare state change678, 682 see also Former Soviet Union (FSU)
Keynesian consensus8, 552
and Keynesian welfare state43, 44
Keynesianism:
and collapse of46
and neoliberal challenge49
Korea577
and child benefits470
and childcare468
and immigration, opposition to664
and inclusive social insurance model:
democratic pressures662, 663
economic development663
national identity663–4
and poverty reduction536
and social expenditure126, 657
and social policy development659–60
under authoritarian regimes661–2
and taxation of benefits129 see also East Asia
labour market activation:
and aims of438
and cross-national convergence443–4
and cross-national diversity444
and disability provision418
and education496
and effectiveness of:
employment outcomes446
employment rates444–6
and global economic crisis447
and legal environment164 (p. 839)
and means of163–4
and policy change446–7
and policy tools:
benefits system438–9
career ladders443
ease employment protection regulations442
educational attainment443
employer subsidy440
family-friendly policies442–3
flexible working441
in-work subsidies439–40
job search assistance439
part-time work440–1
public sector employment440
reduce non-wage labour costs441–2
reduce tax disincentives to second earners441
transportation assistance439
workfare439, 695–6
reasons for435
external encouragement of437
fairness436–7
financial pressures436
poverty reduction437
social inclusion437
women's independence437
and reduction of real wages441
and social assistance458
and social rights512
and typologies of approaches to444
labour markets:
and Central and Eastern Europe681
and changes in12
and East Asia669
and family policy147
and migrant labour in welfare sector282–3
and Nordic countries592
and old age pensions361–2
and risk profiles178–9, 180
and Southern Europe619, 620
and union and employer association influence206–7
women's participation in: see under women
Labour Party (UK)67
Latin American welfare states:
and distributive impact of policies650
anti-poverty programmes651
conditional cash transfer programmes (CCTs)651
education651–2
employment programmes651
health care652–3
non-contributory programmes650–1
and education651–2
and effectiveness of social policy regimes648–9
and employer associations209
future research on654–5
distributive impact of social policy654–5
labour market policy655
politics of social policy655
and globalization653–4
and health care645, 652–3
and impact of social policies on employment547–8
and Import Substitution Industrialization646
origins of89, 644–6
power constellations perspective646
pressure groups645
and poverty649
and public pension coverage354
reforms of646–8
Basic Universalism647
gendered impact648
health and education647–8
international financial institutions646–7
outcomes648
pensions647, 648
and social expenditure649, 650
and taxation649
and trade unions209
and welfare regimes578 see also individual countries
Latvia317
and disability provision413
and welfare state change677 see also Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)
legal studies, and welfare state153, 164–6 (p. 840)
rule of law164–5
legal welfare121
less developed countries (LDCs), and welfare effects of globalization326–8
liberalism, and origins of welfare state4
liberal welfare state571
and luck egalitarianism25
and needs174–5 see also English-speaking countries
liberty27–31
and diversity and choice30–1
and moralized conception of29–30
and negative liberty27–9
and new liberalism37
and paternalism30
and positive liberty28
capabilities28
and Third Way54
life-cycle, and redistribution535
lifelong learning, and activation policy443
Lisbon strategy (2000)459, 679
Lithuania:
and disability provision417
and welfare state change677 see also Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)
lone parent families464–5
long-term care390
and challenges facing:
funding sources388–9
integration of care389–90
provision of care389
quality concerns389
and delivery structure383–4
care in the community383
cash-for-care schemes383–4
residential care383
and developing countries381
and development of378, 379–80
convergence390
and family care384–5
commodification of386
support measures for carers385
and features of380
and financing structure382–3
future costs388
private provision382–3
public expenditure382, 383
and impact of ageing population387–8
and increasing need for378
and lack of comparative data378–9
and migrant care386–7
and needs assessment382
and private provision:
for-profit sector386
non-profit sector386
and regulatory structure381–2
and scope of378
as social risk381, 382
and variations in coverage382
and welfare state models380–1
luck egalitarianism24–6
and personal responsibility26
Lutheranism268, 588
and education505 see also religion
Luxembourg:
and childcare469
and disability provision412, 413, 417
and long-term care383
Luxembourg Income Study98, 431, 474
Luxembourg Wealth Study (LWS)527
Maastricht, Treaty of (1992)296, 302, 624
macroeconomic outcomes:
and impact of larger welfare states:
economic growth541–5, 550–1
employment546–50, 551
and impact of welfare state540–1
and unemployment insurance432–3 see also economic growth; employment
majoritarian democracies, and middle class272–3
Malaysia577
malnutrition, and developing countries715
Malta, and disability provision417
market failure692
market mechanisms, and primacy of55
Marshall Aid706
Marxism:
and critique of welfare state10
and Marxist functionalism228
maternity leave469, 473–4
(p. 841) and activation policy443
means testing23
and social assistance448
and social rights514–15
median voter theorem185, 186
Medicaid (USA)87
medical profession, and health care369
Medicare (USA)87, 371
Meltzer-Richard hypothesis161, 185
meritocracy, and equality24
methodology105–6, 119–20
and causal research106
approaches to106–7
causality107
and comparative and historical research116
analysis of pooled cross-sections and time-series118–19
classical comparative and historical research116–18
event history analysis119
and comparative studies109
crisp-set qualitative comparative analysis110
cross-country statistical analyses112
definition107
fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis110–11
qualitative comparative analysis (QCA)110–12
regression analysis112
systematic comparison109–10
and diversity of approaches105
and employment of multiple approaches120
and historical studies113
definition107
event structure analysis114–15
historical narrative work113–14
process tracing113
time-series analysis115
and topics tackled105–6
and within-country analyses108–9
advantages of108
disadvantages of108–9
Mexico:
and conditional cash transfer programme651
and pension reform647
and social expenditure:
effects of tax system129
private sector128
public expenditure126 see also Latin American welfare states
micro-credit, and developing countries716
middle class, and electoral systems272–3
Middle East, and trade unions209
migration, and impact on welfare states13, 285–7
growth of extreme-right parties286
hostility to transfers to immigrants285–6 see also ethnic diversity; ethnic minorities; immigrants
Millennium Development Goals309, 460
minimum income:
in OECD countries452–6
categorical schemes453
levels of454–6
universal schemes453
and social assistance448
minimum wage, and activation policy441
modernization theory, and union and employer impact197
Mont Pelerin Society47
multiculturalism283–4, 285
Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA)309
National Insurance Act (UK, 1911)68
nationalism, and methodological nationalism278
Nazism, and social policy, 7, 7 n5, 42, 79
needs20–3, 166, 169
and acceptance as community members:
differentiation172
participation172
and capabilities20–1
and conceptions of171–3
absolute171
analytical problems172–3
relative171
(p. 842)
and conditionality:
fairness argument for22
paternalist argument for21
reciprocity22
and effectiveness in addressing169
and emergence of new:
risk groups179–82
socio-economic causes176–8
and empirical perspective170, 171
and identification of169
and means testing23
and normative perspective169–70, 171
and rational evaluation of170–1
and relevance of170
and satisfaction of20–1
reference groups171–2
right to21
and universal standards of171
and welfare state theory173–5
functionalism173, 228
institutional approaches174
political approaches173–4
regime variations174–5
neo-institutionalism158–9
neoliberalism:
and conservatism49
and critique of welfare state9–10, 45, 48–9
challenge to Keynesianism49
Friedman47
Hayek46–7
impact of ideas48, 56
institutional support of47–8
and recovery of individual liberty27
and sustainability of welfare states697–8
and Third Way54
neomarxists, and critique of welfare state52
neo-republicanism, and non-domination27, 29
Netherlands:
and accident benefits395
and activation policy439, 440–1, 458
and child benefits471
and disability provision413, 417
and education502
and employment-related risk179
and family policy176
and female employment176
and fertility rates471
and housing, finance489
and long-term care383
and service sector176
and social assistance451
and social expenditure128, 130
and structural reforms613
and unemployment insurance423, 426, 427 see also Western Europe welfare states
neutrality, and liberal principle of22
New Deal (USA)230
new institutionalism, see political institutions
New Labour (UK)459
and family policy145
and Third Way53
and work-to-welfare51
new liberalism37
New Public Management162
New Right:
and critique of welfare state9–10
and Friedman's influence47
and Hayek's influence47
institutional support of47–8 see also neoliberalism
new structuralism194–5
New Zealand:
and accident benefits395, 396
and child benefits470
and education503
spending on497, 498
and long-term care381, 386
and old age pensions357, 358
and origins of welfare state38
interwar period77
old age pensions68
and retrenchment558
and sickness benefits402
and social assistance450
and social expenditure133
and taxation348
and unemployment insurance421, 425–6, 428 see also English-speaking countries
Nicaragua, and pension reform647 see also Latin American welfare states (p. 843)
non-profit sector, and long-term care386
Nordic countries:
and activation policy440, 443, 444
and appeal of Nordic model587
and changes in Nordic model595–7
country comparisons597–600
research findings596–7
and characteristics of Nordic model590–3, 600
labour markets592
public service provision592
redistribution591
social insurance schemes591
woman-friendliness591–2
and childcare258, 469
and child poverty537
and common roots of Nordic model590
class structure588–9
gender equality589
land ownership patterns588–9
religion588
role of (leftist) politics589
role of ideas589
and criticisms of Nordic model587
and debates about Nordic model586
and disability provision413
and distinctiveness of social policies586
and economic performance of587
and education500–1
spending on497–8
and empirical reappraisal of Nordic model593–5
and family policy142–3
and influence of conservative approaches51
and old age pensions356
and origins of welfare state39–40
and political-class coalitions273, 274
and popularity of Nordic model587
and religion267
and sickness benefits400–1
and social assistance451
minimum income454, 456
and taxation349
and traditional understanding of Nordic model587
and unemployment insurance423–4, 425, 427
and welfare state development9 see also individual countries
Nordic model, concept of39, 588–90
Norway:
and activation policy443
and changes in welfare system599
and childcare468
and disability provision412, 418
and education500–1
and influence of conservative approaches51
and origins of welfare state:
German influence69
impact of World War II80
risk prioritization70
and sickness benefits400
and social assistance451
and taxation349
and unemployment insurance426, 427 see also Nordic countries
nudge behaviouralism50
nurses, and migration of283
occupational welfare121
oil price shocks10
Old Age Pension Act (UK, 1908)67, 68
old age pensions:
and Beveridgean systems355, 356
socio-economic outcomes357–8
and Bismarckian systems355
multi-pillar approach364
origins of602–3
parametric reforms362–3
socio-economic outcomes357
weakening of364
challenges facing:
changing family structures362
labour market changes361–2
population ageing360–1
and coverage limitations353
and defined contribution principle364
and extending working life693–4
functions of354–5
funding of364
future of365–6
income inequality in old age365
interrupted employment history365–6 (p. 844)
private funded schemes366
and indexing formulae362–3
and intergenerational justice31
and market failure692
and minimum pensions355
and notional defined contribution schemes362
origins of353–4, 355
Australia68
Denmark68
Germany64, 353
New Zealand68
Sweden69
United Kingdom67–8
and pay as you go (PAYG) schemes363
and pension types356–7
and post-war development of354
and programme design, incentive effects134–5
and public expenditure on357
poverty among non-elderly359–60
and reducing pension promises693
reforms of122–3
parametric reforms362–3
problems with364–5
structural reforms363–4
veto points236
World Bank proposals363–4
and replacement rates358–9
and retirement period354, 357
raising retirement age362
and social pensions716
and socio-economic outcomes357–8
and supplementing basic pensions356–7, 364
and union and employer association influence207–8
and unpaid family work363
Open Method of Coordination (EU)97, 295–6, 459
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)307, 311
and activation policy437, 444, 458
budget of312
and family policy143–4
and governance structure311
and Growing Unequal report536
and influence of conservative approaches51
and measurement of social rights517
philosophy of316
and policy focus of308, 311
and social expenditure:
effects of tax system129
net levels of130
private sector128
public expenditure126–7
and Social Expenditure Data Set (SOCX)334
and social spending, definition of123
and transnational expertise41
origins of the welfare state3–7
and Australia38
and changes in patterns of public expenditure5–6
and changing role of the state64–5
and democratization6
diversity in development of4–5
and early collective solutions to social problems62–3
and expansion of risks and groups covered76–7
and first era of globalization5
and France36–7
post-1945 developments43
and Germany35–6
international influence of66
post-1945 developments42–3
reasons for leading role66–7
social insurance64, 65
and global historical context703–4
conception of rights704
European invention704
extra-European precursors704
family structure704
ideas705
industrialization704–5
institutions705
interests705
international environment705–6
and growth in state capacity65
and ideas705
and industrialization3, 4, 5, 35, 63, 175, 602–3, 704–5 (p. 845)
and institutions705
and interest groups705
and international diffusion of social security schemes70–5, 78–9
and international environment705–6
and Latin America644–6
and the ‘liberal break’64
and New Zealand38
and religion66
and risk prioritization69–70
and role of small nations68–9
and sequence of programme introduction391–3
and social, economic and political change3–4
and social citizenship78
and social insurance61–2
Bismarck's reforms64
changing role of state64–5
international diffusion of schemes70–5
international influence of German example66
motives for implementing65
as new concept64
reasons for Germany's leading role66–7
and spread of social security principles75–6
unequal development76
and Sweden39–40
and transnational policy development40–1
and United Kingdom37–8, 67–8
post-1945 developments41–2
and United States38–9, 67
as laggard76
and urbanization3, 35
outsourcing162
Panama, and social expenditure649 see also Latin American welfare states
parental leave144–5, 260, 469, 473–4
and family policy146
partisan theory, see political parties
part-time work:
and activation policy440–1
and women465
Party Manifesto Project100
paternalism:
and conditionality21
and conservative welfare agenda50
and liberty30
and state-building51
paternity leave144–5
pensions, see old age pensions
performance measurement162
periodization of post-war welfare state development81–2
and 1945 as starting point83–5
and assumptions behind82–3
and benefit levels94–6
and collapse of communism (1989)86
and contextual factors92–3
and diversity in policy-specific developments89–90
and East Asia88–9, 95–6
and Eastern Europe86
and exemplary reforms as markers of development90–1
and expansion phase81, 86, 552
contextual factors92–3
social expenditure levels93
sub-periods87
welfare production forms96
and future trends100–1
and ideational approach to99–100
and lack of congruence with historians' periodization83
and Latin America89
and outcomes of programmes97–9
and political uses of83
and region-specific approaches88–9
and retrenchment phase81, 82, 86
benefit levels94–5
contextual factors93
impact of ideas99–100
outcomes of programmes98
social expenditure levels93–4
sub-periods87–8
welfare production forms96
and social expenditure levels93–4 (p. 846)
and South-East Asia88–9
and sub-periods87–8
terminology of82
and welfare governance97
and welfare production forms96–7
personal responsibility, and luck egalitarianism26
Philadelphia Declaration (ILO, 1944)41, 85
philanthropy, and poor relief63
Philippines577
pluralist theories of politics228
Poland:
and disability provision413, 416, 418
and social expenditure126
and welfare state change677 see also Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)
policy change, typology of91
policy learning, and developing countries710
policy-takers555–6
policy transfer, and developing countries710
political economy, and welfare state157
political institutions, and the welfare state227, 240
and broader view of institutional effects239–40
and consensus democracies231
and electoral system231, 238
and federalism237–8
and feedback effects239
and globalization321–2
as ideal types231
and impact on outcomes236–7
and majoritarian democracies231
and multivariate analysis236–7
and new institutionalism230–1
and parliamentary systems231
as political configurations232–6
veto players232
veto points232–6
and presidential systems231, 239
and state-centred approach228–30
conflict theory229
Marxist functionalism228
pluralist politics228
role of states229–30
political parties
and adaptation to external change222
and co-governing parties220
and contagion processes220
and Europeanization222
and gender261–2
and globalization222, 324–5
and partisan effects on welfare state215–20
party composition of government217–20
West European/non-European differences215–16
and partisan theory211
criticisms of212–13
democratic markets211
empirical support for213
key propositions of212
limitations of220–1
majoritarian democracies221
non-majoritarian democracies221
predictions of211–12
and policy positions of parties213–15
expansion vs retrenchment214–15
party families framework213–15, 223–6
and religion269–70
and retrenchment221–3
and social expenditure342
and Southern Europe621–2
and taxation350–1
political science:
and retrenchment:
corporatist polities563–4
institutional factors563
and welfare state153–4, 157–9
neo-institutionalism158–9
retrenchment159
poor laws63, 449–50
population growth:
and developing countries715
and origins of welfare state3
Portugal:
and education502
spending on498
and social assistance456
minimum income453, 454
(p. 847)
and social expenditure126
effects of tax system129
and social insurance620
and welfare reform625–6 see also Southern European welfare states
post-industrial economy:
and challenges facing182
and emergence of new risks and needs:
risk groups179–82
socio-economic causes176–8
and impact on social democrats52
transition to11–12, 462–3
and welfare state development93
post-materialism, and critique of welfare state10
Poujadists350
poverty526
and activation policy437
and basic needs20–1
and Central and Eastern Europe681
and child poverty474–5, 536–7
employment strategy537
redistribution strategy537
and deserving/undeserving poor distinction62–3
and developing countries715
and disability408
and early collective solutions to social problems62–3
growth of98
impact of social policy on526–7, 538
data requirements531–2
difficulties in measuring528–9
income measurement527–8
programme size531
programme structure531
redistribution535–8
and inequality529–30
and Latin America649
measures of:
deprivation530
living standards530
poverty line530–1
and minimum income456
in nineteenth century63
and poverty traps531
and racialized working poor281–2
and redistribution535–8
reduction of526, 538
and social exclusion458–9
and social expenditure343, 536
old age pensions359–60
and Southern Europe622
and tax credits345
and unemployment insurance431–2
power relations, and equality26–7
power resource theory156
and distributive politics185–6
and religion266–7
and union and employer impact197–8
and welfare state development570
preference theory, and gender255
private sector:
and long-term care382–3, 386
and social expenditure122, 335–8
distributive effects136–8
encouragement through tax system130
government influence on125
international comparisons128, 130–2
mandatory social benefits124
steady increase in128
voluntary expenditure125
as welfare state substitute in U.S.96–7
privatization 89, 96, 561, 579, 611–12, 614, 679
of basic industries 693
of care work 184, 386
and charities, increased welfare role 268
and Eastern Europe 672, 674
and education 681
forms of 373, 678
and global economic crisis 14–5
government revenues from 324, 363
of health care costs 207, 362, 395, 614, 677, 681–2
of health service providers 372
of housing 482, 487
and Latin America 327, 646–7
of old age security 89, 236, 327, 646–8, 677, 682
of risk 54, 56, 239
of services 599, 677 (p. 848)
and World Bank 326
and WTO effects 314, 676 See also retrenchment; deregulation
process tracing113
proportional representation231, 237, 238
and middle class272–3
and political-class coalitions273–4
Protestantism268–9, 270–1
and education505
as impediment to welfare state development269 see also religion
provident funds665, 715–16
public attitudes:
and challenges of researching249
data availability249
methods249–50
theory and analysis250
and comparative approach242, 244–7
Beliefs in Government (BiG) project244–5
broadening regime concept247
data availability244, 245
development of251
effects on policy development248–9
feedback effects247–8
hierarchical modelling248
measurement of welfare state support246
norms of reciprocity246
political economy approach249
political-sociological approach249
quantification248
recent developments in247–9
risk profiles247
skill specificity247
welfare regimes245–7
and data availability242
and distinguishing from elite opinion241
effects of public policy on241–2
future research on250
national surveys of242–3
common key findings243–4
and policy change241
reasons for study of241
and social assistance456–7
and taxation351–2
and welfare regimes582
public choice theory690
public deficit345
public expenditure, see social expenditure
public-private partnerships, and social administration163
public sector employment, and activation policy440
public sector management reforms696
purchaser-provider models162
qualitative comparative analysis (QCA), and research methodology110–12
race:
and distributive politics188
and racialization of welfare287–90
Italy289
Sweden289–90
United Kingdom288–9
United States287–8
and racialized exclusion281–2
race to the bottom thesis:
and globalization319–20
and taxation348
rational choice theory10
reciprocity:
and conditionality22
and public attitudes246
redistribution:
and Director's Law hypothesis161
and distributive politics183–4
coalitional politics184, 187–9
electoral system190–1
federalism191–2
left-right structure184
Meltzer-Richard hypothesis185
new structuralism194–5
partisanship185–6
power resource theory185–6
Robin Hood paradox185
role of institutions184, 189–92
varieties of capitalism184, 192–4
voter preferences186
and English-speaking countries638–40
and housing policy490–1 (p. 849)
and inequality532–5
and measurement difficulties528–9
and Meltzer-Richard hypothesis161, 185
and Nordic model591
paradox of135, 591
and pension systems355
and poverty535–8
and social expenditure125, 135–8, 343
private provision136–8
and social policy160–1
and taxation344–5
regression analysis, and research methodology112
relational equality26–7
religion and the welfare state:
and Christian democracy265, 269–70, 276
and education505
and family policy147, 262, 272
and future research on275–7
and gender262
and impact of denominational differences99, 267–8, 268–9
and Lutheranism268
and non-Christian religions578, 276–7
and Nordic model588
and political-class coalitions273–4
and links between265–6, 266–7, 270–2
scholarly neglect of266, 274–5
and state-church conflict271–2
as substitutes for each other268
and taxation350
and welfare state development66, 99, 265 see also Catholicism; Protestantism
research methods, see methodology
residential care, and long-term care383
retirement:
and extending working life693–4
and the life course354, 357 see also old age pensions
retrenchment81, 82, 552–3
and benefit levels94–5, 404
causes of524
and contextual factors93
and economic crises561–2
extent of558–9
framing of561–2
and impact of ideas99–100
measures of:
composition of spending and taxation560
maintenance of income streams560–1
private and employer-provided benefits559–60
social spending as share of GDP559
social spending relative to need559
and negotiated reforms562–3
obstacles to:
historical legacies555
interest groups and policy-takers555–6
logic of collective action554–5
policy legacies555, 563
policy ‘lock-in’555
programme structures563
psychological dynamics554
and outcomes of programmes98
overcoming obstacles to556–8
blame avoidance556
broadening support562–3
burden sharing557
decrementalism557
delayed implementation557
diffusing consequences over time557
divide and conquer557
drawbacks to blame avoidance strategies558
reducing traceability557
and partisan effects221–3
and Pierson's ‘new politics of the welfare state’ thesis553–6, 564
overcoming obstacles to retrenchment556–8
political science explanation of159
corporatist polities563–4
institutional factors563
and protests against554
and resilience of the welfare state:
economic factors692–3
political factors691
and social expenditure levels93–4
and social rights523–4
and sub-periods of87–8
and unemployment insurance428–9 (p. 850)
and unpopularity of556
and welfare production forms96
and welfare regimes579
and Western European welfare regime610–11
revenues, see taxation
rights, and origins of welfare state704
risks:
definition of169
and emergence of new175–6
risk groups179–82
socio-economic causes176–8
and employment-related178–9, 180
and family transformation179, 181
privatization of56
protection from169
relevance of170
and risk groups179–82
and Third Way53–4
and welfare state theory173–5
functionalism173
institutional approaches174
political approaches173–4
Robin Hood paradox185
Romania579
and disability provision417
and welfare state change677 see also Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)
rule of law164–5
Russia:
and social assistance454
and welfare state change678, 682–3 see also Former Soviet Union (FSU)
Scandinavia, see Nordic countries
self-administration, and social governance205
self-regulation, and social governance205
Serbia579
service sector:
growth of176, 463
and migrant labour282–3
and risks associated with178
Settlement Houses38
sickness benefits391
generosity of402–4
and historical development of398–401
Central Europe400
Germany398–9
Japan399
labour movement pressure398–9
Nordic countries400–1
United Kingdom400
United States401
voluntary funds398
and retrenchment of404
and universalism, degree of401–4
Singapore577
and Central Provident Fund (CPF)665
and constraints on social policy development
absence of democracy666
lack of fiscal capacity666
lack of social solidarity667–8
and individualistic social protection664–5
and inequality664
and social expenditure657 see also East Asia
Slovak Republic:
and disability provision412
and social expenditure, effects of tax system129
and welfare state change see also Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)
Slovenia579
and welfare state change677 see also Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)
Social Action Programmes (EU)293
social administration, and welfare state162–3
coordination162–3
New Public Management162
social assistance460–1
and Central and Eastern Europe681
and definition of448, 449, 453
and developing countries460
and global perspective459–60
and guaranteed minimum income in OECD countries452–6
categorical schemes453
effects of456
levels of454–6, 457
universal schemes453
and means testing448 (p. 851)
and minimum income support448
and new policy developments457–9
activation policy458
social inclusion458–9
workfare458
politics of457
and poverty reduction456
and programmes in OECD countries449–52
benefit categories450
coverage rates451
diversity of451–2
evolution of449–50
taxonomy of benefits450
types of assistance450–1
welfare regimes451–2
public support for456–7
significance of448–9
and Southern Europe622
transformation of457–8
social capital, and Asian investment in96
social citizenship42, 62
development of78
and education496
Social Citizenship Indicators Programme (SCIP)90, 94, 402, 420–1
and measurement of social rights516, 517, 519
social democracy:
and critique of welfare state46
impact of post-industrialism and globalization52
Third Way52–5
and welfare state as project of43
social democratic welfare state571
and luck egalitarianism25
Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany67
social exclusion:
and disability408
and poverty458–9
social expenditure352
areas covered by124
changes in patterns of5–6
and data availability334
definition of123–5
and determinants of cross-national differences341–3
economic affluence342
globalization342
institutions342
partisan effects342
socio-economic causes342
and disability provision412–13
pressures on budgets417–18
economic impact of540
and education spending:
net levels of497–8
relationship between497
tertiary education498–9
and effects of welfare provision133
distributional outcomes135–8
incentives134–5
and ethnic diversity284–5
and family policy:
childcare468–9
children467
families with children467
parental leave469, 473–4
growth of539–40
and health care367, 371–2
and housing488
and impact on social outcomes343
and income inequality532–4
and international comparisons:
items excluded from125–6
net levels of130–2
private sector128
public expenditure126–7
and Latin America649, 650
and limitations as explanatory factor334
and long-term care382–3
funding sources388–9
future costs388
measurement of122
as measure of welfare state size122
net (public and private) levels of122–3
international comparisons130–2
trends in338
and old age pensions357
and political conflict333
and poverty rate536
pressures on436
and private provision122–3, 335–8
distributive effects136–8 (p. 852)
government influence on125
mandatory social benefits124
steady increase in128
voluntary expenditure125
and public provision124
redistributive effects125
and redistribution125, 135–8, 343
resilience of:
economic reasons692–3
political reasons692
rise in333
and Social Expenditure Data Set (SOCX)334
and tax system:
effects on social effort128–30
encouragement of private provision130
family support129–30
indirect taxation129
taxation of transfer payments128–9
trends and patterns since 1980335–41
convergence in335
country clusters335, 338
growth of335
net levels of338
private sector335–8
programme types338–41
and underestimation by conventional measures123
and welfare state development93–4
Social Expenditure Data Set (SOCX)334
social governance:
and concertation205
and consultation205
and self-administration205
and self-regulation205
and unilateral state intervention204–5
social inclusion:
and activation policy437
and disability408–9
and social assistance458–9
and Third Way54
social insurance:
and Bismarckian welfare systems:
industrial origins of602–4
in post-war period605–8
response to problems facing608–9
transformation of609–14
and economic growth545
and Germany:
Bismarck's reforms64
motives for implementing65
reasons for leading role66–7
international diffusion of70–5
and Nordic model591
origins of61–2
changing role of state64–5
expansion of risks and groups covered76–7
international influence of German example66
internationalization of social security78–9
as new concept64
risk prioritization69–70
role of small nations68–9
sequence of programme introduction391–3
and Southern Europe620–2
common features620–1
dualistic nature of621
origins of620
political influences on621–2
and spread of social security principles75–6
unequal development76
social integration:
and family policy149, 151
and sociological perspectives on welfare state154–6
social investment state44
and East Asia95–6
and education496, 507
social justice, and welfare state19, 78
social market economy42
social pensions, and developing countries716
social policy:
components of89
and insider/outsider schism161–2
and post-war paradigm shift85
and redistribution160–1
and welfare state160–2 (p. 853)
social problems, and early collective solutions62–3
social rights:
and acceptance as universal rights84–5
and activation policy512
as citizenship rights511
and decommodification513–14
measurement of516–17
definition of512–15
breadth of policies encompassed by514
Esping-Andersen513–14
Marshall's conception512–13
means tested benefits514–15
Orloff514
Room514
determinants of variations in522–3
and education496, 508
emergence of63, 78, 84
and English-speaking countries638
and gender512, 514
measurement of515–22
activation policy522
Comparative Welfare Entitlements Dataset517, 519
data gaps518
decommodification516–17
education521, 522
expenditure measures515
impact of data availability518–19
OECD data517
parental leave519
public health522
public service effort519–21
replacement rates by regime519
single programmes515–16
Social Citizenship Indicators Programme (SCIP)516, 517, 519
and outcomes of variations in524–5
and retrenchment523–4
and Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)85
and welfare state21
social science, growth of65
Social Security Act (New Zealand, 1938)77
Social Security Act (USA, 1935)39, 76, 425
social stratification98, 239–40
social welfare121
social work, and welfare state163–4
sociology:
and economics157
and welfare state154–6
debates over155–6
social integration154–6
solidarity, and social assistance456–7
South Africa, and social assistance460
South-East Asia:
and industrial relations209–10
and welfare state development88–9
South-Eastern Europe, and comparison with Southern Europe628
Southern European welfare states:
common features of620–1
and comparison with South-Eastern Europe628
development of627
dualistic nature of621
and Europeanization of welfare618
and familialism622–3, 627–8
and gender regime622
and health care621
and identification as welfare regime616
debate over617
by European Commission617
and insider/outsider schism162, 619, 627
and labour markets:
characteristics of619
women's participation620
and low state capacity623–4
and modernization616–17, 618–20
democratization618–19
economic development619
industrialization618
labour markets619–20
origins of620
political influences on621–2
and poverty622
reform of:
elements of624–5
external constraints624
Greece627
Italy625
Portugal625–6
Spain625–6
and relevance for other regions628–9
(p. 854) Latin America628
South-Eastern Europe628
and social assistance, marginal role of622
and underground economy623
and unemployment620 see also individual countries
Soviet Union, and welfare state672–4
Spain:
and disability provision417
and education502
spending on497
and employment-related risk179
and female employment176, 626
and fertility176
and health care371
and labour market reform626
and social assistance456, 459
minimum income453
and social insurance620
and welfare reform625–6 see also Southern European welfare states
stamps with welfare motifs xxvi–xxx
standard setting, and Intergovernmental Organizations313
state, the:
and change from ‘warfare’ to ‘welfare’ state5–6
and health care377
and origins of welfare state64–5
and social policy activism in nineteenth century34
state-building, and paternalism51
State Earnings-Related Pension Scheme (UK)356–7
state intervention, and social governance204–5
state structures227, 240
and policy development229–30
and state-centred approach228–30
conflict theory229
Marxist functionalism228
pluralist politics228
role of states229–30 see also political institutions
Stockholm School40
structuralism, and new structuralism194–5
sub-prime lending489–90
subsidiarity:
and family policy142, 145
and France36
subsidies, and activation policy439–40
substitution issue155–6
Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE)379
sustainability of Western welfare states689
challenges facing699–700
and fiscal sustainability693
extending working lives693–4
higher priority for social policy spending693
increased spending694–5
introducing charges693
new funding methods695
quasi-taxation695
reducing pensions promises693
workfare695–6
and future of welfare states:
basic citizenship model700–1
family friendly701–2
inclusive and adaptive701
international regulation702
market dominance700
and moral sustainability:
forms of belonging698
global economic crisis698–9
individualism698
inequality698
neoliberalism697–8
and past predictions690
predictions confounded690–1
and political sustainability696–7
and reasons for resilience:
economic factors692–3
political factors691
Sweden:
and accident benefits395, 396
and activation policy439, 441
and changes in welfare system597–9
and child benefits471
and childcare468
and child poverty537
and disability provision410, 417
and education500–1, 696
and employment-related risk178 (p. 855)
and family policy, reform of144–5
and fertility rates471
and health care371
and immigration and welfare289–90
and impact of neoliberalism48
and income inequality532
and inequality698
and influence of conservative approaches51
and origins of welfare state39–40
old age pensions69
and pension reform134, 693
and poverty reduction536
and retrenchment
corporatist polity563–4
putting responsibility on local government557
and Saltsjöbaden agreement (1938)40
and service sector176
and sickness benefits400
and social assistance, minimum income454
and social expenditure126, 130
and taxation349
of benefits129
and unemployment insurance421, 426, 427, 433 see also Nordic countries
Switzerland:
and accident benefits395
and childcare468
and disability provision413
and education, spending on497, 498
and social assistance451
minimum income456
and social expenditure, private sector128
and taxation348
and unemployment insurance424, 425, 426, 427
systematic comparison, and research methodology109–10
Taiwan577
and immigration, opposition to664
and inclusive social insurance model
democratic pressures662, 663
economic development663
national identity663–4
and social expenditure657
and social policy development659–60
under authoritarian regimes661–2 see also East Asia
targets162
taxation352
and activation policy441–2
and attitudes towards welfare state350–2
changes in350–1
and developing countries715
and economic growth544
and effects on social effort128–30
encouragement of private provision130
family support129–30
indirect taxation129
taxation of transfer payments128–9
and English-speaking countries639–40
and family policy469–71
and gender equality344
and globalization323, 328
tax competition348
and inequality344–5
and Latin America649
levels of345–8
and national 'families' of taxation348–50
and negative income tax344–5
and partisan effects350–1
progressivity of345
and protests movements350
and public attitudes towards351–2
and race to the bottom thesis348
and rate reductions348
and religion350
and retrenchment560
role of122
and tax competition348
and tax credits344–5
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF, USA)46, 51, 458
tertiary education, and spending on498–9
Thailand577 see also East Asia
Third Way44, 46, 52–5
and authoritarianism54
and conditionality54
and contrasted with neoliberalism54
emergence of:
United Kingdom53 (p. 856)
United States52–3
and family policy148
and Giddens53–4
and influence of54–5
and liberty54
and risk53–4
and role of the state54
and social inclusion54
and triumph of market orthodoxy55
and undesirability of traditional welfare state53
Timbro (Sweden)48
time-series analysis, and research methodology115
trade liberalization10
Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)310
trade unions:
and developing countries208–10
and education506
and industrial relations, cross-national variations203
and influence in social policy areas:
collective bargaining206
health care208
labour market policy206–7
pension policy207–8
organization of200–1, 201–3
free-rider problem200
research on196
role of196, 197, 210
and social policy as alternative to socialism34
theories of impact of:
corporatist theory198
Europeanization thesis199
globalization thesis199
institutional theories199
modernization theory197
power resource theory197–8
state-centred theories198–9
varieties of capitalism approach198
veto player theorem199 see also industrial relations, and social governance
transition economies, and welfare effects of globalization326–8 see also Central and Eastern Europe (CEE); Former Soviet Union (FSU)
transnational policy development, and origins of welfare state40–1
Turkey:
and income inequality533
and social assistance451
and social expenditure:
private sector128
public expenditure126
twentieth century, nature of1
typologies of welfare states19–20
criticism of89–90 see also welfare regimes
underclass, and immigrants281
undeserving poor37, 62–3
unemployment:
and duration effects430
and effects of unemployment insurance429–30
and unemployment rates425–431, 534, 587, 610, 620, 681
unemployment insurance420–1
and Central and Eastern Europe680
and coverage rates:
Great Depression423–5
post-war period426
and duration of benefits426
and economic efficiency432–3
and employment levels546–7
and financing of429
and Great Depression423–5
and institutional diversity of421–3
comprehensive schemes421–2
Ghent system421
state corporatist schemes422
targeted programmes421
voluntary state-subsidized insurance421
and labour supply429–31, 432
detrimental effects on429–30
entitlement effect430
unemployment rate430
legitimacy of425
and macroeconomic impact432–3 (p. 857)
politics of428
and poverty431–2
and productivity-enhancing effects432–3
and replacement rates:
Great Depression425
post-war period427–8
and retrenchment428–9
and waiting times425–6
unions, see trade unions
United Kingdom:
and accident benefits395, 396, 397
and activation policy439, 458, 459
and childcare258, 469
and disability provision417
development of409
expenditure on412, 413
Incapacity Benefit413
reform of418
and education503
and employment-related risk178–9
and ethnic diversity288–9
and family policy143, 176
labour market effects147
reform of145
Third Way148
and fertility rates471
and health care371
regulation of374
and immigration policy288–9
and inequality698
and influence of conservative approaches51
and influence of neoliberalism47–8
and long-term care381, 386
and old age pensions358
State Earnings-Related Pension Scheme356–7
and origins of welfare state37–8, 67–8
impact of World War II79
post-1945 developments41–2
risk prioritization70
and poor laws63, 449–50
and poverty reduction526
and retrenchment553–4, 558–9
and service sector176
and sickness benefits400
and social assistance451
minimum income453–4
and social expenditure:
effects of tax system129
net levels of130, 338
private sector128
and taxation348
regressiveness of560
Working Tax Credit344–5
and Third Way53
and unemployment insurance421–2, 423, 425, 426, 428
and work-to-welfare51 see also English-speaking countries
United Kingdom Sustainable Development Commission718
United Nations:
and Economic and Social Council of85
and postage stamps xxvi
and Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)41, 85
and World Social Summits10
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and child poverty536
United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2008)406, 419
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)376
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)308
United States:
and accident benefits395
and activation policy438–9, 443, 458
and American exceptionalism640–2
and child benefits471
and childcare258
and conservative criticism of welfare state50–1
and disability provision410–11
expenditure on412, 413
and education503
spending on497, 498
and effects of tax system on social expenditure129, 130
and employment-related risk178
and ethnic diversity279 (p. 858)
and extent of welfare state96–7
and family policy143, 144, 176
and health care371, 695
regulation of374–5
and housing15
finance489
sub-prime lending489–90
and income inequality532, 533
and influence of neoliberalism47–8
and Intergovernmental Organizations, instrumentalizing of316–17
and long-term care381, 386
and old age pensions355
and origins of welfare state38–9, 67
as laggard76
and private welfare sector96–7
increase in spending on128
social expenditure128
and race and welfare284, 287–8
and racialized exclusion281
and retrenchment553–4, 558–9
private benefits559–60
putting responsibility on local government557
and service sector176
and sickness benefits401
and social assistance451, 453, 456, 457
and social expenditure, net levels of130, 338
and taxation348
Earned Income Tax Credit344–5
tax protests350
and Third Way52–3
and unemployment insurance425, 428, 433
and welfare state development8–9
and workfare50–1, 458 see also English-speaking countries
United States Agency for International Development (USAID)646
United States Supreme Court, and impact on social policy396
urbanization:
and developing countries715
and origins of welfare state3, 35
Uruguay578
and anti-poverty programme651
and education652
and European social policy709
and health care652, 653
and minimum wage653
and pension reform647
and postage stamps with welfare motifsxxvii–xxviii
and poverty649
and social expenditure649 see also Latin American welfare states
varieties of capitalism:
and distributive politics184, 192–4
and union and employer impact198
and welfare regimes573–4
Venezuela, and social expenditure649 see also Latin American welfare states
Verein für Socialpolitik35, 65
Versailles, Treaty of (1919)6 n4, 78
veto players, and political institutions232
veto player theorem, and union and employer impact199
veto points, and political institutions232–6
Vietnam, and unemployment insurance434
vouchers30–1
wage bargaining institutions, and employment effects546, 548–50
wage levels:
and activation policy441
and child poverty536–7
war:
as locomotive of change7
and welfare state development79–80
Washington Consensus97, 313, 314, 316
welfare capitalism529
welfare creep33
Welfare Internationalism85
welfare regimes569–70
and Asia577–8
and Christian democracy270
and cluster analysis of non-OECD countries711–14
and convergence579–80
and developing countries711–14
proto-welfare states711–13 (p. 859)
and divergence580
and Eastern Europe578–9
and education regimes503–4
and Esping-Andersen's typology of welfare states570–1
critical appreciation of571–2
criticisms of572
empirical tests of575–7
labelling of Antipodes countries573
methodological criticisms574–5
misspecification of Mediterranean welfare states573
neglect of employers' role573–4
neglect of gender572–3
theoretical weakness of alternative typologies582
usefulness of580–1
and European integration579–80
and evaluating models581
derivation of implications582–3
explanatory power581–2
versatility in application582–3
and globalization579–80
and hybrid forms580
and ideal and real types574
and influence on gendered study of welfare states253–4
and Latin America578
and long-term care380–1
and measurement of welfare state support246
and norms of reciprocity246
and path dependence580
and problems with concept of246
and public attitudes245–7
resilience of580
economic692–3
political691
and retrenchment579
and social assistance451–2
and social attitudes582
and social expenditure, net levels of338
and varieties of capitalism573–4 see also Central and Eastern Europe (CEE);